Outline                                       •   Origin & Evolution                                              o Earths...
Our Earth              Earth in the Solar SystemDensity of terrestrial planets: 4.0-5.5 g/cm3Density of outer planets: 0.6...
From the Hubble Deep Field ExperimentNext Slide       Beginning & Evolution          of the Universe
Thompson & Turk, 1999Next Slide              The Big Bang                   Introduction to Cosmology             Cosmic B...
UniformLearn about the Big Bang & Cosmic Background Radiation              COBE Educational Resources             The Big ...
Next Slide               Birth of Stars             Dense Molecular Clouds                   Birth and Death of StarsNext ...
Circumstellar DisksNext Slide
How did the Earth Form         Formation of the Solar System         Condensation from rotating cloud of dust (nebula)Next...
& Differentiate?                    Planetary Formation   •   I. Bombardment   •   II. Insulation                         ...
Radioactive Elements are still decaying and             o           releasing energy, this is the second main           so...
Structure of the Earth  Interior of the Earth is layered (i.e. DIFFERENTIATED)-totalradius 6371 km  •   Chemical Different...
     WARM                        PLASTIC                        Flows and this flow drives plate tectonics             ...
deformation occurs at the boundaries between plates.Explains distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes,mountains, rock types,...
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Origin

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Origin

  1. 1. Outline • Origin & Evolution o Earths Place in the Solar System o Our Universe o Beginning and Evolution of the Universe  The Big Bang  Cosmic Origin, Background Radiation  Inhomogeneity Evolution  Birth of Stars  Origin of Planets o How did the Earth Form? &  Origin of the Solar System  Origin of the planetsComposition o How did the Earth Grow & Differentiate?  Bombardmentof the Earth  Insulation  Gravitational Compression  Radioactive Decay GS117 Lecture 2 o Present-Day Earth January 10, 2000 • Structure of the Earth o Chemical Layering C. Lithgow-Bertelloni  Crust  Continental  Oceanic Excellent Lecture Notes on Solar  Mantle System Evolution  Core o Mechanical  Lithosphere  Mantle  Outer Core  Inner Core • Plate Tectonics Primer o Definition o Plate BoundariesNext Slide
  2. 2. Our Earth Earth in the Solar SystemDensity of terrestrial planets: 4.0-5.5 g/cm3Density of outer planets: 0.6-1.7 g/cm3Mass Distribution: • Sun 99.86% (1) • Planets 0.135 % (9) Satellites 0.004 % (32)Next Slide Our Universe
  3. 3. From the Hubble Deep Field ExperimentNext Slide Beginning & Evolution of the Universe
  4. 4. Thompson & Turk, 1999Next Slide The Big Bang Introduction to Cosmology Cosmic Bacgkround Radiation
  5. 5. UniformLearn about the Big Bang & Cosmic Background Radiation COBE Educational Resources The Big Bang Cosmic Bacgkround Radiation Inhomogeneity From NASAs DMR Experiment
  6. 6. Next Slide Birth of Stars Dense Molecular Clouds Birth and Death of StarsNext Slide The Origin of Planets
  7. 7. Circumstellar DisksNext Slide
  8. 8. How did the Earth Form Formation of the Solar System Condensation from rotating cloud of dust (nebula)Next Slide How did the Earth Grow
  9. 9. & Differentiate? Planetary Formation • I. Bombardment • II. Insulation = HOT START • III. Gravitational Compression • (IV. Radioactive Decay)Next Slide Present-Day Earth • I. Hot Start-Melting • II. Migration of dense material to center • III. Differentiated Earth • IV. Present-Day Earth is Still Hot: Why? o Heat from bombardment and accretion still needs to be released-this is called PRIMORDIAL HEAT and is one of the two main sources of heat in the Earths interior
  10. 10. Radioactive Elements are still decaying and o releasing energy, this is the second main source of heat in the Earths interior- RADIOACTIVE DECAY of Th, U, K • V.Will it stay hot forever? NO!- Its been cooling down since its origin (4.5-4.6 billion years ago) • VI. How does it lose its heat?-Through Plate TectonicsNext Slide
  11. 11. Structure of the Earth Interior of the Earth is layered (i.e. DIFFERENTIATED)-totalradius 6371 km • Chemical Differentiation [Layers of different Chemical Composition] o crust - two types:  continental (0-70 km thick; ave 35 km),  oceanic (0-20 km thick; ave 6-8 km) o mantle- from (6-35 km depth to 2891 km depth) o core-Made of iron (from 2891 km depth to the center 6371 km)  outer part liquid (2891 km to 5120 km)  inner part solid (5120 km to 6371 km) • Mechanical Differentiation [Layers that react differently when you try to deform them] o Lithosphere [Crust (oceanic or continental) + 70-100 km of coldest Mantle]-  COLD  BRITTLE  (BREAKS INTO BIG PIECES [TECTONIC PLATES]-and gives rise to EARTHQUAKE & VOLCANIC ACTIVITY) o Rest of Mantle-
  12. 12.  WARM  PLASTIC  Flows and this flow drives plate tectonics o Core-  HOT  LIQUID  Moves as fast as ocean currents. Generates the Earths magnetic fieldNext Slide Plate Tectonics Primer This is how the geosphere loses its heat and how it expresses its dynamic naturePlate Tectonics : the upper mechanical layer of theEarth (lithosphere) is broken into several rigid pieces,which we call plates, that move with respect to oneanother throughout the course of earth’s history. All
  13. 13. deformation occurs at the boundaries between plates.Explains distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes,mountains, rock types, etc. There arethree types of plate boundaries.Three boundaries (all deformation occurs) • Divergent (material is created)-plates move away from each other • Convergent (material is consumed)- plates move towards each other Transform (no creation, no consumption; plates slide past each other)- plates slide past each other

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