Presented by: Sabiha Arshad Mughal & Saadia Khan
HISTORY OF WORD “MALAYSIA”
• The word Melayu is thought to derive from the Sanskrit
term Malaiur or Malayadvipa, which can be translated
as "land of mountains", the word used by ancient
Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula.
• The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963.
• When the existing states of the Federation of
Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak
formed a new federation, with "si" being added to
Malaya in honor of the three joining states.
Facts About Malaysia
• Full Name: Malaysia
• Independence: 31 August 1957
• Population: 26,121,000
• Capital: Kuala Lumpur
• Major Religion: Islam
• Area: 329,847 square km (127,355 sq miles)
• Major Language: Bahasa Melayu
• Currency: Ringgit
• Life Expectancy: 73
• GDP per Capita: U.S. $9.699 (IMF, 2012)
• Literacy Rate: 89%
• The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age
• They arrived as early as 8,000 BC. Later Stone
Age farmers came to Malaya.
• After 1,000 BC metal-using farmers came to
Malaya. They made tools from bronze and iron
and they settled along the coast and along rivers.
They lived partly by fishing, partly by growing
2ND AND 3RD CENTURIES AD
• In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD centralized states
arose in Malaya.
• The Malayans became highly civilized in this era.
• Malayan civilization, laws and writing script was
heavily influenced by Indian traders.
• The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were
also introduced into Malaya at that time.
• In the 7th and 8th centuries the state of Srivijaya of
Sumatra rose to dominate much of Malaya.
• The prosperity of Srivijaya was based on trade with
both India and China.
• Srivijaya was able to dominate the region until the
11th century and in the 13th century Srivijaya had
lost control completely.
• During the 15th century the new settlement
prospered and grew. The wealth and power of
Melaka was based on trade with Arab, Chinese and
Indian ships sailing there.
• A new power arose in the 18th century. A people
called the Bugis originally came from Sulawesi. At
the end of the 17th century they began to settle
peacefully, in the territory of Johor but they soon
became very powerful.
BRITISH COLONIALISM IN MALAYA
• In the late 18th century the British East India Company
traded with, and partly controlled India and began to
look for a base in Malaya.
• In 1786 the British under Francis Light occupied Penang
and founded Georgetown.
• In 1853 the British government stopped charging duty
on imports of tin. As a result it boomed from Malaya to
• In 1869 steamships and the opening of the Suez canal
boosted exports of tin.
• Chinese workers flocked to work in the tin mines of
Malaya and on plantations.
• In the first years of the 20th century the British
extended their influence over the Northern Malay
states and formally absorbed into British Malaya.
• In the early 20th century a new industry grew up in
• In the early 20th century while the economy was
booming many Chinese people came to live and
work in Malaya.
THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION
• It was the time of 2nd World war (1939-1945) when Japan
attacked on Malay on 8th December 1941.
• The British troops surrendered on 15 February 1942. This
was a military disaster for the British. Meanwhile Japanese
troops invaded Borneo.
• During the Japanese occupation the Chinese were treated
the most harshly and Indians were treated less harshly.
THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
• Japanese faced defeat in 1944.
• The British government decided to join all the
Malayan states (except Singapore) into a
single unified state called the Malayan Union.
• The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) was
founded in 1930.
• In 1948 they began to attack European estate
managers. As a result the government
introduced a state of emergency.
PHASES OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
• There were two phases of Traditional
Education System in Malays:
1. Before British Rule (1400-1786)
2. During British Rule (1786- 1956)
TRADITIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
• The traditional education system exist since
Malacca Sultanat, with the spread of Islam in the
• Focus on Islamic education.
• It started at home, mosque, madrasah and
• When Portguese conquered Malacca in 15th
century, it changed to Roman Catholic
missionaries then to Protestants under the Dutch
followed by the British Education system in 1786
EDUCATION DURING THE BRITISH COLONIAL
PERIOD (1786- 1956)
• The British ruled Malaya for two centuries.
• The British policy of “divide and rule” and divided the three major groups into different
• The Malays were given six years basic training:
Provide basic arithmetic skills to start business
Promote awareness on importance of moral values like hygiene, environmental
Proficiency of children of royal family in English language
• The Indians given same basic education of same period:
Employed as laborer in estates and railways; a policy detrimental to the economic and
• The Chinese were given autonomy of:
• To set schools according to their design own curriculum, employing teachers and
used books from China.
• There were different types of schools:
1. Malay Schools
2. Chinese Schools
3. Tamil Schools
4. English Schools
5. Missionary Schools
• The Christian Missionaries played big part in
developing the education system.
• Malays focused on the recitation of Quran, Jawi
scripts and the ethnics education.
DEVELOPMENTS OF BRITISH IN EDUCATION
• Developed Teacher Training Colleges for trained
teachers in 1878.
• Due to lacking of writing and reading materials
British established the Translation Bureau in 1942.
• Established first vocational and technical institute in
1900 at Malay.
• Established University Malaya of Singapore in 1941.
TURNING POINT TO ENTER MODERN
• Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad, the prime minister of Malaysia
had a record tenure of 22 years from 1981 to 2003.
• In this long tenure, Malaysia has progressed and enter to
• It was the time of progress in Malaysia. Many called him
• Many scientific institutions were established during his term
to help drive the country’s science and innovation agenda.
• He remains a strong believer in the power of science and
innovation in nation building
• At Tun’s time Malaysia experienced rapid economic
growth and at this time economy shifted from
agricultural to industrialization.
• Tun Dr. Mahathir emphasized the role of Science
and Technology to induce rapid economic growth
and overall productivity and to create a strong
industrial base for the nation.
• Wawasan 2020 or Vision 2020 is a Malaysian
ideal introduced by Mahathir bin Mohammad during
the the Sixth Malaysia Plan in 1991.
POLITICAL SYSTEM IN MODERN AGE
Governance of states
System of government
(Directly administrated by
13 states 3 federal territories
Executive legislative Judicial
National level elections
•For lower house of parliament.
•Voters elect 222 members
State level elections
•For membership in various state
•Number of representatives varies
between the different states
Elections In Malaysia
• Election process:
• Elections are supervised by a seven member politically
neutral Election Commission. Its members are
appointed by the king following the advice of the Prime
• Voting process:
• Any Malaysian citizens above 21 years must register
• Only registered voters may vote in elections
• Malaysia's legal system is based on English
Common Law, alongside a Sharia court
system for Malaysian Muslims. Race plays a
large role in Malaysian politics, and many
Malaysian political parties are ethnically
• Prior to the economic crises of 1997-98,
• Malaysia had an average annual growth rate
of 7.5% to 9% of GDP.
• Between 1998-99, the Malaysian economy was in
recession. In 1998, for the first time in a decade, the
economy experienced negative growth of minus2%,
inflation was 7% and unemployment was close to
6% for the whole of 1999.
• However, from 2000, the economy began to recover
and today the annual growth rate is 8.5%
• GDP grew by an average of 6.5% per year from 1957 to
• GDP for 2008 of $222 billion with a growth rate of 5% to 7%
• In 2009, the nominal GDP was US$383.6 billion, and the
nominal per capita GDP was US$8,100.
• GDP in Malaysia was worth 237.80 billion US$ in 2010
• Historically, from 1960 until 2010, Malaysia GDP averaged
55.6 billion US$ reaching an all time high of 237.8 billion
US$ in December of 2010.
• Economy of Malaysia was the 3rd largest economy in South
East Asia and 28th largest economy in the world.
• Ethnic groups: within Malaysia comprise the
Malays, Chinese and Indians.
• National/ official, language: Malay
• Culture: Multicultural
• Religion: The dominant religion in Malaysia is
• Baju: Chinese and Indian, each culture has its
own traditional and religious articles of clothing
MALAY CULTURE AND SOCIETY
A Multi-Cultural Society
• Malaysia is a multi-cultural society.
• The most important festivals of each group are
• There is diverse architecture and get fame due to,
Petronas Towers is the best example which are
tallest buildings of the world
• The family is considered the center of the social
• Malays, Chinese and Indians all strive to maintain
face and avoid shame both in public and private.
• Silence is an important element of Malaysian
communication and rely on non-verbal
communication (i.e. facial expressions, tone of
voice, body language, etc).
• Do not show anger in public as it makes
Malaysians uncomfortable and creates a feeling of
• In general, most Malays are aware of Western
ways so the handshake is normal. Malay women
may not shake hands with men.
• Family law relating to non-Muslims is governed by
Civil High Courts (secular courts) but Syariah
Courts (Under Islamic Law) have relating to
• Muslims cannot convert out of Islam without going
through the Muslim Shariah court system.
• Muslims eat Halal food and alcohol will not be
served at any social event hosted by Muslims.
• The diversity varies in the culture such as;
• Malaysians held diverse festivals such as export
American fare, Japanese animation, Hong Kong
martial arts, Hindi musicals, and Malay drama.
• Dondang Sayang , dance style which is slow and
intense, has been influenced by Chinese, Indian,
Arabian and Portuguese traditional elements.
• Malaysian music is greatly influenced by Chinese and
Islamic forms. Based on the endang, a drum
• Diversity of languages, sports and different ethnic
clubs are also prevailing in the Malaysia.
• The Organization of educational administration in
Malaysia is centralized and its administrative
structure has four distinct hierarchical levels namely;
• There are two Federal Ministries are in charge:
1. The Ministry of Education
2. The Ministry of Higher Education
Philosophy of Education in Malaysia
• "Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards
further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic
and integrated manner
• To produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually,
emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic based
on a firm belief in and devotion to God.
• An effort to produce Malaysian citizens who are
knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral
standards and who are responsible and capable of
achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being
able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the
family, the society and the nation at large."
NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM
NATIONAL SCHOOL / NATIONAL- TYPE SCHOOL
SECONDARY EDUCATION (13-17 YEARS OLD)
3 YEARS LOWER SEC: FORM 1 TO 3 LEVEL
2 YEARS UPPER SEC: FORM 4 T0 5 LEVEL
ACADEMIC SEC SCHOOL / TECHNICAL OR VOCATIONAL SCHOOL /
POST SEC EDUCATION OR PRE- UNIVERSITY EDUCATION
FROM AGE 18 OR ABOVE (FORM 6)
HIGHER EDUCATION / TERTIARY EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT FUNDED INSTITUTION / PRIVATE HIGHER
• Pre-school / Kindergarten education for children aged 4 to 6
• Primary education from age 7 to 1 2 (Standard 1 to Standard 6 for 6 years)
• There are different types of schools in Malaysia;
1. Vision Schools
2. Smart Schools
3. K-9 Comprehensive Special Model Schools
4. Cluster Schools
5. Special Education Institutions
SECONDARY & POST- SECONDARY
• Secondary Education from age 13 to 17 (Form 1 to Form 5 for 5
1) Lower secondary from age 13 to 15 (Form 1 to Form 3 for 3 years)
2) Upper secondary from age 16 to 17 (Form 4 to Form 5 for 2 years)
• It has the option to choose either:
a) Academic secondary education
b) or Technical/Vocational secondary education
c) or Religious secondary education
• Post-Secondary Education / Pre-University from age 18 (for 1 to 2
years) either Form Six (for 1.5 years) or Matriculation (for 1 year)
SECONDARY AND POST SECONDARY
1. Academic Secondary Schools
2. Technical and Vocational Institutions
3. National Islamic Religious Schools
4. Sports Schools
5. Arts Schools
1. Certificate and Diploma Education at
Polytechnics / Colleges
2. Education at Teacher Training Institutes
3. Undergraduate studies
4. Postgraduate studies Master's Degree or Ph.D
studies, after acquiring a Bachelor's degree.
• Public universities are heavily subsidized by the
• Applicants to public universities must have
completed the Malaysia matriculation programme or
have an STPM grade.
• Universities in Malaysia are generally categorized
1. 13 Public Universities
2. 9 Private universities
• Private universities include Malaysian branches and
campuses of foreign universities.
DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM
• Malaysia is the multi- ethnic country therefore
the curriculum development committees draw
deep attention in the formation process.
• The major considerations are;
• Focus on moral education to reduce the
discrimination among different ethnic groups.
• Inclusion of languages with communication skill
like Malayu, Chinese, Arabic, Tamil and English.
• Islamic education is must to be taught in National
• Mathematics and Science subjects must be
taught in national language for the clear
understanding of students.
• For the growth of science and technology must be
taught Pure and Applied science and Information
• Inclusion of Art and Music education to create
aesthetic sense among students.
• Emphasis on vocational and technical education
to increase the manpower of Malaysia.
• Addition of Physical and Health education for
generating the awareness among students.
• Promote the sense of responsibility through the
course of Living skills, civics and citizenship.
• Geography, history and social- studies also
include in curriculum.
EXAMINATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS
• At the end of primary education, students in national
schools are required to take standardized test known as the
Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah or Primary School
• At the end of Lower secondary, the Penilaian Menengah
Rendah or Lower Certificate of Education or Lower
Secondary Evaluation is taken by students. According to
choice for the selection of either science or arts.
• At the end of post secondary, students are required to
take the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia or Malaysian Certificate of
Education examination, before graduating from secondary
• Students in Chinese independent high schools take
standardized tests known as the Unified Examination
Certificate at the end of Junior Middle 3 and Senior Middle
• After the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), students
from public secondary schools would have a
choice of either studying from 6 or
matriculation (pre- university).
• If they are accepted to continue studying in
form6, they will also take the Sijil Tinggi
Persekolahan Malaysia or Malaysian Higher
School Certificate Examination. It is regulated by
the Malaysian Examination Council.
CONFLICTS WITHIN MALAYSIA
• Malaysia faces many conflict due to multi-
ethnic country. There are following some
conflicts which are prevailing largely;
Bumiputras are most dominant group of the
Malaysia therefore they have more opportunities in
the politics, economy and education.
The major issue of the Malaysia that a race-based
quota is applied on the admission process, with
90% of the places being reserved for the
bumiputeras, and the other 10% for the non-
bumiputeras. It develop inequality among different
The legislation is more supportive to follow the
Islamic education is compulsory in the National
schools therefore other ethnic groups do not take
admission in it and prefer the other schools.
The Muslim states do not permit the non- muslim
events and festivals and they can not perform
There are two types of courts in the Malaysia like
Shariya Courts for Muslims and Secular Courts for
other religions. There is different criteria of
EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND
• The Text Book Loan Scheme
• Poor Student’s trust Fund
• The Tuition Aid Scheme
• The Integrated School Health Programmes
• The Supplementary Food Programmes
• The School Milk Progamme
• The Safe School Programme (Safety, Emergency,
Health and Disaster Issues)
• Scholarship Programme
• The Counseling and Guidance Programme
• Special Education Counseling and Guidance
• The Emergency Preparedness Programme for
Teachers (how to face natural disaster through
workshops and educational visits)
• The Supplementary Reading Programme
• The School Resource Centers
• Educational Television programme
• Edu web TV Programme
• Co-curricular activities are compulsory at the secondary
• All students must participate in at least 2 activities.
• Co-curricular activities are often categorized under the
• Uniformed Groups
• Performing Arts
• Student may also participate in more than 2 co-
PRE- SERVICE PROGRAMS
• Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.)
• Malaysian Diploma in Teaching (MDT)
• Post diploma Course in Teaching
• Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PDT)
• B. Ed. TESL twinning programme with local and
• Excellent Students Overseas Programme
IN- SERVICE PROGRAMS
• Special Certificate Programme
• Special Degree Programme
• Short Courses
• Masters Programme for Lecturers
• Malaysian Trainer Development Programme
• Degree Programme for Foreign Language
• Smart School Courses
• Professionalisme Development Courses
• in Malay Language, Science, Mathematics and ICT
TEACHER’S WELFARE PROGRAMS
• Teacher’s Quarters
• Special Allowance for Teachers in Rural /
• Excellent Teachers
• Award for Innovative Teachers
• Expert teacher
• Teacher’s Day on 16 May
ALLOCATION OF BUDGET TO
ALLOCATION OF BUDGET
• The education sector allocated RM50.2 billion in 2012.
• Ministry of Education allocated RM1.9 billion for all types
of school consisting of National Schools, National-Type
Chinese and Tamil schools, Mission Schools and
Government-Assisted Religious Schools.
• RM1 billion allocated special fund for the construction,
improvement and maintenance of schools, particularly to
cater for the immediate needs of schools.
• RM100 million for the National-Type Chinese Schools,
National-Type Tamil Schools, Mission Schools,
Government-Assisted Religious Schools, Maktab Rendah
• RM500 million for National Schools.
• Currently, students in primary and secondary
schools are still required to pay RM24.50 and
RM33.50, respectively, for co-curriculum,
internal test papers, Malaysian Schools Sports
Council fees and insurance premium. These
payments will be abolished from 2012.
LESSON FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN EDUCATION
SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN