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Malaysia

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  • 1. MALAYSIA Presented by: Sabiha Arshad Mughal & Saadia Khan
  • 2. HISTORY OF WORD “MALAYSIA” • The word Melayu is thought to derive from the Sanskrit term Malaiur or Malayadvipa, which can be translated as "land of mountains", the word used by ancient Indian traders when referring to the Malay Peninsula. • The name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963. • When the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation, with "si" being added to Malaya in honor of the three joining states.
  • 3. Facts About Malaysia • Full Name: Malaysia • Independence: 31 August 1957 • Population: 26,121,000 • Capital: Kuala Lumpur • Major Religion: Islam • Area: 329,847 square km (127,355 sq miles) • Major Language: Bahasa Melayu • Currency: Ringgit • Life Expectancy: 73 • GDP per Capita: U.S. $9.699 (IMF, 2012) • Literacy Rate: 89%
  • 4. Malaysia Multi-Ethnic Country
  • 5. ANCIENT HISTORY OF MALAYSIA
  • 6. Ancient History • The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age hunter-gatherers. • They arrived as early as 8,000 BC. Later Stone Age farmers came to Malaya. • After 1,000 BC metal-using farmers came to Malaya. They made tools from bronze and iron and they settled along the coast and along rivers. They lived partly by fishing, partly by growing crops.
  • 7. 2ND AND 3RD CENTURIES AD • In the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD centralized states arose in Malaya. • The Malayans became highly civilized in this era. • Malayan civilization, laws and writing script was heavily influenced by Indian traders. • The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were also introduced into Malaya at that time.
  • 8. Cont… • In the 7th and 8th centuries the state of Srivijaya of Sumatra rose to dominate much of Malaya. • The prosperity of Srivijaya was based on trade with both India and China. • Srivijaya was able to dominate the region until the 11th century and in the 13th century Srivijaya had lost control completely. • During the 15th century the new settlement prospered and grew. The wealth and power of Melaka was based on trade with Arab, Chinese and Indian ships sailing there.
  • 9. Cont… • A new power arose in the 18th century. A people called the Bugis originally came from Sulawesi. At the end of the 17th century they began to settle peacefully, in the territory of Johor but they soon became very powerful.
  • 10. BRITISH COLONIALISM IN MALAYA
  • 11. BRITISH COLONIALISM IN MALAYA • In the late 18th century the British East India Company traded with, and partly controlled India and began to look for a base in Malaya. • In 1786 the British under Francis Light occupied Penang and founded Georgetown. • In 1853 the British government stopped charging duty on imports of tin. As a result it boomed from Malaya to Britain. • In 1869 steamships and the opening of the Suez canal boosted exports of tin. • Chinese workers flocked to work in the tin mines of Malaya and on plantations.
  • 12. BRITISH MALAYA • In the first years of the 20th century the British extended their influence over the Northern Malay states and formally absorbed into British Malaya. • In the early 20th century a new industry grew up in Malaya-rubber. • In the early 20th century while the economy was booming many Chinese people came to live and work in Malaya.
  • 13. THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION • It was the time of 2nd World war (1939-1945) when Japan attacked on Malay on 8th December 1941. • The British troops surrendered on 15 February 1942. This was a military disaster for the British. Meanwhile Japanese troops invaded Borneo. • During the Japanese occupation the Chinese were treated the most harshly and Indians were treated less harshly.
  • 14. THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE • Japanese faced defeat in 1944. • The British government decided to join all the Malayan states (except Singapore) into a single unified state called the Malayan Union. • The Malayan Communist Party (MCP) was founded in 1930. • In 1948 they began to attack European estate managers. As a result the government introduced a state of emergency.
  • 15. TRADITIONAL EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN MALAYA
  • 16. PHASES OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM • There were two phases of Traditional Education System in Malays: 1. Before British Rule (1400-1786) 2. During British Rule (1786- 1956)
  • 17. TRADITIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM (1400-1786) • The traditional education system exist since Malacca Sultanat, with the spread of Islam in the 15th century. • Focus on Islamic education. • It started at home, mosque, madrasah and pondok schools. • When Portguese conquered Malacca in 15th century, it changed to Roman Catholic missionaries then to Protestants under the Dutch followed by the British Education system in 1786 onwards.
  • 18. EDUCATION DURING THE BRITISH COLONIAL PERIOD (1786- 1956) • The British ruled Malaya for two centuries. • The British policy of “divide and rule” and divided the three major groups into different status. • The Malays were given six years basic training:  Provide basic arithmetic skills to start business  Promote awareness on importance of moral values like hygiene, environmental cleanliness  Proficiency of children of royal family in English language • The Indians given same basic education of same period:  Employed as laborer in estates and railways; a policy detrimental to the economic and geographical mobility. • The Chinese were given autonomy of: • To set schools according to their design own curriculum, employing teachers and used books from China.
  • 19. Cont… • There were different types of schools: 1. Malay Schools 2. Chinese Schools 3. Tamil Schools 4. English Schools 5. Missionary Schools • The Christian Missionaries played big part in developing the education system. • Malays focused on the recitation of Quran, Jawi scripts and the ethnics education.
  • 20. DEVELOPMENTS OF BRITISH IN EDUCATION SYSTEM • Developed Teacher Training Colleges for trained teachers in 1878. • Due to lacking of writing and reading materials British established the Translation Bureau in 1942. • Established first vocational and technical institute in 1900 at Malay. • Established University Malaya of Singapore in 1941.
  • 21. TURNING POINT TO ENTER MODERN AGE
  • 22. TURNING POINT TO ENTER MODERN AGE • Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohammad, the prime minister of Malaysia had a record tenure of 22 years from 1981 to 2003. • In this long tenure, Malaysia has progressed and enter to modern age. • It was the time of progress in Malaysia. Many called him “leader extraordinaire”. • Many scientific institutions were established during his term to help drive the country’s science and innovation agenda. • He remains a strong believer in the power of science and innovation in nation building
  • 23. Cont… • At Tun’s time Malaysia experienced rapid economic growth and at this time economy shifted from agricultural to industrialization. • Tun Dr. Mahathir emphasized the role of Science and Technology to induce rapid economic growth and overall productivity and to create a strong industrial base for the nation. • Wawasan 2020 or Vision 2020 is a Malaysian ideal introduced by Mahathir bin Mohammad during the the Sixth Malaysia Plan in 1991.
  • 24. POLITICAL SYSTEM
  • 25. POLITICAL SYSTEM IN MODERN AGE Governance of states System of government Federal government (Directly administrated by government) 13 states 3 federal territories State government Executive legislative Judicial
  • 26. ELECTORAL SYSTEM
  • 27. ELECTORAL SYSTEM National level elections •For lower house of parliament. •bicameral parliament. •Voters elect 222 members State level elections •For membership in various state legislative assemblies •Number of representatives varies between the different states Elections In Malaysia
  • 28. cont… • Election process: • Elections are supervised by a seven member politically neutral Election Commission. Its members are appointed by the king following the advice of the Prime Minister. • Voting process: • Any Malaysian citizens above 21 years must register and vote. • Only registered voters may vote in elections
  • 29. LEGAL SYSTEM
  • 30. LEGAL SYSTEM • Malaysia's legal system is based on English Common Law, alongside a Sharia court system for Malaysian Muslims. Race plays a large role in Malaysian politics, and many Malaysian political parties are ethnically based.
  • 31. ECONOMIC CHANGES
  • 32. ECONOMIC CHANGES • Prior to the economic crises of 1997-98, • Malaysia had an average annual growth rate of 7.5% to 9% of GDP. • Between 1998-99, the Malaysian economy was in recession. In 1998, for the first time in a decade, the economy experienced negative growth of minus2%, inflation was 7% and unemployment was close to 6% for the whole of 1999. • However, from 2000, the economy began to recover and today the annual growth rate is 8.5%
  • 33. Cont… • GDP grew by an average of 6.5% per year from 1957 to 2005. • GDP for 2008 of $222 billion with a growth rate of 5% to 7% since 2007. • In 2009, the nominal GDP was US$383.6 billion, and the nominal per capita GDP was US$8,100. • GDP in Malaysia was worth 237.80 billion US$ in 2010 • Historically, from 1960 until 2010, Malaysia GDP averaged 55.6 billion US$ reaching an all time high of 237.8 billion US$ in December of 2010. • Economy of Malaysia was the 3rd largest economy in South East Asia and 28th largest economy in the world.
  • 34. SOCIAL SYSTEM
  • 35. SOCIAL SYSTEM • Ethnic groups: within Malaysia comprise the Malays, Chinese and Indians. • National/ official, language: Malay • Culture: Multicultural • Religion: The dominant religion in Malaysia is Islam. • Baju: Chinese and Indian, each culture has its own traditional and religious articles of clothing
  • 36. CULTURE IN MALAYSIA
  • 37. MALAY CULTURE AND SOCIETY A Multi-Cultural Society • Malaysia is a multi-cultural society. • The most important festivals of each group are public holidays. • There is diverse architecture and get fame due to, Petronas Towers is the best example which are tallest buildings of the world • The family is considered the center of the social structure. • Malays, Chinese and Indians all strive to maintain face and avoid shame both in public and private.
  • 38. Cont.. • Silence is an important element of Malaysian communication and rely on non-verbal communication (i.e. facial expressions, tone of voice, body language, etc). • Do not show anger in public as it makes Malaysians uncomfortable and creates a feeling of powerlessness. • In general, most Malays are aware of Western ways so the handshake is normal. Malay women may not shake hands with men.
  • 39. CULTURE BOUND • Family law relating to non-Muslims is governed by Civil High Courts (secular courts) but Syariah Courts (Under Islamic Law) have relating to Muslims. • Muslims cannot convert out of Islam without going through the Muslim Shariah court system. • Muslims eat Halal food and alcohol will not be served at any social event hosted by Muslims.
  • 40. CULTURE FREE • The diversity varies in the culture such as; • Malaysians held diverse festivals such as export American fare, Japanese animation, Hong Kong martial arts, Hindi musicals, and Malay drama. • Dondang Sayang , dance style which is slow and intense, has been influenced by Chinese, Indian, Arabian and Portuguese traditional elements. • Malaysian music is greatly influenced by Chinese and Islamic forms. Based on the endang, a drum • Diversity of languages, sports and different ethnic clubs are also prevailing in the Malaysia.
  • 41. EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA
  • 42. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION • The Organization of educational administration in Malaysia is centralized and its administrative structure has four distinct hierarchical levels namely; Federal State District School
  • 43. MINISTRIES • There are two Federal Ministries are in charge: 1. The Ministry of Education 2. The Ministry of Higher Education
  • 44. Philosophy of Education in Malaysia (1987) • "Education in Malaysia is an on-going efforts towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner • To produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonic based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. • An effort to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving high level of personal well-being as well as being able to contribute to the harmony and betterment of the family, the society and the nation at large."
  • 45. NATIONAL EDUCATION SYSTEM NATIONAL SCHOOL / NATIONAL- TYPE SCHOOL SECONDARY EDUCATION (13-17 YEARS OLD) 3 YEARS LOWER SEC: FORM 1 TO 3 LEVEL 2 YEARS UPPER SEC: FORM 4 T0 5 LEVEL ACADEMIC SEC SCHOOL / TECHNICAL OR VOCATIONAL SCHOOL / PRIVATE SCHOOL POST SEC EDUCATION OR PRE- UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FROM AGE 18 OR ABOVE (FORM 6) HIGHER EDUCATION / TERTIARY EDUCATION GOVERNMENT FUNDED INSTITUTION / PRIVATE HIGHER INSTITUTION
  • 46. PRIMARY EDUCATION • Pre-school / Kindergarten education for children aged 4 to 6 • Primary education from age 7 to 1 2 (Standard 1 to Standard 6 for 6 years)
  • 47. PRIMARY SCHOOLS • There are different types of schools in Malaysia; 1. Vision Schools 2. Smart Schools 3. K-9 Comprehensive Special Model Schools 4. Cluster Schools 5. Special Education Institutions
  • 48. SECONDARY & POST- SECONDARY EDUCATION • Secondary Education from age 13 to 17 (Form 1 to Form 5 for 5 years) 1) Lower secondary from age 13 to 15 (Form 1 to Form 3 for 3 years) 2) Upper secondary from age 16 to 17 (Form 4 to Form 5 for 2 years) • It has the option to choose either: a) Academic secondary education b) or Technical/Vocational secondary education c) or Religious secondary education • Post-Secondary Education / Pre-University from age 18 (for 1 to 2 years) either Form Six (for 1.5 years) or Matriculation (for 1 year)
  • 49. SECONDARY AND POST SECONDARY SCHOOLS 1. Academic Secondary Schools 2. Technical and Vocational Institutions 3. National Islamic Religious Schools 4. Sports Schools 5. Arts Schools
  • 50. HIGHER EDUCATION 1. Certificate and Diploma Education at Polytechnics / Colleges 2. Education at Teacher Training Institutes 3. Undergraduate studies 4. Postgraduate studies Master's Degree or Ph.D studies, after acquiring a Bachelor's degree.
  • 51. Cont… • Public universities are heavily subsidized by the government. • Applicants to public universities must have completed the Malaysia matriculation programme or have an STPM grade. • Universities in Malaysia are generally categorized as; 1. 13 Public Universities 2. 9 Private universities • Private universities include Malaysian branches and campuses of foreign universities.
  • 52. CURRICULUM
  • 53. DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM • Malaysia is the multi- ethnic country therefore the curriculum development committees draw deep attention in the formation process. • The major considerations are; • Focus on moral education to reduce the discrimination among different ethnic groups. • Inclusion of languages with communication skill like Malayu, Chinese, Arabic, Tamil and English. • Islamic education is must to be taught in National schools.
  • 54. Cont… • Mathematics and Science subjects must be taught in national language for the clear understanding of students. • For the growth of science and technology must be taught Pure and Applied science and Information Communication Technology. • Inclusion of Art and Music education to create aesthetic sense among students. • Emphasis on vocational and technical education to increase the manpower of Malaysia.
  • 55. Cont… • Addition of Physical and Health education for generating the awareness among students. • Promote the sense of responsibility through the course of Living skills, civics and citizenship. • Geography, history and social- studies also include in curriculum.
  • 56. TEACHING METHODOLOGY
  • 57. TEACHING METHODOLOGY 1. Inquiry Method • To encourage the R & D 2. Experiential Methodology • Field work (Out of school programme) • Project work • Practical work 3. Self Directed Learning
  • 58. EXAMINATION SYSTEM
  • 59. EXAMINATION SYSTEM FOR STUDENTS • At the end of primary education, students in national schools are required to take standardized test known as the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah or Primary School Evaluation Test. • At the end of Lower secondary, the Penilaian Menengah Rendah or Lower Certificate of Education or Lower Secondary Evaluation is taken by students. According to choice for the selection of either science or arts. • At the end of post secondary, students are required to take the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia or Malaysian Certificate of Education examination, before graduating from secondary school. • Students in Chinese independent high schools take standardized tests known as the Unified Examination Certificate at the end of Junior Middle 3 and Senior Middle 3.
  • 60. Cont… • After the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM), students from public secondary schools would have a choice of either studying from 6 or matriculation (pre- university). • If they are accepted to continue studying in form6, they will also take the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia or Malaysian Higher School Certificate Examination. It is regulated by the Malaysian Examination Council.
  • 61. CONFLICTS WITHIN MALAYSIA
  • 62. CONFLICTS WITHIN MALAYSIA • Malaysia faces many conflict due to multi- ethnic country. There are following some conflicts which are prevailing largely;  Bumiputras are most dominant group of the Malaysia therefore they have more opportunities in the politics, economy and education.  The major issue of the Malaysia that a race-based quota is applied on the admission process, with 90% of the places being reserved for the bumiputeras, and the other 10% for the non- bumiputeras. It develop inequality among different ethnic groups.
  • 63. CONT…  The legislation is more supportive to follow the Islamic Law.  Islamic education is compulsory in the National schools therefore other ethnic groups do not take admission in it and prefer the other schools.  The Muslim states do not permit the non- muslim events and festivals and they can not perform freely.  There are two types of courts in the Malaysia like Shariya Courts for Muslims and Secular Courts for other religions. There is different criteria of legislation’s implementation.
  • 64. ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS & CO- CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES
  • 65. EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND SUPPORT PROGRAMMES • The Text Book Loan Scheme • Poor Student’s trust Fund • The Tuition Aid Scheme • The Integrated School Health Programmes • The Supplementary Food Programmes • The School Milk Progamme • The Safe School Programme (Safety, Emergency, Health and Disaster Issues) • Scholarship Programme
  • 66. Cont… • The Counseling and Guidance Programme • Special Education Counseling and Guidance Programs • The Emergency Preparedness Programme for Teachers (how to face natural disaster through workshops and educational visits) • The Supplementary Reading Programme • The School Resource Centers • Educational Television programme • Edu web TV Programme
  • 67. CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES • Co-curricular activities are compulsory at the secondary level. • All students must participate in at least 2 activities. • Co-curricular activities are often categorized under the following: • Uniformed Groups • Performing Arts • Clubs • Societies • Sports • Games • Student may also participate in more than 2 co- curricular activities.
  • 68. TEACHER EDUCATION
  • 69. PRE- SERVICE PROGRAMS • Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) • Malaysian Diploma in Teaching (MDT) • Post diploma Course in Teaching • Postgraduate Diploma in Teaching (PDT) • B. Ed. TESL twinning programme with local and overseas • Universities • Excellent Students Overseas Programme
  • 70. IN- SERVICE PROGRAMS • Special Certificate Programme • Special Degree Programme • Short Courses • Masters Programme for Lecturers • Malaysian Trainer Development Programme • Degree Programme for Foreign Language Teachers • Smart School Courses • Professionalisme Development Courses • in Malay Language, Science, Mathematics and ICT
  • 71. TEACHER’S WELFARE PROGRAMS • Teacher’s Quarters • Special Allowance for Teachers in Rural / Remote Areas • Excellent Teachers • Award for Innovative Teachers • Expert teacher • Teacher’s Day on 16 May
  • 72. ALLOCATION OF BUDGET TO EDUCATION SECTOR 2012 6.8% GDP
  • 73. ALLOCATION OF BUDGET • The education sector allocated RM50.2 billion in 2012. • Ministry of Education allocated RM1.9 billion for all types of school consisting of National Schools, National-Type Chinese and Tamil schools, Mission Schools and Government-Assisted Religious Schools. • RM1 billion allocated special fund for the construction, improvement and maintenance of schools, particularly to cater for the immediate needs of schools. • RM100 million for the National-Type Chinese Schools, National-Type Tamil Schools, Mission Schools, Government-Assisted Religious Schools, Maktab Rendah • RM500 million for National Schools.
  • 74. Cont… • Currently, students in primary and secondary schools are still required to pay RM24.50 and RM33.50, respectively, for co-curriculum, internal test papers, Malaysian Schools Sports Council fees and insurance premium. These payments will be abolished from 2012.
  • 75. LESSON FOR IMPROVEMENTS IN EDUCATION SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN
  • 76. IMPROVEMENTS FOR PAKISTAN SUSTAINABLE EDUCATION POLICY INCREASE EDUCATION BUDGET IMPROVE QUALITY CURRICULUM REFORMS PROVIDE ADEQUATE ASSISTANCE & SUPPORTIVE PROGRAMS DEVELOP HUMAN CAPITAL