1Name: Saad Mazhar QureshiID: SP12-BB-0056Course: Introduction to PsychologySection: BArticle on: Short Term MemorySubmitted to: Ma’am Zaib un Nisa
2Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory,includes the information we are currently aware of or thinkingabout. Most of the information kept in short-term memory willbe stored for approximately 20 to 30 seconds, but it can beeven less if rehearsal or active maintenance of the informationis prevented. The capacity of short-term memory can vary, butrecent research suggests that people are capable of storingapproximately four chunks or pieces of information in short-term memory.Short term memory is part of the memory storage systemwhich is capable of storing material for a brief period of timeand to some extent it determines how well the rest of yourintelligences are utilized. At any one time short term memorycan contain seven, plus or minus two, "chunks" of information.If short term memory tries to acquire more items than it canhandle, the middle items will often be displaced. Items remainin short term memory around twenty seconds. Substantialevidence exists to support a general dependency of reasoningupon short term memory capacity. The longer information isstored in short term memory the easier it is to manipulateinformation needed in the execution of complex cognitive tasks(e.g. short term memory has been shown to be correlated withproblem solving, learning, reasoning, and readingcomprehension).
3It is closely related to "working memory"—is like a receptionistfor the brain. As one of two main memory types, short-termmemory is responsible for storing information temporarily anddetermining if it will be dismissed or transferred on to long-term memory. Although it sounds complicated, this processtakes your short-term memory less than a minute to complete.For example, it is helping you right now by storing informationfrom the beginning of this sentence, so that you can makesense of the end of it. More recently, scientists have begun todive a little deeper into "short-term" brain functions and haveadded a separate (but similar) type of memory,” working"memory.Case Study :Its capacity is also very limited: George A. Miller (1956), whenworking at Bell Laboratories, conducted experiments showingthat the store of short-term memory was 7±2 items (the title ofhis famous paper, "The magical number 7±2"). Modernestimates of the capacity of short-term memory are lower,typically of the order of 4–5 items; however, memory capacitycan be increased through a process called chunking. Forexample, in recalling a ten-digit telephone number, a personcould chunk the digits into three groups: first, the area code(such as 123), then a three-digit chunk (456) and lastly a four-digit chunk (7890). This method of remembering telephone
4numbers is far more effective than attempting to remember astring of 10 digits; this is because we are able to chunk theinformation into meaningful groups of numbers. This may bereflected in some countries in the tendency to displaytelephone numbers as several chunks of three numbers, withthe final four-number group generally broken down into twogroups of two.When reading a list the first and last items are rememberedbetter than middle words. The two memory processes thatcause this to happen are called the primacy and recencyeffects. Try to schedule frequent short breaks as this will createmore primacy/recency peaks helping you to remember moreinformation. The longer you study the bigger the dip in recallbetween the primacy and recency effects.