Social Representations of CMCs in Mozambique: work in progress @ TASCHA

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Presentation on my research at TASCHA talk, 9 August 2012, UW, Seattle, WA.

Presentation on my research at TASCHA talk, 9 August 2012, UW, Seattle, WA.

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  • 1. S O CI AL S a r a Va n n i n i R E P R ES E NTAT I ONS NewMinE Lab O F C O MMU NI T YUniversità della Svizzera italiana Lugano, Switzerland M U LT I MED IA C E NT R ES I N@ TASCHA talk, 9 August 2012 M OZ AMB I QU E
  • 2. My Topic:What are the Social Representations ofCMCs in Mozambique?T heor y:Moscovici’s Social Representations Theoryand previous applications on telecentres.Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative methodschoosen and field challenges .Results:Work in progress!
  • 3. My Topic:What are the Social Representations ofCMCs in Mozambique?T heor y:Moscovici’s Social Representations Theoryand previous applications on telecentres.Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative methodschoosen and field challenges.Results:Work in progress!
  • 4. C MCs Definition: CMCs are community-based facilitiesoffering both community radio broadcasting and t elecent re ser vices (access to the Internet and other ICTs). U N E SC O, 2 0 0 0
  • 5. C M Cs i n M oz a mbi q ue 2000 UNESCO2000-2004 8 CMCs in Mozambique (Community Radios 1990s)2004-2005 scale-up phase (plan: 50 new CMCs) 2010 MZ Ministry of Science and Technology (128 districts – 5 years) 2011 34 CMCs 2012 36 CMCs
  • 6. L o c al p e op le’ s p e r cep tion s
  • 7. L o c al p e op le’ s p e r cep tion sCommunities’ perceptions are key sustainability factors.
  • 8. My Topic:What are the Social Representations ofCMCs in Mozambique?T heor y:Moscovici’s Social Representations Theoryand previous applications on telecentres.Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative methodschoosen and field challenges.Results:Work in progress!
  • 9. S o c ia l R ep r e s en ta ti ons Moscovici, 1973
  • 10. S o c ia l R ep r e s en ta ti ons systems of values, ideas and practices, that are shared among a given group Moscovici, 1973
  • 11. (1898) Durkheim’s Collective Representations very general and broad (ideology, myth, science) often single and moreresistant to change source of authoritywith the functions of binding societies together
  • 12. (1898) Durkheim’s Collective Representations very general and broad (ideology, myth, science) often single and more contemporary societies are moreresistant to change source of mobile and heterogeneous authoritywith the functions of binding plurality of representations and societies together diversity within a group (1973) Moscovici’s Social Representations
  • 13. enable individuals to orientate themselves and interpret their world2 f u n c t ion s o f S R provide a code that enable communication among the members of a community
  • 14. object s e m iot ic t r i a n g le of SRsubject group
  • 15. intersubjectivity: need to be in relationship withothers to give meaning to the object; the individual perception and the socio-cultural context are not separated.
  • 16. cognitive polyphasia: no mere reproductionof the external reality, development andnegotiation of SRs lead to contradictions andconflicts: agency and creative power of the human being are allowed.
  • 17. dialectic: both prescriptive on humanbehaviour and a product of human agency: tradition vs change, agency vs structure.
  • 18. To b l er on e M o d e l Bauer & Gaskell, 1999
  • 19. S o c ia l R ep r e s en ta ti ons (Mis)Alignments in their conceptualization are a good Sustainability indicator Rega, 2010
  • 20. My Topic:What are the Social Representations ofCMCs in Mozambique?T heor y:Moscovici’s Social Representations Theoryand previous applications on telecentres.Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative methodschoosen and field challenges.Results:Work in progress!
  • 21. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews PicturesVa l ue s Focus GroupPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users”
  • 22. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews denomination, definitions, improvements needed PicturesVa l ue s Focus Group possibilities and choicesPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users”
  • 23. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews benefits, motivations (not) to use Pictures how it should (not) be, benefitsVa l ue s Focus GroupPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users” reasons not to use
  • 24. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews usages, services offered, community involvement PicturesVa l ue s Focus GroupPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users”
  • 25. My Topic:What are the Social Representations ofCMCs in Mozambique?T heor y:Moscovici’s Social Representations Theoryand previous applications on telecentres.Methods:Quantitative and Qualitative methodschoosen and field challenges .Results:Work in progress!
  • 26. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews denomination, definitions, improvements needed PicturesVa l ue s Focus Group possibilities and choicesPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users”
  • 27. L o c al D e n omi na ti on o f C M C (#122)Radio 87.7%CMC 16.4%other 10.7% TC 7.4%
  • 28. D e f i ni tion o f C M C (#144) Combination of RC+TC 30.6% LEARNING centre 18.1% a RADIO 16.7% Describe where it is 13.2% INFORMATION mean 9.7% ACCESS to ICTs centre 9.0%SOCIALIZATION & Entertainment Place 4.2% Community centre - CMC 3.5% Place for Community PARTICIPATION 2.8%Place where community can express its… 1.4% COMMUNICATION mean (within… 1.4%
  • 29. D e f i ni tion o f Te l ec ent re (#180) LEARNING centre 42.8% DNK 23.3% ACCESS or USE ICTs place 23.3% > Including Photocopies 12.2% > Including Computers 12.2% > including Internet 7.2% INFORMATION ACCESS Centre 10.6% RC + TC services 6.1%Place full of Computers - STATIC 3.3% COMMUNICATION centre 2.8% a RADIO 2.2% a LIBRARY 2.2% Local Centre 0.6%
  • 30. D e f i ni tion o f C o m mun it y R a d i o (# 184) Local 25.0% Information mean 23.4% Belongs to Community 21.7% DNK 14.7% Communication mean* 12.5% a Radio 7.1%Place for Community Partecipation 3.8% Education mean 3.3% Entertainment mean 2.2% IT place - Telecentre 1.1%
  • 31. User whole User only Radio + Non Staff TOTAL TC CMC Users (4) 5.7% 0.0% 2.0% 2.2%a LIBRARY 1.9% 2.6% 2.0% 2.2%a RADIOACCESS or USE ICTs place - not 52.8% 6.4% 18.4% 23.3%to look for info 28.3% 2.6% 10.2% 12.2%> Including Computers 18.9% 0.0% 6.1% 7.2%> including Internet 30.2% 5.1% 4.1% 12.2%> Including Photocopies 5.7% 2.6% 0.0% 2.8%COMMUNICATION centre 9.4% 28.2% 30.6% 23.3%DNK 7.5% 10.3% 14.3% 10.6%INFORMATION ACCESS Centre 41.5% 47.4% 36.7% 42.8%LEARNING centre 39.6% 47.4% 34.7% 41.7%> LEARN how to use Computers 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.6%Local Centre 3.8% 5.1% 0.0% 3.3%Place full of Computers - STATIC 11.3% 3.8% 4.1% 6.1%RC + TC services
  • 32. User whole User only Radio + Non Staff TOTAL TC CMC Users (4) 5.7% 0.0% 2.0% 2.2%a LIBRARY 1.9% 2.6% 2.0% 2.2%a RADIOACCESS or USE ICTs place - not 52.8% 6.4% 18.4% 23.3%to look for info !! 28.3% 2.6% 10.2% 12.2%> Including Computers 18.9% 0.0% 6.1% 7.2%> including Internet 30.2% 5.1% 4.1% 12.2%> Including Photocopies 5.7% 2.6% 0.0% 2.8%COMMUNICATION centre 9.4% 28.2% 30.6% 23.3%DNK 7.5% 10.3% 14.3% 10.6%INFORMATION ACCESS Centre 41.5% 47.4% 36.7% 42.8%LEARNING centre ! 39.6% 47.4% 34.7% 41.7%> LEARN how to use Computers ! 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.6%Local Centre 3.8% 5.1% 0.0% 3.3%Place full of Computers - STATIC 11.3% 3.8% 4.1% 6.1%RC + TC services
  • 33. I d e as Semi-structured Interviews benefits, motivations (not) to use Pictures how it should (not) be, benefitsVa l ue s Focus GroupPr a cti ce s Survey to “non-users” reasons not to use
  • 34. B e n ef its o f T C (#111) LEARNING 49.5% ECONOMIC 36.9%ACCESS ICTs - including TV and Internet 35.1% INFORMATION 14.4% SOCIAL 9.9% COMMUNICATION 2.7%
  • 35. B e n ef its o f T C (#111) basic computer skills LEARNING 49.5% ECONOMIC 36.9%ACCESS ICTs - including TV and Internet 35.1% INFORMATION 14.4% SOCIAL 9.9% COMMUNICATION 2.7%
  • 36. B e n ef its o f T C (#111) shorten the distances LEARNING 49.5% improve CV/find a ECONOMIC 36.9% jobACCESS ICTs - including TV and Internet 35.1% INFORMATION 14.4% SOCIAL 9.9% COMMUNICATION 2.7%
  • 37. B e n ef its o f T C (#111) LEARNING 49.5% ECONOMIC 36.9%ACCESS ICTs - including TV and Internet 35.1% more time for intellectual INFORMATION 14.4% activities, community development, SOCIAL 9.9% entertainment and keep COMMUNICATION youngsters away 2.7% from drugs and alcohol
  • 38. 5 interviewers, with different backgroundsc h a l len g e s o f interviews collected have different levels of ins e m i-st ruc tu r e depth questioningi n t er vi ew s data is sometimes missing questions added/removed depending on the context
  • 39. WC MPillar 1: ServicesPillar 2: Facilities & ToolsPillar 3: People ManagingPillar 4: People Using (Cantoni & Tardini, 2006)
  • 40. «In our centre we have only the fotocopy machine, and I would like itP1 to improve, so to have all the activities of a full telecentre» Ilha de Moçambique Staff 5 Photo 2
  • 41. «I don’t like it because one day it can fall down on us, because it isP2 broken, so i don’t like it» Chitima Staff 1 Photo 2
  • 42. «This (photocopy) machine stopped working two weeks ago and it isP2 not working well. According to the technicians, we have to change some pieces.» Chiure Staff 1 Photo 2
  • 43. P3 «I came to learn computers, this is what is important, and they are teaching us very well.» Chokwe User 7 Photo 1
  • 44. « It is where young people learn information technologies (…)P4 futhermore, they have other activities of interest for the young people and for the community in general.» Chiure User 2 Photo 1
  • 45. What they DONT LIKE (#93) 89.2%10.8% 3.2% 2.2%Services Tools&Facilities People Managing Users
  • 46. Tools & Facilities 74.7% 25.3%Facilities Technologies
  • 47. Tools & Facilities All Staff Users 88.4%74.7% 60.0% 40.0% 25.3% 11.6% Facilities Technologies
  • 48. CMCs should… (reversed negative aspects) ... have premises in good conditions (technology mainteinance, security issue, health issues) ... should have premises that look nice (disorder, walls not properly painted) ...take care of unused spaces and even their immediate outside ... be clean, litter should not be visible ...have technologies that work
  • 49. - not always developed level of abstraction - specific language of the picturesc h a l len g e s a n d -“overinterpretating” riska d v a nta g e s o f - time&place issuesp h oto - eli cit ati on + attached interview part + different focus than the interview + the method does not force an answer!
  • 50. - not always developed level of abstraction - specific language of the picturesc h a l len g e s a n d -“overinterpretating” riska d v a nta g e s o f - time&place issuesp h oto - eli cit ati on + attached interview part + different focus than the interview + the method does not force an answer!
  • 51. - not always developed level of abstraction - specific language of the picturesc h a l len g e s a n d -“overinterpretating” riska d v a nta g e s o f - time&place issuesp h oto - eli cit ati on + attached interview part + different focus than the interview + the method does not force an answer!
  • 52. n o n -use r s u r v ey (non users of the T C but active users of the radio)Motivations not to use (interviews results)Informations on respondent (computer & internetknowledge, where they use ICTs, plan to use ICTs in future)Media dietDemographics
  • 53. training to the interviewerc h a l len g e s o f parts difficult to understands u r v ey (choice of the interviewee, maximum number of(up to now) answers)
  • 54. S a r a Va n n i n i NewMinE LabT HANK YOU Università della Svizzera italiana sara.vannini@usi.ch