Task-Based Teaching“Any approach to language pedagogy will“Any approach to language pedagogy willneed to concern itself with three essentialneed to concern itself with three essentialelements: language data, information, andelements: language data, information, andopportunities for practice”,opportunities for practice”, David Nunan, David Nunan,
TBLT - Definition“A Task is an activity where the “A Task is an activity where thetarget language is used by the target language is used by thelearner for a communicative learner for a communicativepurpose (goal) in order to achieve purpose (goal) in order to achievean outcome” an outcome” Jane Willis Jane Willis
What is ‘task-based language teaching’?TBLT is an approach to teaching asecond/foreign language that seeks toengage learners in interactionallyauthentic language use by having themperform a series of tasks. It aims to bothenable learners (1) to acquire newlinguistic knowledge and (2) toproceduralize their existing knowledge.
BACKGROUND OF TASK-BASED LEARNINGTwo early applications of a task- Two early applications of a task-based learning within a based learning within acommunicative framework for communicative framework forlanguage teaching were the language teaching were theMalaysian Communicational Malaysian CommunicationalSyllabus(1975) and the Bangalore Syllabus(1975) and the BangaloreProject Prabhu 1987) Project Prabhu 1987)
Why Using Task-Based Approach?•• Students are free of language control Students are free of language control•• A natural context is developed from the A natural context is developed from thestudents‘ experiences. with the language that students‘ experiences. with the language thatis personalised and relevant to them. is personalised and relevant to them.•• They will be exposed to a whole range of They will be exposed to a whole range oflexical phrases, collocations and patterns as lexical phrases, collocations and patterns aswell as language forms. well as language forms.•• Students needs dictate what will be covered Students needs dictate what will be coveredrather than a decision made by the teacher or rather than a decision made by the teacher orthe coursebook. the coursebook.•• It is a strong communicative approach where It is a strong communicative approach wherestudents spend a lot of time communicating. students spend a lot of time communicating.•• Provide Self-Access Activities. Provide Self-Access Activities.•• It is enjoyable and motivating. It is enjoyable and motivating.
THE RATIONALE OF TASK- BASED LEARNING 1. Theory of LanguageSeveral assumptions about the nature of language can be saidto underlie current approaches to task-based learning. Theseare:o Language is primarily a means of making meaningo Multiple models of language inform task-based learning.o Lexical units are central in language use and language learningo “Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition
2-Theory of Learning Task-based learning shares the general assumptions about the nature of language learning underlying Communicative Language Teaching.o Tasks provide both the input and the output processing necessary for language acquisition.o Task activity and achievement are motivational.o Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes.
TBLT DesignObjectives:Objectives:As with other communicativeapproaches ,goals in TBLT are determinedby the specific needs of particular learners.The Syllabus:The Syllabus:Task –based syllabuses represent a particularrealization of Communicative Language Teaching(Nunan1989). The designer conducts a needsanalysis ,which yields a list of the communicativetasks that the learners will need to carry out.
there is a basic distinction between target ( real world) tasks and pedagogical tasks .
Types of Tasks:Types of Tasks:1-A Task … is goal directed. involves a primary focus on meaning. has a clearly defined outcome.2-The participants choose the linguisticresources needed to complete the task.
In the literature on TBLT , several attempts have been made to group tasks into categories, as a basis for task design and description.Willis (1996) proposes six task types: LISTING: Processes: Brainstorming, fact-finding. ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes: Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes: Matching, finding similarities, finding differences. PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes: Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making. SHARING PERSONAL Processes: Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, EXPERIENCES: opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes: Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving and many others.
Tasks and the four language skills:A common misunderstanding of task- A common misunderstanding of task-based instruction is that it necessarily based instruction is that it necessarilyinvolves oral interaction. involves oral interaction.But tasks can be designed to develop any But tasks can be designed to develop anyof the four language skills (listening, of the four language skills (listening,speaking, reading and writing). speaking, reading and writing).Many tasks are ‘integrative’ (i.e. involve Many tasks are ‘integrative’ (i.e. involvemore than one skill). more than one skill).
How does this photo demonstrate the Task-Based Approach?
Video• Describe the role of the teacher and the students.• Guess what are the phases of a lesson applying TBLT.
Teacher & Students in TBLTRole of the TeacherRole of the Teachero Cooperate, Listen and respond to St needs.o Decide what tasks to work on.o Decide when to try a new task.o Correct and keep feedback (analysis).o Help St Monitor each other.
Role of the Students:Role of the Students:o Work individually or with the groups equally .o Gather and organize information (report).o Present results to others St and/or Instructor.o Risk-taker and innovator.
Procedure Willis (1996:56-57) recommends the following sequence of activities: Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students Pre-task understand task instructions and prepare. Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors from a distance. Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered.Task Cycle Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording.Language Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and Focus patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis (Willis 1996: 38).
Pedagogic problemsProblem Solution1. Teachers often believe that Teachers need to understand thatTBLT is not possible with TBLT involves input-based asbeginners. well as out-put based tasks and that it is possible to build up proficiency initially through a series of simple input-based tasks.2. Students may be unwilling to • Allow planning timerisk communicating ‘freely’. • Learner-training.3. Students will resort to This is arguably not a problem; ascommunicating in their L1. proficiency develops learners automatically begin to use more of the L2.4. Teachers may not fully More effective teacher training.understand the principles orTBLT or have the proficiency toteach ‘communicatively’.
Problems with the Educational SystemProblems Solutions1. Emphasis on Educational‘knowledge learning’ philosophy needs to change2. Examination system More communicative tests need to be developed.3. Large classes Use group work; develop tasks suited to large classes.
Divide Yourselves into two groups Make two lists of what you think are the advantage and the disadvantages of TBLT.
ConclusionsTask-Based Language Teaching addresses some ofthe ways students are changingAny curriculum content can be taught through tasks .the key point is that the teacher usually will have tocreate their own worksheets or strategies!The teacher must stay very active during a task-based lesson assisting students individually or as agroup!It emphasizes meaning over form but can also caterfor learning form.It is compatible with a learner-centred educationalphilosophy but also allows for teacher input anddirection.
It caters to the development of communicativefluency while not neglecting accuracy.It can be used alongside a more traditionalapproach.
Let’s Talk: What’s your Favourite drink? In this lesson you will talk about your favourite drink and why you like it. You will interview your friends about t Part 1: What’s your favourite drink? Interview your friends. There are many popular drinks around the world. In your notebook, think of five ~ seven questions to ask about drinks. (Hint, What is your favourite drink, why do you like it?) Write your answers and then ask four friends. Write their answers in your notebook.Part 2: VocabularyFind these words in the dictionary. Write the meaning in your notebook.Beans , loose, popular beverages. Part 1: How do you like your drink??? Scenario Work with five students . You are a waitress in a restaurant . Ask them what they want to drink and how do they prefer it ……. A table. A menu. A piece of paper and a pen . Part 2: Analysis: Write the questions and the answers in your note book to share it with your class.