Introduction to Human Behavior<br />LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT<br />Presented By:<br />Insiya Murtaza<br />Uswah Munawar<br />Saad Jumani<br />Saroosh Zahid<br />25 May 2011<br />1<br />
Facts on Language Development<br />Research indicates babies listen to their mother's <br /> voice during the last few months of pregnancy.<br />Babies show the ability to pick out mothers voice<br /> from among other female voices.<br />This is intensified, when for example mothers read to the baby while its in the womb.<br />2<br />
Non-Verbal Communication<br />Children acquire new ways to communicate from the time they are born.<br />Initial communication is limited to eye contact, hand movements, gestures etc.<br /> They are also attentive to the human face, particularly <br /> the eyes. <br />According to Darwin, emotional expressions are universal.<br />3<br />
Verbal Communication<br />Stages <br />Pre linguistic Stage -vegetative noises and crying predominate<br />Cooing-producing vowel like sounds<br />Canonical babbling-the infant begins producing more speech-like syllables (4 to 10 months)<br /> The range of vocalizations grows dramatically ( 6 to 8 months)<br /> Babbling at the next stage often consists <br /> reduplicated syllables like "bababa" or <br /> "dadada" or "mamama.“ ( 10 to 12 months) <br />4<br />
Linguistic stage-The first words make their appearance<br /> (9 to 15 months)<br />Overgeneralization:<br /> Children may "over generalize" their first words to refer to items<br /> beyond their usual scope of application.<br /> Example: A child might call all men "Daddy," or all animals "doggie," or all round objects "ball.“<br />Undergeneralization:<br /> Children may fail to associate connections between similar objects. <br /> Example: A child might call only her own striped ball "ball," and stay silent about all the rest.<br />5<br />StagesContinued..<br />
The nature of the child's first 50 words is quite similar across cultures: the child often names foods, pets, animals, family members, toys, vehicles and clothing.<br />5/25/2011<br />6<br />
5/25/2011<br />9<br /> Nature Aspect<br />Noam Chomsky<br /><ul><li>Children are born with innate knowledge of the rules governing language.
All humans have a language acquisition device (LAD).
The LAD contains knowledge of grammatical rules common </li></ul> to all language. <br /><ul><li>The LAD also allows children to understand the rules of whatever language they are listening to.</li></li></ul><li>10<br />Nurture Aspect<br /><ul><li>Vygotsky - children learn by solving problems with the help of other people, such as parents and siblings.
Skinner -Children imitate what they see and hear. They learn from punishment and reinforcement .
Piaget – Language development is connected to a child's cognitive development. As the child moves through the different stages of cognitive development, his language skills change as well. </li></li></ul><li>Nature AND Nurture<br /><ul><li>Language development is the result of genetics and the environment.
The human body is built in a way that gives the creative mind many ways to communicate.
But without external interactions, humans can not develop any language skills above what animals do
Example: Genie “wild child”</li></li></ul><li>References:<br />Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence, Apr 06, 2001 by Jill De Villiers, Ph.D. Smith College<br />http://www.ehow.com/about_6469505_major-theories-language-development.html<br />http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/course/85-211b/language_acq.html<br />http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0003/ai_2602000341/pg_6/?tag=content;col1<br />http://www.duke.edu/~pk10/language/psych.htm<br />http://languagedevelopment.tripod.com/id15.html<br />12<br />