Nutrients Discharging from Tile Drains in Eastern Wisconsin       Eric Cooley   Research Coordinator   UW Discovery Farms
What Are Discovery Farms?The Discovery FarmsProgram will developon-farm and relatedresearch to determinethe economic anden...
Discovery Farms     Tile ResearchA - Kewaunee County   Two tile line sites    (2004 – 2009)B - Manitowoc County   Two ti...
Tile line water monitoring
Tile line water monitoring
Tile monitoring equipment
Surface and Tile Runoff Under                                Snowmelt Conditions                                          ...
Tile flow periods
Efficiency of tile water removal
Water Budget Percentage of total precipitation leaving the landscape as surface water                      Farm A         ...
Surface & tile sediment loss
Surface & tile phosphorus loss
Surface & tile nitrogen loss
Surface & tile loss timing                        Sediment              Surface                        Tile         Frozen...
Nutrient loss timing and                  speciation                   Phosphorus Speciation                   Surface    ...
Environmental Risks of Tiles                       - Macropores -Preferential flow                                        ...
Soil drying and crack formation
Factors Influencing ManureContamination of Tile Lines   Consistency of manure:       0-2% solids: high risk       2-5% ...
Take home points Tile drains can flow up to 365 days a year, even  during frozen ground conditions Tile drainage can del...
www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org
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Clean Rivers, Clean Lake 8 -- Nutrients Discharging from Drain Tiles -- Eric Cooley

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  • Farm C has an estimated basin size which may change with fluctuating water table. The tile numbers for farm C are rough estimates and should not be used for published information.
  • Farm C has an estimated basin size which may change with fluctuating water table. The tile numbers for farm C are rough estimates and should not be used for published information.
  • Farm C has an estimated basin size which may change with fluctuating water table. The tile numbers for farm C are rough estimates and should not be used for published information.
  • Clean Rivers, Clean Lake 8 -- Nutrients Discharging from Drain Tiles -- Eric Cooley

    1. 1. Nutrients Discharging from Tile Drains in Eastern Wisconsin Eric Cooley Research Coordinator UW Discovery Farms
    2. 2. What Are Discovery Farms?The Discovery FarmsProgram will developon-farm and relatedresearch to determinethe economic andenvironmental effectsof Best ManagementPractices on a diversegroup of Wisconsinfarms;
    3. 3. Discovery Farms Tile ResearchA - Kewaunee County Two tile line sites (2004 – 2009)B - Manitowoc County Two tile line sites (2004 – 2007, 2007 – 2011)C - Waukesha County Two tile line sites (2004 – 2009)
    4. 4. Tile line water monitoring
    5. 5. Tile line water monitoring
    6. 6. Tile monitoring equipment
    7. 7. Surface and Tile Runoff Under Snowmelt Conditions Surface Water and Tile Runoff Snowmelt 2005 3.5 70 Surface-Water Flow Air Temperature, DegreesDischarge, cubic feet per 3.0 Tile Flow 60 2.5 Air Temperature 50 second 2.0 40 F 1.5 30 1.0 20 0.5 10 0.0 0 3/25/05 3/26/05 3/27/05 3/28/05 3/29/05 3/30/05 3/31/05 4/1/05  Tile flow began before surface flow  Relative volumes of water flowing in surface and tile were similar for this snowmelt period
    8. 8. Tile flow periods
    9. 9. Efficiency of tile water removal
    10. 10. Water Budget Percentage of total precipitation leaving the landscape as surface water Farm A Farm B Farm CSurface runoff 10% 6% 9% Tile flow 24% 16% 16%
    11. 11. Surface & tile sediment loss
    12. 12. Surface & tile phosphorus loss
    13. 13. Surface & tile nitrogen loss
    14. 14. Surface & tile loss timing Sediment Surface Tile Frozen Non-frozen Frozen Non-frozenFarm A 16% 84% 34% 66%Farm B 34% 66% 22% 78%Farm C 3% 97% 37% 63% Total Phosphorus Surface Tile Frozen Non-frozen Frozen Non-frozenFarm A 37% 63% 52% 48%Farm B 36% 64% 41% 59%Farm C 21% 79% 33% 67% Total Nitrogen Surface Tile Frozen Non-frozen Frozen Non-frozenFarm A 57% 43% 52% 48%Farm B 42% 58% 46% 54%Farm C 16% 84% 24% 76%
    15. 15. Nutrient loss timing and speciation Phosphorus Speciation Surface Tile Particulate Dissolved Particulate DissolvedFarm A 73% 27% 46% 54%Farm B 13% 87% 54% 46%Farm C 18% 82% 23% 77% Nitrogen Speciation Surface Tile Nitrate Ammonium Organic Nitrate Ammonium OrganicFarm A 45% 18% 37% 93% 2% 5%Farm B 20% 38% 41% 50% 18% 32%Farm C 22% 17% 61% 94% 1% 5%
    16. 16. Environmental Risks of Tiles - Macropores -Preferential flow 0-  Earthworm burrows 1-  Root channels 2-  Shrinkage cracks Dyed Dyed Burrows Burrow 3-  Structural porosity Credit: John Panuska
    17. 17. Soil drying and crack formation
    18. 18. Factors Influencing ManureContamination of Tile Lines Consistency of manure:  0-2% solids: high risk  2-5% solids: moderate risk  > 5% solids: low risk Application rate Tillage / manure incorporation Soil moisture content / tiles flowing Frozen soils
    19. 19. Take home points Tile drains can flow up to 365 days a year, even during frozen ground conditions Tile drainage can deliver the majority of water and total nitrogen leaving agricultural fields and can also deliver significant sediment and phosphorus Good manure and fertilizer management is critical to reduce the loss of nutrients in tile drained landscapes
    20. 20. www.uwdiscoveryfarms.org

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