Communication “the lubricant of organizations…” The art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily understand and/or accept Using symbols (words) to attempt to create shared meaning (mutual understanding) that will result in an effect on the two of them. Mubarak
The objective approach suggests that an organization is a physical, concrete thing, that it is tangible and actually holds people, relationships, and goals. (container view of organization)
A subjective approach looks at an organization as activities that people do. Organization consists of the actions, interactions, and transactions in which people engage. Organization is created and maintained through the continually changing contacts people have with one another and does not exist separately from the people whose behavior constitutes the organization.
Definition of Organizational Communication: A program that focuses on general communication processes and dynamics within organizations. Includes instruction in the development and maintenance of interpersonal group relations within organizations; decision-making and conflict management; the use of symbols to create and maintain organizational images, missions, and values; power and politics within organizations; human interaction with computer technology; and how communications socializes and supports employees and team members. (source: U. S. Department of Education) Mubarak
The Communication Process Noise Decodes Decodes Channel Receiver Sender Encodes Encodes Feedback Mubarak
Historical Trend Views can be Categorized Org .communication as one aspect of organization Example of Drenth et al (1998) “ The sending and receiving of message by means of symbols and see org. communication as key element of org .climate.” 2. As underlying basis of organization itself Example of Myers and Myers (1982) “ The central binding force that permits coordination among people and thus allows for organized behavior.” Example of Rogers and Rogers ( 1976) “ The behavior of individuals in org. is best understood from communication point of view.” Mubarak
Continue Organizations evolved in such a directions that make latter view more important. Changing an organizations confronts have make org comm important to over all organizational functions. Mubarak
Span of Organizational Communication Highly diverse and fragmented (Patches) Key distinctions with respect to org. communication involve i. Formal Vs informal ii. Directional (Vertical, Horizontal, Diagonal) iii. Levels iv. Internal vs external focus Mubarak
Communication through officially designated channels of message flow between organization positions
Official information exchange
Usually found in organizational charts, policy manuals, or hierarchical structures
Episodes of interaction that do not reflect officially designated channels of communication.
is inherent and even a necessary aspect of organization life.
Pro: Creates a relaxed, comfortable climate
Directional Communication Vertical i. Downward ii. Upward Horizontal Diagonal Diagonal Downward Upward Lateral Mubarak
Occurs between the hierarchically positioned persons
Status and power are not equal among participants in vertical communication
The flow of information both up and down the chain of command
Downward comm is more prevalent than upward
Recognized as official
Downward Comm is most effective if top managers communicate directly with supervisors and supervisors communicate with their staff (Larkin & Larkin: 1994)
flows from upper to lower (such as manager to employer or superior to subordinate).
Types of messages: job instructions, job rationales, procedures and practices information, feedback, and indoctrination. (Katz & Kahn, 1978)
Pro- efficient (fast) Con- managerial control
lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important
filtering - some information is left out
message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation
the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information will be lost or distorted
International Association of BusinessCommunication, Survey 32,000 Employees
higher satisfaction with downward communication:
71 percent reported that their organization tried to keep employees well informed.
65 percent agreed that they had been given sufficient information to perform their jobs.
51 percent agreed that their organization’s downward communication was candid (honest) and accurate.
Found employees want to hear more organizational news from top executives
Level of certainty (Jablin 1980) Top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors; Immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports; and On issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. Mubarak
Upward Communication Transmission of messages from lower to higher levels of the organization ( comm initiated by subordinates with their superiors) Types of messages: performance on the job, job related problems, fellow employees and their problems, subordinates perceptions of org policies and practices, tasks and procedures Pro: managers learn what’s going on employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward promotes morale among all employees facilitates downward communication Con: not enough superiors encourage subordinate Problems similar to those for downward communication Mubarak
Employee satisfaction with upward communication tends to be lower than their satisfaction with downward communication (Gibson 1985) management-based reasons
strategies often do not involve two-way communication.
are not packaged well
Fear of reprisal – afraid to speak their minds
Filters – ideas/concerns are modified as they get transmitted upward
Time – managers give the impression that they don’t have the time to listen to employees.
Horizontal Communication Flow of messages across functional areas at a given level of an organization (this permits people at the same level to comm directly).
The flow of information between colleagues and peers
Trend of flatten org have enhance its importance
Does not follow the chain of command
Not recognized as official
Pro: direct contact among managers Integrate roles, task forces, and project teams management information systems create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation facilitates problem solving Con: Not efficient (time consuming) Mubarak
Communication that cuts across both work areas (functions) and organizational levels.
in the interest of efficiency and speed.
Important when members cannot communicate through upward, downward, or horizontal channels.
COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BRAIN: Our brain is a collection of separate parts that must learn to work together. To help explain this, neurophysiologist, Dr. Paul Maclean, who heads the federal government laboratory of brain evolution, has developed the concept of an evolutionary "triune" brain structure in his revolutionary book, The Triune Brain in Evolution. Mubarak
5-Steps of Communication Identify your Purpose; Analyze Your Audience. Choose Your Idea. Collect data to support your Idea. Organize your Message. Mubarak
Levels Of Communication Communication is frequently divided into following levels Interpersonal communication Group level communication Organizational level communication Inter-organizational level communication Mass communication (information to lots of people at once ) Mubarak
Internal Vs External Communication
Internal communication involves the communication that exists within a company and can take many forms. Key to the success of an organization is communication from within. In order to effectively engage in two-way symmetrical relations, (the goal of public relations practitioners), communication is essential internally.
External communication covers how a provider interacts with those outside their own organization. This may be with the public, employers, community organizations, local authorities, job centers, careers offices, funding bodies, specialist agencies and other training providers.
Communication Networks Sets of employees who have stable contact through which information is generated and transmitted. Types of Communication networks Chain Network Communication flows according to the formal chain of command, both upward and downward Wheel Network All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group All-Channel Network Communication flows freely among all members of the work team Mubarak
Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria Chain Wheel All-Channel Criteria Moderate Speed Fast Fast High Accuracy High Moderate Moderate Emergence of leader High None Moderate Member satisfaction Low High Mubarak
Grapevine The Social network of informal communication through which messages flow throughout the organization.
helps people to interpret the organization
conveys information that the formal system leaves unsaid
“When the grapevine allows employees to know about a management decision almost before it is made, management must be doing something right.” Mubarak
One Way Vs Two Way Communication Person A Person B 3. Communication channel Sender 1. Intended meaning 2. Encoding Receiver 4. Decoding 5. Perceived meaning 10. Intended meaning 9. Decoding (receiver) Sender 6. Intended meaning 7. Encoding 8. Communication channel Two-way communication if B sends feedback to A One-way communication Mubarak
Barriers to Organizational Communication
Lack of Subject Knowledge
Ambiguous, Muddled Messages
Semantics(The study of language with special concern for the meanings of words and other symbols.)
Failing to Communicate /Loss of Transmission
Hesitation to be candid
The message is delivered to the wrong audience
Unreliable transmission (due to noise or inconsistent sending)
Misreading non-verbal elements
Avoiding non-verbal elements
Cultural, Linguistic, and Diversity Barriers
Not Listening/Selective hearing
Lack of basic communication skills.
Psychological Barriers Perception Selectivity/exposure filtering out of unpleasant things and focusing on or recalling things not heard. Retention filtering of things that feel good, and the tendency to forget those things that are painful. Experiential Barriers The difficulty in understanding things not personally experienced. Emotions Communication can involve tension, fear , anger and other emotions and can hamper ability to speak clearly Emotions influence both what is said and what is heard. Never blame someone else for a problem Defensiveness Adjustments people make to avoid acknowledging personal inadequacies that might reduce their self-esteem Mubarak
With increased use of e-mail, managers substitute face-to-face communication with e-mail
Communication Objective Guidelines
Bulletin board notices
Effectiveness of Communication Related to timing Related to choice of channel Related to message structure Related to delivery style Related to mode Mubarak
Requisites for a promotable Executive Ability to Communicate Ambition- Drive College Education Sound Decision Making Skills Good Appearance Ability to get things done with and through people. Capacity for Hard work Mubarak
7 Csin Communication/5Cs in verbal and 7 in written Completeness Conciseness Consideration Concreteness Clarity Courtesy Correctness Mubarak
Completeness Provide all necessary information. Answer all questions asked. Give something extra, when desirable. Mubarak
Conciseness Eliminate wordy expressions. Include only relevant material. Avoid unnecessary repetition. Mubarak
Consideration Focus on ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘we’. Show audience benefit or interest in receiver. Emphasize positive ,pleasant facts. Mubarak
Concreteness Use specific facts and figures. Put actions in your verbs. Choose vivid, image building words. Mubarak
Clarity Choose precise, concrete and familiar words. Construct effective sentences, and paragraph. Mubarak
Courtesy Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative. Use expressions that show respect. Choose non discriminatory expressions. Mubarak
Correctness Use the right level of language. Check accuracy of figures, facts and words. Maintain acceptable writing mechanics. Mubarak
Person to person communication in organization Male to male. Male to female. Female to female. Female to male. Mubarak
Male to male. More formal. Relevant to job. Mubarak
Male to female. Sympathetic. Relevant to job. Mubarak
More social. Less relevant to job. Female to female. Mubarak
Female to male. More courteous. More relevant to job. Mubarak
Good communication is stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after. Anne Morrow: American Writer and aviation pioneer (1906-2001) Mubarak