177900 633758259289737500
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

177900 633758259289737500

on

  • 2,475 views

hhkjh

hhkjh

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,475
Views on SlideShare
2,475
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
76
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    177900 633758259289737500 177900 633758259289737500 Presentation Transcript

    • ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION.By Mubarak hussain
      Mubarak
    • Communication
      “the lubricant of organizations…”
      The art of being able to structure and transmit a message in a way that another can easily understand and/or accept
      Using symbols (words) to attempt to create shared meaning (mutual understanding) that will result in an effect on the two of them.
      Mubarak
    • Organization
      • The objective approach suggests that an organization is a physical, concrete thing, that it is tangible and actually holds people, relationships, and goals. (container view of organization)
      • A subjective approach looks at an organization as activities that people do. Organization consists of the actions, interactions, and transactions in which people engage. Organization is created and maintained through the continually changing contacts people have with one another and does not exist separately from the people whose behavior constitutes the organization.
      Mubarak
    • Definition of Organizational Communication:
      A program that focuses on general communication processes and dynamics within organizations. Includes instruction in the development and maintenance of interpersonal group relations within organizations; decision-making and conflict management; the use of symbols to create and maintain organizational images, missions, and values; power and politics within organizations; human interaction with computer technology; and how communications socializes and supports employees and team members.  (source: U. S. Department of Education)
      Mubarak
    • The Communication Process
      Noise
      Decodes
      Decodes
      Channel
      Receiver
      Sender
      Encodes
      Encodes
      Feedback
      Mubarak
    • Historical Trend Views can be Categorized
      Org .communication as one aspect of organization
      Example of Drenth et al (1998)
      “ The sending and receiving of message by means of symbols and see org. communication as key element of org .climate.”
      2. As underlying basis of organization itself
      Example of Myers and Myers (1982)
      “ The central binding force that permits coordination among people and thus allows for organized behavior.”
      Example of Rogers and Rogers ( 1976)
      “ The behavior of individuals in org. is best understood from communication point of view.”
      Mubarak
    • Continue
      Organizations evolved in such a directions that make latter view more important. Changing an organizations confronts have make org comm important to over all organizational functions.
      Mubarak
    • Span of Organizational Communication
      Highly diverse and fragmented (Patches)
      Key distinctions with respect to org. communication involve
      i. Formal Vs informal
      ii. Directional (Vertical, Horizontal, Diagonal)
      iii. Levels
      iv. Internal vs external focus
      Mubarak
    • Formal Communication
      • Communication through officially designated channels of message flow between organization positions
      • Official information exchange
      • Usually found in organizational charts, policy manuals, or hierarchical structures
      Informal Communication
      • Episodes of interaction that do not reflect officially designated channels of communication.
      • is inherent and even a necessary aspect of organization life.
      • Pro: Creates a relaxed, comfortable climate
      Mubarak
    • Directional Communication
      Vertical
      i. Downward
      ii. Upward
      Horizontal
      Diagonal
      Diagonal
      Downward
      Upward
      Lateral
      Mubarak
    • Vertical Communication
      • Occurs between the hierarchically positioned persons
      • Status and power are not equal among participants in vertical communication
      • The flow of information both up and down the chain of command
      • Downward comm is more prevalent than upward
      • Formal communication
      • Recognized as official
      • Downward Comm is most effective if top managers communicate directly with supervisors and supervisors communicate with their staff (Larkin & Larkin: 1994)
      Mubarak
    • Downward Communication
      • flows from upper to lower (such as manager to employer or superior to subordinate).
      • Types of messages: job instructions, job rationales, procedures and practices information, feedback, and indoctrination. (Katz & Kahn, 1978)
      • Pro- efficient (fast) Con- managerial control
      • Problems:
      • information overload
      • lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important
      • filtering - some information is left out
      • message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation
      • the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information will be lost or distorted
      Mubarak
    • International Association of BusinessCommunication, Survey 32,000 Employees
      • higher satisfaction with downward communication:
      • 71 percent reported that their organization tried to keep employees well informed.
      • 65 percent agreed that they had been given sufficient information to perform their jobs.
      • 51 percent agreed that their organization’s downward communication was candid (honest) and accurate.
      • Found employees want to hear more organizational news from top executives
      Mubarak
    • Level of certainty (Jablin 1980)
      Top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors;
      Immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports; and
      On issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly.
      Mubarak
    • Upward Communication
      Transmission of messages from lower to higher levels of the organization ( comm initiated by subordinates with their superiors)
      Types of messages: performance on the job, job related problems, fellow employees and their problems, subordinates perceptions of org policies and practices, tasks and procedures
      Pro: managers learn what’s going on
      employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward
      promotes morale among all employees
      facilitates downward communication
      Con: not enough superiors encourage subordinate
      Problems similar to those for downward communication
      Mubarak
    • Employee satisfaction with upward communication tends to be lower than their satisfaction with downward communication (Gibson 1985)
      management-based reasons
      • strategies often do not involve two-way communication.
      • are not packaged well
      employee-based reasons
      • Fear of reprisal – afraid to speak their minds
      • Filters – ideas/concerns are modified as they get transmitted upward
      • Time – managers give the impression that they don’t have the time to listen to employees.
      Mubarak
    • Horizontal Communication
      Flow of messages across functional areas at a given level of an organization (this permits people at the same level to comm directly).
      • The flow of information between colleagues and peers
      • Trend of flatten org have enhance its importance
      • Informal communication
      • Does not follow the chain of command
      • Not recognized as official
      Mubarak
    • Pro: direct contact among managers
      Integrate roles, task forces, and project teams
      management information systems
      create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation
      facilitates problem solving
      Con: Not efficient (time consuming)
      Mubarak
    • Diagonal Communication
      • Communication that cuts across both work areas (functions) and organizational levels.
      • in the interest of efficiency and speed.
      • Important when members cannot communicate through upward, downward, or horizontal channels.
      Mubarak
    • COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE BRAIN: 
      Our brain is a collection of separate parts that must learn to work together. To help explain this, neurophysiologist, Dr. Paul Maclean, who heads the federal government laboratory of brain evolution, has developed the concept of an evolutionary "triune" brain structure in his revolutionary book, The Triune Brain in Evolution.
      Mubarak
    • 5-Steps of Communication
      Identify your Purpose;
      Analyze Your Audience.
      Choose Your Idea.
      Collect data to support your Idea.
      Organize your Message.
      Mubarak
    • Levels Of Communication
      Communication is frequently divided into following levels
      Interpersonal communication
      Group level communication
      Organizational level communication
      Inter-organizational level communication
      Mass communication (information to lots of people at once )
      Mubarak
    • Internal Vs External Communication
      • Internal communication involves the communication that exists within a company and can take many forms. Key to the success of an organization is communication from within. In order to effectively engage in two-way symmetrical relations, (the goal of public relations practitioners), communication is essential internally.
      • External communication covers how a provider interacts with those outside their own organization. This may be with the public, employers, community organizations, local authorities, job centers, careers offices, funding bodies, specialist agencies and other training providers.
      Mubarak
    • Communication Networks
      Sets of employees who have stable contact through which information is generated and transmitted.
      Types of Communication networks
      Chain Network
      Communication flows according to the formal
      chain of command, both upward and downward
      Wheel Network
      All communication flows in and out through the group leader (hub) to others in the group
      All-Channel Network
      Communication flows freely among all members of the work team
      Mubarak
    • Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria
      Chain
      Wheel
      All-Channel
      Criteria
      Moderate
      Speed
      Fast
      Fast
      High
      Accuracy
      High
      Moderate
      Moderate
      Emergence of leader
      High
      None
      Moderate
      Member satisfaction
      Low
      High
      Mubarak
    • Grapevine
      The Social network of informal communication through which messages flow throughout the organization.
      • helps people to interpret the organization
      • conveys information that the formal system leaves unsaid
      “When the grapevine allows employees to know about a management decision almost before it is made, management must be doing something right.”
      Mubarak
    • One Way Vs Two Way Communication
      Person A
      Person B
      3.
      Communication
      channel
      Sender
      1. Intended meaning
      2. Encoding
      Receiver
      4. Decoding
      5. Perceived meaning
      10. Intended meaning
      9. Decoding
      (receiver)
      Sender
      6. Intended meaning
      7. Encoding
      8. Communication
      channel
      Two-way
      communication
      if B sends
      feedback to A
      One-way
      communication
      Mubarak
    • Barriers to Organizational Communication
      • Physical Barriers
      • Distortion
      • Lack of Subject Knowledge
      • Ambiguous, Muddled Messages
      • Semantics(The study of language with special concern for the meanings of words and other symbols.)
      • Rumors
      • Stress
      • Information overload
      • Failing to Communicate /Loss of Transmission
      • Hesitation to be candid
      • Narrow viewpoints
      • The message is delivered to the wrong audience
      Mubarak
    • Cont..
      • Unreliable transmission (due to noise or inconsistent sending)
      • Misreading non-verbal elements
      • Avoiding non-verbal elements
      • Status differences
      • Distorted perception 
      • Organizational culture
      • Slowed communications
      • Boundary differences
      • Cultural, Linguistic, and Diversity Barriers
      • Not Listening/Selective hearing
      • Lack of basic communication skills.
      Mubarak
    • Psychological Barriers
      Perception
      Selectivity/exposure filtering out of unpleasant things and focusing on or recalling things not heard.
      Retention filtering of things that feel good, and the tendency to forget those things that are painful.
      Experiential Barriers
      The difficulty in understanding things not personally experienced.
      Emotions
      Communication can involve tension, fear , anger and other emotions and can hamper ability to speak clearly
      Emotions influence both what is said and what is heard.
      Never blame someone else for a problem
      Defensiveness
      Adjustments people make to avoid acknowledging personal inadequacies that might reduce their self-esteem
      Mubarak
    • Written communication
      • With increased use of e-mail, managers substitute face-to-face communication with e-mail
      • Communication Objective Guidelines
      • Memos
      • Letters
      • Reports
      • Bulletin board notices
      • Posters
      • Computers/e-mail
      • Fax
      Mubarak
    • Effectiveness of Communication
      Related to timing
      Related to choice of channel
      Related to message structure
      Related to delivery style
      Related to mode
      Mubarak
    • Requisites for a promotable Executive
      Ability to Communicate
      Ambition- Drive
      College Education
      Sound Decision Making Skills
      Good Appearance
      Ability to get things done with and through people.
      Capacity for Hard work
      Mubarak
    • 7 Csin Communication/5Cs in verbal and 7 in written
      Completeness
      Conciseness
      Consideration
      Concreteness
      Clarity
      Courtesy
      Correctness
      Mubarak
    • Completeness
      Provide all necessary information.
      Answer all questions asked.
      Give something extra, when desirable.
      Mubarak
    • Conciseness
      Eliminate wordy expressions.
      Include only relevant material.
      Avoid unnecessary repetition.
      Mubarak
    • Consideration
      Focus on ‘you’ instead of ‘I’ or ‘we’.
      Show audience benefit or interest in receiver.
      Emphasize positive ,pleasant facts.
      Mubarak
    • Concreteness
      Use specific facts and figures.
      Put actions in your verbs.
      Choose vivid, image building words.
      Mubarak
    • Clarity
      Choose precise, concrete and familiar words.
      Construct effective sentences, and paragraph.
      Mubarak
    • Courtesy
      Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful, and appreciative.
      Use expressions that show respect.
      Choose non discriminatory expressions.
      Mubarak
    • Correctness
      Use the right level of language.
      Check accuracy of figures, facts and words.
      Maintain acceptable writing mechanics.
      Mubarak
    • Person to person communication in organization
      Male to male.
      Male to female.
      Female to female.
      Female to male.
      Mubarak
    • Male to male.
      More formal.
      Relevant to job.
      Mubarak
    • Male to female.
      Sympathetic.
      Relevant to job.
      Mubarak
    • More social.
      Less relevant to job.
      Female to female.
      Mubarak
    • Female to male.
      More courteous.
      More relevant to job.
      Mubarak
    • Good communication is stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after.
      Anne Morrow: American Writer and aviation pioneer (1906-2001)
      Mubarak
    • Communicate positively and truly.
      Thanks
      Mubarak