Water:  Our Life Force <ul><li>75% of most living organisms are made up of water </li></ul>
Water   <ul><li>What does water do? </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Nourishes and supports life </li>...
Water   <ul><li>The global distribution of water: </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the planet is water </li></ul><ul><li>Of this t...
 
Think about how pitched roofs shed water…
Watershed Patterns in the Desert Southwest
<ul><li>Branching patterns abound in and around us </li></ul><ul><li>We are intimately linked with nature…  </li></ul><ul>...
Some Startling Numbers <ul><li>31 countries are now facing water scarcity & 1 billion people lack access to clean drinking...
Combined Sewer Overflows
Drought <ul><li>Much irrigation (especially overhead) used on farms evaporates, and does not infiltrate the soil </li></ul...
Drought Evapotranspiration
Water and Efficiency <ul><li>Water weighs 8 lbs/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity is needed to pump water up from deep ...
Guidelines  for Water Harvesting <ul><li>Start at the top of a watershed and work down (it’s easier to make small adjustme...
Techniques:  Catching, Storing, & Using Water Swales Rain Gardens Roof Catchment Infiltration & Soil Storage Keyline Desig...
<ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><li>Convex shapes in the landform sheds water (crowns on roads) </li></ul><ul><li>Concave shap...
Contours Digging swales (or narrow trenches) on contour catches uphill water and allows it to sink in to the ground are po...
Swales on Contour <ul><li>Recharge groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down drainage and prevents erosion </li></ul><ul><li...
Swale   cross-section Water flowing from uphill, collecting in the swale
Rain Gardens
Rain Gardens
Roof Catchment <ul><li>Roofs are a wonderful resource with expansive surface area for catching rain water </li></ul><ul><l...
Multi-Barrel System
Above and below ground cisterns capture and store greater volumes of water
 
 
Storing Water in Soil <ul><li>Soil is made of organic material, minerals, air, water, and micro-organisms </li></ul><ul><l...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Water lecture

358

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
358
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Ask class; what does water do? And put on board…
  • What percentage of earth is water? What percentae is salty? How much is locked up in ice? Underground?
  • Groundwater feeds rivers when it is not raining Rivers are needed for many functions (habitat, irrigation, recreation) Therefore, we can make designs that encourage the infiltration of water into ground reserves in order to keep rivers flowing consistently while preventing periodic floods
  • Drainage Water flows from source to sink Goal: to slow water down and infiltrate it (this is what natural systems do!—forest, canopy, debris) Permaculture mantra: “ Slow it, Spread it, Sink it” Watersheds Definition: an area of land that drains into a common water body Watersheds follow the branch pattern (function is to distribute and collect) The landform/topography dictates the drainage patterns
  • During storm events in older cities with outdated piping systems, the stormwater runoff that enters the storm drain combines with the sewer drain, overwhelms the system, and the overflow is managed by dumping raw sewage into the nearest river
  • Areas inland from the coasts receive rain from the evapotranspiration of trees (oaks, for instance, evapotranspire 80 gallons of water a day); when forests are cut down, drought conditions increase
  • Obtain a yield; Catch and store energy
  • (Keyline and Greywater are discussed in later sessions in the course)
  • CSO’s
  • Soil dug out for swale is bermed up on the left and planted with edible trees and shrubs; water collected in swale passively irrigates crops
  • First a geo-textile fabric lines the depression, then large gravel followed by crushed gravel, ending with a growing substrate Then, species that can tolerate wet and dry conditions are planted A perforated underground pipe helps with overflow SOME EXAMPLES OF PLANTS THAT DO WELL IN A RAIN GARDEN?
  • Water can be stored in the soil because it has a vast amount of space and it is an affordable, and easily accessible for growing GREENING THE DESERT
  • Water lecture

    1. 1. Water: Our Life Force <ul><li>75% of most living organisms are made up of water </li></ul>
    2. 2. Water <ul><li>What does water do? </li></ul><ul><li>Shapes the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Nourishes and supports life </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates climate (with its high specific temperature) </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolves minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigates crops and wild food plants </li></ul><ul><li>Provides hydro-energy sources </li></ul><ul><li>Is used in homes, for recreation, and travel </li></ul><ul><li>Creates wildlife habitat </li></ul>
    3. 3. Water <ul><li>The global distribution of water: </li></ul><ul><li>70% of the planet is water </li></ul><ul><li>Of this total water, 97% is saline or salty </li></ul><ul><li>Of this total water, 75% is locked up in ice and 13.5% is deep under the ground in aquifers </li></ul><ul><li>This leaves us with only 1/8% of fresh available water! </li></ul><ul><li>How can we develop a stewardship approach to managing water: our precious life source? </li></ul>
    4. 5. Think about how pitched roofs shed water…
    5. 6. Watershed Patterns in the Desert Southwest
    6. 7. <ul><li>Branching patterns abound in and around us </li></ul><ul><li>We are intimately linked with nature… </li></ul><ul><li>“ We are nature working” </li></ul><ul><li> -Penny Livingston Stark </li></ul>
    7. 8. Some Startling Numbers <ul><li>31 countries are now facing water scarcity & 1 billion people lack access to clean drinking water - United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>The World Bank estimates that by 2025, 2/3 of the world's population will suffer from lack of clean and safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Five million deaths a year are caused by polluted drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>37% of rivers and streams in the US are unfishable/ un-swimmable and 50% of lakes and ponds </li></ul>
    8. 9. Combined Sewer Overflows
    9. 10. Drought <ul><li>Much irrigation (especially overhead) used on farms evaporates, and does not infiltrate the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy machinery used in row-cropping also compacts soil and prevents infiltration </li></ul><ul><li>In the desert southwest, where lands have been de-forested, there is not enough moisture in the air to decompose felled trees; plants cannot re-grow and soil remains dry </li></ul>
    10. 11. Drought Evapotranspiration
    11. 12. Water and Efficiency <ul><li>Water weighs 8 lbs/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity is needed to pump water up from deep in wells (expensive in terms of time and money) </li></ul><ul><li>Alternately, water can be stored in a place where it can be moved and used freely, without the need for expensive to maintain and operate equipment </li></ul><ul><li>By using gravity, and catching water up high whether by pond, swale, cistern, or rain barrel, water can be used as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Tapping artesian wells and springs eliminates the need to drill or pump </li></ul><ul><li>Waterways offer channels of transportation </li></ul>
    12. 13. Guidelines for Water Harvesting <ul><li>Start at the top of a watershed and work down (it’s easier to make small adjustments up top rather than energy-intensive levees downstream…try to avoid “end of the tail-pipe” solutions) </li></ul><ul><li>Start small and simple with long, thoughtful observation </li></ul><ul><li>Plan an overflow route and manage the water as a resource </li></ul><ul><li>Spread and infiltrate the flow of water </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize living, organic ground cover (like clover, vetch, rye) </li></ul><ul><li>Continually reassess your system </li></ul>
    13. 14. Techniques: Catching, Storing, & Using Water Swales Rain Gardens Roof Catchment Infiltration & Soil Storage Keyline Design: Earthworks & Ponds Greywater Systems
    14. 15. <ul><li>NOTE: </li></ul><ul><li>Convex shapes in the landform sheds water (crowns on roads) </li></ul><ul><li>Concave shapes capture water (reservoirs) </li></ul>Concave Convex
    15. 16. Contours Digging swales (or narrow trenches) on contour catches uphill water and allows it to sink in to the ground are points of equal elevation on the landscape; contour lines connect these points
    16. 17. Swales on Contour <ul><li>Recharge groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Slow down drainage and prevents erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Passively irrigates crops </li></ul><ul><li>Filters water before it enters the aquifer </li></ul>Vegetated Swale at Truckee Meadows, NV: Capturing and using water in the desert
    17. 18. Swale cross-section Water flowing from uphill, collecting in the swale
    18. 19. Rain Gardens
    19. 20. Rain Gardens
    20. 21. Roof Catchment <ul><li>Roofs are a wonderful resource with expansive surface area for catching rain water </li></ul><ul><li>1 square foot of surface with 1” of rainfall=5/8 of a gallon of water </li></ul><ul><li>Downspout disconnection allows water to be captured </li></ul><ul><li>A ceramic or sand filter is necessary for drinking rain water </li></ul><ul><li>Often, rainwater is used for irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>A “first flush” is necessary for first 3 minutes of a storm event—to avoid chemicals and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate an overflow mechanism </li></ul>
    21. 22. Multi-Barrel System
    22. 23. Above and below ground cisterns capture and store greater volumes of water
    23. 26. Storing Water in Soil <ul><li>Soil is made of organic material, minerals, air, water, and micro-organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Creating more humus (spongy decaying debris) builds soil and increases overall water security </li></ul><ul><li>Water can infiltrate humus and soil that is aerated and loose </li></ul><ul><li>Mulch stores water more efficiently than exposed soil </li></ul><ul><li>Porous space in soil can be created by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>earthworms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animals like moles and gophers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decaying roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broad forks (see image) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plows and rototillers (although these can compact soil and harm delicate soil web) </li></ul></ul>
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×