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التغدية عند الانسان والحيوان
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التغدية عند الانسان والحيوان

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التغدية عند الانسان والحيوان التغدية عند الانسان والحيوان Document Transcript

  • ‫ان‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐذﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻘدﻤﺔ‬‫ﻫذﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻘﺴم‬ . ‫اض‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫وﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤو‬‫و‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟطﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫أﺠﺴﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘزوﻴد‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨوﻋﺔ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻬﻠك‬:‫ﻤﺠﻤوﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﺜﻼث‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻤﺼدر‬ ‫ﺤﺴب‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬‫اﻷﻋﺸﺎب‬‫و‬ ‫اﻛﻪ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻔ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺒوب‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻀر‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ -. ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻴب‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴض‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻠﺤوم‬ ‫وﻫﻲ‬ ‫اﻨﻲ‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫أﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ -‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺼﻨﺎف‬: ‫أﺼﻨﺎف‬ ‫ﺜﻼث‬ ‫اﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻨظﺎﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴب‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻘﺴم‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬.... ‫اﻟﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫و‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺴﺎﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐذى‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺸﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫-ﺤﻴ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺴﻨو‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺘرﺴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻻﺤﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﺒ‬ ‫وﻫﻲ‬ ‫اﻨﻴﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺴﺎﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐذى‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫و‬ -.... ‫اﺴر‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻛ‬.... ‫ﻴر‬‫ز‬‫اﻟﺨﻨ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﺘﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻗﺎ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫وﻫﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻐذى‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫وﺤﻴ‬ -‫اﻷﺴﻤﺎك‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻤﻌدﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺢ‬‫ر‬‫ﺘﺸ‬ ‫أو‬ ، ‫ﻴﺘﻐذى‬ ‫وﻫﻲ‬ ‫اﻗﺒﺘﻪ‬‫ر‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻴﺠب‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ات‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌرف‬‫اﻷﻨظﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺘﻌرف‬ ‫ذﻟك‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ، ‫أﺴﻨﺎﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺎﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﺤظﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ، ‫ﻓﻀﻼﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺤض‬ ‫أو‬. ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫اﻟدﻴﻨﺎﺼو‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻘرﻀﺔ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻴﺔ‬‫؟‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻨﻀﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠف‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌص‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎﻫﻲ‬
  • 1‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎرت‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌص‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻫﻲ‬ -‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬‫اﻟﻐذاء‬ ‫إﺴﺘﻬﻼك‬ -‫أ‬‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌددة‬ ‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤﻝ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻼﻓﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺨذ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻴدﻴﻪ‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻝ‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻴﻘطﻊ‬ . .... ‫اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻔﺘﻴن‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻴﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺨرطوم‬. ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻀ‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﻴﺴﺤق‬ ‫ﻴطﺤن‬ ‫ﺜم‬ ، ‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻘ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺘوﺠد‬ ‫ﻛروي‬ ‫ﺸﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻹﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻷإﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻴﻘوم‬‫اﻟﻌﻀﻼت‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠوﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻼت‬ ‫وﻗوم‬ ، ‫اﻹﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻌر‬ ‫ﺘﺠوﻴف‬. ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻴك‬‫ر‬‫ﺒﺘﺤ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻐﺔ‬
  • ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻛروﻴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻀﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻼت‬ ‫ﺘﻤوﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴن‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤوذج‬‫اﻟﺒﺎﻟﻎ‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫وﻋدد‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬ -‫ب‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬‫ﺸﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫دور‬‫ﻋددﻫﺎ‬‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻘ‬‫ﺠذر‬ ‫ذات‬‫ﻗﺎطﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺤد‬‫و‬‫وﺤﺎدة‬‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗطﻊ‬4‫اﻟﻌﻠوى‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬4‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻷﻨﻴﺎب‬‫ﺤﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺤد‬‫و‬ ‫ﺠذر‬ ‫ذات‬‫وﺜﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫرﻤﻴﺔ‬‫اﻷﻏذﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴق‬‫ز‬‫ﺘﻤ‬2----------2-----------‫اس‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻀ‬‫اﻷﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬‫اﺤدأو‬‫و‬ ‫ﺠذر‬ ‫ذات‬‫ﺘﺤﻤﻝ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴن‬‫ر‬‫ﺠذ‬‫ﺤدﺒﺘﻴن‬‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺴﺤق‬ ‫طﺤن‬4----------4--------
  • ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻀ‬‫اﻟطﺎﺤﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤن‬ ‫أﻛﺜر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬‫ﺘﺤﻤﻝ‬ ‫ﻴن‬‫ر‬‫ﺠذ‬‫ﺤدﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻋدة‬‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺴﺤق‬ ‫طﺤن‬6------------6----------‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻋدد‬ : ‫وﻫﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫أﻋداد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜﻝ‬. ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻨﺼف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﻋدد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠوي‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻨﺼف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬: ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺘد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬2- ‫ق‬1-‫ن‬2-‫أ‬ ‫ض‬3(‫أﻤﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫أﻀ‬ = ‫أ‬ ‫ض‬ - ‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫ﻗ‬ =‫ق‬ ) ‫خ‬ ‫ض‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ع‬‫ﻤﺠو‬ __________________32‫ﺴﻨﺎ‬2- ‫ق‬1-‫ن‬2- ‫أ‬3( ‫ﺨﻠﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫أﻀ‬ = ‫خ‬ ‫ض‬ - ‫أﻨﻴﺎب‬ = ‫ن‬ ) ‫خ‬ ‫ض‬‫ﺘﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻘﺎ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨدﻩ‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎﻟن‬ ‫ﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫اﻨ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺘوﻓر‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨذ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺒدﻝ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﺤﻠﻴب‬ ‫أﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫أوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨدﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺒت‬ ‫ﺜم‬ ‫أﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺒدون‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻴوﻟد‬. ‫ﻨﻬﺎءﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎدﺴﺔ‬
  • ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻨﺒوب‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌص‬ -‫ب‬‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤوﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻀم‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ر‬‫ودو‬ ، ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐدد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻨﺒوب‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻛون‬: ‫ب‬ ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺘد‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻨﺒوب‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻴز‬ . ‫اﻟﺠﺴم‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﻴد‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﺼﻐﻴ‬ ‫ﻴﺌﺎت‬‫ز‬‫ﺠ‬‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺒﺨﻼف‬ ‫اﺤد‬‫و‬ ‫ﺘﺠوﻴف‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫ﻤﻌدة‬ *. ‫اﺤم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻠ‬‫و‬ ‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘوﺴط‬ ‫اﻷﻤﻌﺎء‬ ‫*طوﻝ‬. ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﺼﻐﻴ‬ ‫ﺠد‬ ‫اﺌدة‬‫ز‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أﻋور‬ *
  • ‫اﻹﻨﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬2‫اﻟﻌﺎﺸب‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌص‬ -‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫إﺴﺘﻬﻼك‬ -‫أ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻨب‬‫ر‬‫اﻷ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﺎﺠب‬‫و‬ ‫ان‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔﺌ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ارض‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻘ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬ : ‫ﻏذاﺌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻀم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ ‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤﻝ‬‫اﻟﻔﻴﻝ‬ ‫وﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻝ‬ ، ‫ﺒﻠﺴﺎﻨﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺸب‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﺎن‬‫و‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺘرم‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ . ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻘرض‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠد‬ ‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫ﻗ‬..... ‫ﻏذاﺌﻪ‬ ‫أﺨذ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨرطوﻤم‬‫و‬ ‫ﻴرطب‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻛرش‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺠوﻴف‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺨزن‬ ‫ﻤﻀﻐﻪ‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺸب‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺘﻠﻊ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﻨ‬ ‫اﻨﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻴﻘوم‬ ‫ار‬‫ر‬‫اﻹﺠﺘ‬ ‫أﺜﻨﺎء‬ . ‫ار‬‫ر‬‫اﻹﺠﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫذﻩ‬ ‫وﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻀﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻴدﻩ‬ ‫اﺤﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫أﺜﻨﺎء‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻤر‬‫ﻴﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫ﻛروي‬ ‫ﺸﻛﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺸب‬ ‫وﺴﺤق‬ ‫ﻟطﺤن‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬. ‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺒﺎق‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬
  • . ‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ -‫ب‬‫ة‬‫اﻟﺒﻘر‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺠﻤﺔ‬0- ‫ق‬0- ‫ن‬6‫ض‬‫اﻷﺴﺘﻠن‬ ‫ع‬‫ﻤﺠﻤو‬ _________________32‫ﺴﻨﺎ‬3- ‫ق‬1- ‫ن‬6‫ض‬‫اﻟﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬‫اﻟﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﺠﻤﺔ‬2- ‫ق‬0- ‫ن‬6‫ض‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ع‬‫ﻤﺠﻤو‬ ____________30‫ﺴﻨﺎ‬1- ‫ق‬0- ‫ن‬6‫ض‬. ‫ﻨﺎﻗص‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬ ‫ﻏﻴر‬ ‫ﻋﺘدﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫أﻨﻴﺎب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬
  • ‫ﻤﺎدة‬ ‫وﺠود‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻎ‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻛﺜ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺂﻛﻝ‬ ‫ﺴطﺢ‬ ‫وﺘظﻬر‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺂﻛﻠﺔ‬ ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫اﻷﻀ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻷﻋﺸﺎب‬ ‫ﺘﻘطﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺎدة‬ ‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻘ‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺘﺎﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫طوﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺘﺂﻛﻝ‬ ‫ﻏم‬‫ر‬ . ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺘﺂﻛﻝ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﻤﺴؤوﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﻠﻴس‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻋﺸﺎب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬‫اﺼﻝ‬‫و‬‫ﻤﺘ‬ ‫ﻨﻤو‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ار‬‫ر‬‫ﺒﺈﺴﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤو‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻘص‬3‫اﻻﺤم‬ ‫اﻟﻐذاﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌص‬ -‫ﻴﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻬﻼك‬ٕ‫ا‬‫و‬ ‫ﺼﻴد‬ -‫أ‬‫أﻋﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬ ‫،ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﺌﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﺘﺤدد‬ ‫ﻗوﻴﺔ‬ ‫اس‬‫و‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﺴر‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻛ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺴﻨو‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫اﺤم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬‫أﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻝ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬ ‫ة‬‫ز‬‫أﺠﻬ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﻛب‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﺎرب‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬ . ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻟب‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺼﻴد‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬. ‫ج‬‫اﻟﻠز‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟطوﻴﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﺎﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺴطﺔ‬‫و‬‫ﺒ‬ ‫اﺌﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ر‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﺼطﺎد‬ ‫ﺒﺎء‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺤ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺎدع‬‫ﻻ‬ ‫أﻓﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻌرﻀﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ، ‫ﻓﻘط‬ ‫ﻋﻤودﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻘط‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻝ‬ ‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺴﻨو‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﻴﻘوم‬. ‫ﻋﻤودﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤرﻛﺎت‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺴﻨو‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔﻘ‬ ‫اﺤم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﻐﺔ‬ ‫ب‬. ‫اﻟﻘط‬3– ‫ق‬1-‫ن‬3‫ض‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ع‬‫ﻤﺠﻤو‬ _____________30‫ﺴﻨﺎ‬3- ‫ق‬1-‫ن‬4‫ض‬
  • ‫اطﻊ‬‫و‬‫ﻗ‬ ‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫ﻟﻠﺴﻨو‬ . ‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫اع‬‫و‬‫أﻨ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬ ‫أﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻨظﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔﻘ‬ ‫اﺤم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻠ‬ ‫ﺘﺘوﻓر‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻤﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫اس‬‫ر‬‫اﻀ‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻴﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻴق‬‫ز‬‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺘﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫دور‬ ‫وﺜﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠد‬ ‫أﻨﻴﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫اﻟﻌظﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺸط‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫دور‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﺼﻐﻴ‬. ‫ﻴﺴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤم‬ ‫ﻟﻘطﺢ‬. ‫اﻟﻘط‬ ‫ﻻﺤم‬ ‫ان‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺸب‬ ‫ان‬‫و‬‫ﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻨد‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻀﻤﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻨﺒوب‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﺎرن‬‫اﻟﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﻘط‬‫ئ‬‫اﻟﻤر‬‫ﻗﻴق‬‫ر‬‫ﺴﻤﻴك‬‫اﻟﻤﻌدة‬‫ﻛﺒﻴر‬ ‫ﺤﺠم‬ ‫ذات‬‫ﺼﻐﻴر‬ ‫ﺤﺠم‬‫اﻟدﻗﻴق‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻲ‬‫طوﻴﻠﺔ‬6‫ﺠﺴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫طوﻝ‬ ‫أﻀﻌﺎف‬‫ة‬‫ر‬‫ﻗﺼﻴ‬3‫ﺠﺴﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫طوﻝ‬ ‫أﻀﻌﺎف‬‫اﻷﻋور‬‫ﻨﺎم‬ ‫ﺠد‬‫ﻀﺎﻤر‬ ‫ﺠد‬‫اﻟﻐﻠﻴض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻲ‬‫ﻗﻴق‬‫ر‬ ‫و‬ ‫طوﻴﻝ‬‫وﺴﻤﻴك‬ ‫ﻗﺼﻴر‬
  • ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻌدة‬ ‫ة‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺸﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﺘﺎت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺘﺎز‬4‫ﺘﺠﺎوﻴف‬4‫ﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬ -‫ارت‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻘ‬‫اﺸب‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻌ‬‫اﺤم‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻠ‬‫اﻟﻤﻔﺼﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻤﺔ‬‫ﻛروﻴﺔ‬‫ﻛروﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﻌرﻀﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻔﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔك‬ ‫ﺤرﻛﺎت‬‫اﻹﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎت‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤودﻴﺔ‬‫اﻷﺴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﻨظﺎم‬‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬ ‫ﻏﻴر‬‫ﻛﺎﻤﻝ‬‫اس‬‫ر‬‫أﻀ‬‫ﻤﺤدﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺘﺂﻛﻠﺔ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﻤﻨﺸﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﻲ‬ ‫طوﻝ‬‫ﻤﺘوﺴط‬‫طوﻴﻝ‬‫ﻗﺼﻴر‬3: ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻛﺸف‬ -‫اﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻛوﻨﺎت‬ *‫ﺘﺠﺎرب‬‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‬‫إﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬‫اﻹﺨﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫أﻨﺒوب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻏذاء‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺨﻴن‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎر‬ ‫ﺘﺼﺎﻋد‬‫ﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻤر‬‫اﻟﻐذاء‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻔﺤم‬(‫ﺒوﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫)اﻟﻛ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀوﻴﺔ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫وﺠود‬‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤرق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻤر‬‫رﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬‫اﻟﻤﻌدﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻤﻼح‬ ‫وﺠود‬(‫)اﻟﻌﻀوﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒوﻨﻴﺔ‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻛ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻤ‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌدﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻤﻼح‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘوي‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻛﺸف‬ *‫اﺸف‬‫و‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤﻝ‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻛﺸف‬‫ﺘﺠﺎرب‬‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬‫إﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﺎت‬‫رﺸﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ات‬‫ر‬‫ﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﻨظﻴف‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫ﺘﺤت‬ ‫ﻴﺴود‬ ‫أﺒﻴض‬ ‫اﺴب‬‫ر‬ ‫ظﻬور‬‫اﻟﻀوء‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴر‬‫اﻟﻛﻠورر‬ ‫أﻤﻼح‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﻤوﻨﻴوم‬ ‫أﻛﺴﻼت‬ ‫ﻨظﻴف‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫رﺸﺎﺤﺔ‬‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺒﻴض‬ ‫اﺴب‬‫ر‬ ‫ظﻬور‬‫ﻤن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫اﻟﻛﻠﺴﻴوم‬ ‫أﻤﻼح‬‫رﺸﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻠﻴﻨﻎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻠوﻝ‬ ‫ﻨظﻴف‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫أﺠوى‬ ‫أﺤﻤر‬ ‫اﺴب‬‫ر‬ ‫ظﻬور‬‫اﻟﻛﻠﻴﻛوز‬ ‫ﺴﻛر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬
  • ‫ﻤن‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴودي‬ ‫ﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻨظﻴف‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫ﺒﻨﻔﺴﺠﻲ‬ ‫أزرق‬ ‫ﺘﻠون‬ ‫اﺴب‬‫ر‬ ‫ظﻬور‬‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﻛر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫ﺤﻤض‬ ‫ﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻗطﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻗطﻌﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﺴﺨﻴن‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻴك‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﻨﺘ‬‫أﺼﻔر‬ ‫ﺘﻠون‬ ‫ظﻬور‬‫اﻟﺒروﺘﻴدات‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫ﻗﺔ‬‫ر‬‫و‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫ﻗطﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤك‬‫ﺒﻴﻀﺎء‬‫ﺸﻔﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﻌﺔ‬ ‫ظﻬور‬ ‫ﻋدم‬‫ﻤن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫اﻟدﻫون‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺨن‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺒﺨﺎر‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺼﺎﻋد‬‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘوي‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎ‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺸف‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬‫ر‬‫ﺘﺠ‬‫اﻟﻛﻠﻴﻛوز‬ ‫ﻋن‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺸف‬‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫اﻟﺴﻛ‬ ‫ﻋﻀوﻴﺔ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻠﺴﻴوم‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻠورور‬ ‫اﻤﻼح‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻤﻌدﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻤن‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻴﺘرﻛب‬ : ‫*ﺨﻼﺼﺔ‬‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﺘرﻛﻴب‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘدﺨﻝ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اد‬‫و‬‫اﻟﻤ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻤرﻛب‬ ‫ﻏذاء‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒز‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬذا‬ ‫اﻟدﻫﻨﻴﺎت‬‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺒروﺘﻴدات‬‫و‬‫ﺒﺴﻴطﺔ‬4‫اﻟﺠﺴم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫دور‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻤﻛوﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺴب‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴف‬ -‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﻛوﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺤﺴب‬ ‫اﻷﻏذﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨف‬•‫ﺒﺎﻟطﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴم‬ ‫ﺘزود‬ ‫ﻴﺎت‬‫ر‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻛ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬
  • •‫اﻟﺠﺴم‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒروﺘﻴدات‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﺔ‬•‫ﺒﺎﻟطﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴم‬ ‫ﺘزود‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟدﻫﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻏذﻴﻎ‬