Department of Electrical and Electronics
• Typical Solar Configurations
• Block Diagram of SDPS and BSPS
• Installing the SWPS
Introduction to Solar Water Pumping
A solar powered water pumping system is made up of
• The power supply consists of PV panels,
-PV panel produce Direct Current(DC) and are
made up of many cells wired in series.
• The smallest element of a PV panel is the
-Each solar cell has two or more specially prepared
layers of semiconductors material that produce DC electricity
when exposed to light.
• One or more solar panels installed
together is called a solar array.
Series and Parallel configuration
• Individual PV panels can be wired in series or
parallel to obtain the required voltage or current
needed to run the pump.
• The voltage and current output from panels wired in
parallel is the exact opposite of series wired panels.
• Panels wired in parallel, the current (amps) output is
the sum of all the currents (amps) from the panels and
the voltage is equal to the voltage output from an
• Manufacturers normally rate voltage(volts) and
current(amps) output from PV panels. Peak power
(watts = volts * amps) is the maximum power
available from the PV panel.
• The amount of DC current produced by a PV panel is
much more sensitive to light intensity striking the
panel than voltage.
-Roughly speaking, if we halve the light intensity,
we halve the DC current output, but the voltage output
is reduced only slightly.
Types of Solar Powered Water Pumping
• There are two basic types of solar powered water
• A variety of factors must be considered in determining
the optimum system for a particular application.
Block Diagram of Battery based Solar Water
Fig 5. Block diagram of BSPS
Battery based Solar Water Pumping
• Battery based water pumping system consists of
photovoltaic(PV) panels charge controller, batteries,
pump controller and DC water pump,
- Water supply for home or cabin.
- Pumping at night.
Block Diagram of Solar Direct Water
Fig 4. Block Diagram of SDPS
Solar-Direct Water Pumping System(SDPS)
• In solar direct pumping system electricity from the PV
modules is sent directly to the pump which in turn
pumps water through a pipe to where its needed.
• Solar direct pumping systems are sized to store extra
water on sunny days so it is available on cloudy days
and at night. Water can be stored in a larger than
needed watering tank or in a separate storage tank
and then gravity fed to smaller watering tanks.
Selecting solar powered water pumping
• Cost is a factor that must be considered when selecting a
solar powered system.
• Total cost depends on many factors such as the type of
system (Solar-direct, battery based) daily water
requirements, complexity of the water delivery system etc.
• For example low volume solar pumping system keep costs
down when compared to higher output solar pumping
system by using a minimum number of solar panels and by
using the entire daylight period to charge batteries or
Common information required to size a
water pump system
• Maximum number of gallons of water needed daily for
each month of year.
• Total vertical distance that water is to be pumped as
measured from the lowest level from the water source to
highest level of storage tank.
• Description of water source.
• Information on any water pumping equipment distribution
system and storage capacity presently being used.
Installing the system
• When choosing a site, it is essential to avoid trees or
other obstructions that could cast shadows on the
solar panels and reduce their output.
• The solar array should be mounted facing due south
in a location where they receive maximum sunlight
throughout the year.
• Solar panels produce the most power when they are
pointed directly at the sun. For maximum energy
collection, the panel should be perpendicular to the
• Agriculture livestock watering / crop irrigation, home
gardens and drip irrigation systems.
• Domestic portable water for remote homes,
• Pond water management and water transfer.
• Water supply for villages in developing world.
Photovoltaic power for irrigation is cost competitive with
traditional energy sources for small, remote applications,
if the total system design and utilization timing is carefully
considered and organized to use the solar energy as
efficiently as possible. In the future, when the prices of
fossil fuels rise and the economic advantages of mass
production reduce the peak watt cost of the photovoltaic
cell, photovoltaic power will become more cost
competitive and more common.
• “Solar Powered Water Pumping Systems”, B. Eker Trakia
Journal of Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 7, pp 7-11, 2005
• “Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System and Compare it
with Diesel Powered Pump”, M.Abu-Aligah Volume 5,
Number 3, June 2011 ISSN 1995-666
• “Solar Water Pumping System”, Prof. G. M. Karve ISSN 2250-
2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 7, July
• “Solar Photo Voltaic Water Pumping: Harnessing Maximum
Power”, ACEEE Int. J. on Electrical and Power Engineering,
Vol. 4, No. 1, Feb 2013