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The of the roses • The war of the Roses was a civil war within a larger political war (Hundred Years’ War). • The civil war involves the descendants of Edward III. It beganwith the struggle between Richard II and Henry of Bolingbroke in 1399was ultimately resolved by a change of dynasty (Plantagenet Tudor) in 1487. • The first step in this civil war was in 1400 when Henry IV tookpower from Richard II and established the Lancaster (red rose) branch of the family on the English throne. • Throughout both the political war over Edward III claims to the throne of France and during the internal conflict in the royalfamily, the stress on the English nobility as a whole was considerable as faction s developed and resources were stretched.
The Wars of the Roses wereintermittent civil wars fought bymembers of the House of Lancasterand the House of York. Both houseswere branches of the Plantagenetroyal house, tracing their descentfrom King Edward III.
What was the cause of the Why were they Wars of the called the Wars Roses? of the Roses?The rivalry between the house of York The White Rose was the and the House of Lancaster started symbol of Yorkerswhen King Richard II was overthrown supporters who opposed the rival House of by his cousin, Henry Bolingbroke, Lancaster, whose symbol Duke of Lancaster, in 1399. But the was the Red Rose of Lancaster. The opposition Wars of the Roses actually began on of the two May 22th, 1455 with First Battle of St parties, symbolized by the red and white roses gave the Albans when Richard, Duke of York wars their name - the Warsand his ally, Richard, Earl of Warwick of the Roses. The Wars of the Roses ended with King defeated the Lancastrians under Henry VII who started the Edmund Beaufort who was killed. Tudor dynasty and symbolically united the York captured Henry VI. White and Red Roses to create the Tudor Rose.
•Family tree Henry VII (1457 - 1509)Edward IV Richard IIIHenry IV Henry V Henry VIII
Edward III ( 1312 – 1377) reigned 1327 – 1377 Son of Edward II (deposed_ and Isabella, a princess of France who would have inherited the French if it were not for Salix law. Hundred Years’ War (1337 – 1453) was fought in part to pursue Edward’s III claims to the French throne. He won major battles at Crecy (1346) and Poitiers (1356), but in the end lost much of the English territory in France that had been held since the time of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Black Death (bubonic plague) devastated the English population during his reign (1348 – 1349) and the country suffered major economic and social upheaval. 13 children, including 4 sons who survived him.
The Burghers of CalaisEdward III, after a victory in the Battleof Crecy, laid siege to Calais and PhilipVI of France ordered the city to holdout. Philip failed to lift the siege andStarvation forced the city to parley forsurrender. Edward offered to sparethe people of the city if any six of itstop leaders would surrender themselvesto him, Presumably to be executed.One of the wealthiest of the townleaders, Eustache de SaintPierre, volunteered first and five otherburghers soon joined him. Although theburghers expected to beexecuted, their lives were spared bythe intervention of England’sQueen, Philippe of Hainault, who Augusta Rodin, the Burgher of Calais,persuaded her husband by saying it 1885would be a bad omen for her unbornchild. This incident weighing royalauthority against mercy would havebeen an example for Henry V.
(1367 – 1400); reigned 1377 – 1400Son of Edward, the black prince and Joan, the “ Fair maid“ of Kent Richard II (1377 – 1400)During his childhood the country was ruled by a councilof nobles headed by his uncle, Joan of gaunt, duke ofLancaster.With the help of his council the reign began well. Duringthe peasants’ Revolt in 1381 young Richard showed poise.However the social divide between landowners andpeasants would continue to fester throughout the 14thcentury. Richard was not a warrior king like hisgrandfather, and gave too much attention to a small groupof favorite Coutiers. This created tension between Richardand his royal uncles (dukes of Gloucester and Lancaster).Richard turned his attention from the long standing war inFrance to Ireland, where English overlords werethreatened. in 1399 Richard became a tyrant, executing his uncleGloucester and stripping his cousin Henry of Bolingbroke ofmoney and lands he should have inherited from his father(John of gaunt, Duke of Lancaster ), and exiling him. Henryraised an army to reclaim his lost estates. Army noblesrallied to his cause, including Henry Percy, the earl ofNorthumberland (father of Harry “Hotspur” Percy).Richard delayed too long in returning from Ireland, wasunable to counter Henry’s challenge, and was forced toabdicate.Deposed by Henry of Bolingbroke, and Richard wasimprisoned in Pontefract Castle in 1400, where he “Died”.
The Wilton Diptych The Wilton Diptych : Explained • A diptych is a hinged, portable altarpiece • On the left, the world of the living, it is drab. And the colors are rather lifeless. • A forest provides a margin between this world and the world of heaven, which is filled with color. • On the left are 3 saints, all dead, who have come from heaven to be with Richard II, the kneeling figure, as he presents himself and England toCentury 1395 the virgin and Christ child.National Gallery of • The 3 figures are an allusion to the “Wise Men” and the Feast of theArt, London Epiphany (Jan 6th), which was RichardInternational Gothic style II’s birthday. So this is an “Adoration of the Magi” symbol. • The two English kings, Edmund the Martyr and Edward the confessor, support Richard as a legitimate king.
Explanation . . . continued • The right panel is vibrant with • Edmund the martyr (reigned c. 841) was defeated by the Vikings in 870 and taken color, signifying that heaven is spiritually prisoner. He refused to give up hisChristian faith and was executed, possibly richer than earth. by an arrow (his symbol). • Edward the Confessor (reigned 1042 – •The banner of the red cross is both the 1066 ) was a simple man of faith who give emblem of St. George, the patron saint his ring to a beggar when he had nothingelse to offer. The ring was later returned of England, and of the crusades in to him through the intervention of St. John the Evangelist. The ring is a symbol which Plantagenet kings had of his piety and character. He built participated. In kneeling before the Westminster Abbey. • John the Baptist is generally shown on Virgin and Child as the banner isart as wearing an animal skin and carrying a lamb (a symbol of Jesus as the Angus offered, Richard II is dedicating himself Dei, or Lamb of God). His presence gives Richard II religious support. to a chivalrous ideal. This is in keeping • Richard II’s personal badge was the with both the International Gothic style white hart and he wears it. He was born on January 6th and with the concepts of Realism where . The Feast of the Epiphany, so the 3 “Wise Men” flanking him are symbolic of ideas/ideals are the only things that truly the pilgrimage to the Christ Child; the exist. implication is that Richard II seekssupport (as England) from the Holy Family.
• (1366 – 1413); eldest son of John of Henry IV (Bolingbroke) Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Grossmann, a major English heiress; father of Henry V. • While a first cousin and childhood playmate of Richard II, Henry of Bolingbroke participated in a rebellion ofnobles against Richard. Although spared at that time, he was later banished and his estates confiscated on his father’s death. • Leads a rebellion to reclaim his own estates; captured Richard and forces his abdication and imprisonment.• Takes the throne, bypassing the Richard’sdesignated heir, Roger Mortimer (House of York). • Warrior king; crusader; suppresses the Lollard movement (followers of Wycliffe);puts down the rebellion of Henry “Hotspur” Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, with the help of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth (Henry V).
• (1386 – 1422); Eldest •t son of Henry IV; born in Monmouth, Wales, so called Henry of Monmouth as a youth • Treated kindly by Richard II during Henry of Bolingbroke exile; went to Ireland with Richard; returned to England when his father took the throne. • As a young man he was both personally riotous in behavior and a very capable soldier. • Different in domestic policy from his father and was more decisive in foreign affairs. Unification of the body of Richard II with honor, reconciled with the heirs of those nobles who had suffered under his father, and brought young Edmund Mortimer into royal favor. He was practical and took a wider view on issues, being both expedient and merciful. • Consolidated power as the King of EnglandHenry V and effectively accomplished what generations of his ancestors had failed to achieve through decades of war: the unification of the crowns of England and France in a single person.
What happened to the concept of the English monarch betweenRichard II and Henry V ? • Medieval philosophy moved from Realism to Nominals and the monarch becomes valued as a man as well as a head of state. • The Richard II of the Wilton Diptych is an embodiment of the concept of realism in medieval philosophy. Ideas (such as honor or humanity) exist in their own right and are important generalization. Ideas exist; particulars do not exist independently of ideas. As monarch Richard stands for the honor of England and maintains its ideas. • Henry V is a monarch who works within the concepts of Nominals. This philosophical school says that particulars exist for themselves , not as manifestation of ideals. Each situation or individual has its own value. So Henry V is not the concept of honor, but an honorable man, he can, therefore, give value to other particulars (his subjects, specific battles) and be a role model as well as a monarch.
How does all this relate to the War of the Roses which began in 1453? • When Henry V died young, he left an infant son, Henry VI. During his childhood the • When Henry V died young, he left an infant son, Henry VI. During hisgovernment was in chaos with fiscal instability, corruption, lack of law and order, and the loss childhood the government was in chaos with fiscal instability, corruption,of much of Henry V’s lands in France. of much of lack of law and order, and the loss Henry V’s lands in France. • As an adult Henry VI was not a strong king and suffered from mental illness. Disaffected • As turned to the York was not a strong been the suffered heirs mental nobles an adult Henry VIline who would haveking and legitimate from had not Henry IV illness. Disaffected nobles turned to the York line who would have been the taken the throne from Edmund Mortimer in 1400. A civil war was the result, as the Yorks legitimate heirs had not Henry IV taken the throne from Edmund (white rose) tried to take the throne from Henry, the last surviving Lancaster (red rose). Mortimer in 1400. A civil war was the result, as the Yorks (white rose) Edward to takeRichard III are kings from the York branch if the family who twice took the tried IV and the throne from Henry, the last surviving Lancaster (red rose). throne from HenryRichard III are kings from the York branch if war. Edward IV and VI and his wife Margaret of Anjou during the civil the family who twice took the throne from Henry VI and his wife Margaret of • Anjou during the civil war. the first part of this family conflict (Richard II, Henry IV, Shakespeare tells the story of Henry V) in four of his histories. He completes the saga of the actual War of the Roses in • Shakespeare tells the story of the first part of this family conflict three early plays about Henry VI and in his great Richard III, thus covering the whole period (Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V) in four of his histories. He completes the saga of the actual War of the Roses in to 1485. 1399 three early plays about Henry VI and in his great Richard III, thus covering the whole period 1399 to 1485.