Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Taylor2 ppt ch5
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Taylor2 ppt ch5

1,134

Published on

CRJ235

CRJ235

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,134
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
29
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 5 Social Structure, Social Process, and Social Reaction Theories
  • 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Social Theories of Delinquency </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaw and McKay’s Social Disorganization Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Heterogeneity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strain Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Merton’s Strain Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agnew’s General Strain Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subculture Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cohen’s Delinquency and Frustration Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miller’s Lower-Class Focal Concerns Theory </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Social Process Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akers’s Differential Reinforcement Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sykes and Matza’s Techniques of Neutralization/Drift Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of Responsibility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of Injury </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of Victim </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condemnation of the Condemners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to Higher Loyalties </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Social Control Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reckless’s Containment Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Pressures and Pulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner Containments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Pressures and Pulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Containments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hirschi’s Social Control/Social Bonding Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gottfredson and Hirschi’s Self-Control Theory </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Life Course Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thornberry’s Interactional Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampson and Laub’s Age-Graded Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Reaction Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lemert’s Labeling Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hagan’s Power-Control Theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Colvin and Pauly-Integrated Structural Marxist Theory </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. Ecological Theories <ul><li>Shaw and McKay’s Social Disorganization Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Heterogeneity </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. Strain Theory <ul><li>Robert Merton </li></ul><ul><li>Five Modes of Adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ritualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retreatism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebellion </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. Merton’s Modes Of Adaptation Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. Subculture Theories <ul><li>A subculture is a set of values, norms, and beliefs that differs from those within the dominant culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Cohen’s Delinquency and Frustration Theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because members of the lower class have norms and values that differ from those of the middle class, lower class families cannot teach their children the proper socialization techniques necessary for middle- class membership. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. Subculture Theories Continued <ul><li>Cloward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on serious delinquency committed by urban male gang members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three distinct types of gangs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal gangs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict gangs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retreatists gangs </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. Subculture Theories Continued <ul><li>Walter B. Miller’s six focal concerns: </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble – people are evaluated based on their involvement in trouble-making activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Toughness – physical strength, fighting ability, and masculinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Smartness – ability to be streetwise and to con people. </li></ul><ul><li>Excitement – thrill-seeking through gambling, fighting, and getting intoxicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Fate – most things that happen to people are beyond their control. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy – personal freedom resulting in an active disdain of authority. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory <ul><li>Criminal behavior is learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes techniques of committing the crime, specific directions of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific direction of motives and drives is learned form definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory — Continued <ul><li>A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of the law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning. </li></ul><ul><li>While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values, it is not explained by those general needs and values, since non-criminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. Techniques of Neutralization <ul><li>Gresham Sykes and David Matza </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Denial of victim </li></ul><ul><li>Condemnation of the condemners </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to higher loyalties </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. Social Control Theory <ul><li>Reckless’s Containment Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner pressures and pulls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner containments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer pressures and pulls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer containments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Travis Hirshi’s Social Control/Social Bonding Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gottfredson and Hirshi’s Self-Control Theory </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. Life Course Theories <ul><li>Terence Thornberry’s Interactional Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combines aspects of social control and social learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fundamental case of delinquency is weakened social bonds to society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Sampson and John Laub’s Age-Graded Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquent behavior can be impacted by events that occur later in life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two important turning points are marriage and employment. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. Labeling Theory <ul><li>Edwin M. Lemert </li></ul><ul><li>A criminological theory that contends that juveniles who are labeled delinquent or criminal will eventually commit secondary delinquent acts to live up to the label. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary deviance – initial acts of delinquency that go undetected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary deviance – continued delinquent behavior because the individual is now acting according to the delinquent label. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. Conflict Theory <ul><li>Concerned with the role government plays in creating an environment that is conducive to crime. </li></ul><ul><li>John Hagan’s Power-Control Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquency must be explained in terms of power relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The family model reproduces its power relations in the workforce. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mark Colvin and John Pauly’s Integrated Structural Marxist Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquency occurs because of inadequate socialization within the family. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

×