Taylor2 ppt ch3

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Taylor2 ppt ch3

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Juvenile Crime, Criminals, and Victims
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Issues in the Measurement of Juvenile Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring the Extent of Juvenile Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Records and Measures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement Statistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uniform Crime Reports </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent Crime Index </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Property Crime Index </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Court Statistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Funnel Effect </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Correctional Statistics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. Chapter Outline — Continued <ul><ul><li>Strengths and Problems With Official Records and Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Figure of Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victimless Crimes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy Rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Incident Based Reporting System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Victimization Statistics and Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses with Victimization Statistics and Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-Report Statistics and Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and Weaknesses With Self-Report and Statistics and Measures </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  4. 4. Chapter Outline — Continued <ul><ul><li>Comparison of the Three Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Official Statistics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Victimization Surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Report Surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Trends in Juvenile Crime and Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Victimization Rates and Trends </li></ul><ul><li>Risk and Protective Factors in Juvenile Delinquency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biology and Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Issues in the Measurement of Juvenile Crime <ul><li>Measuring total crime in the U.S. is extremely difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>The juvenile justice system is decentralized. Each jurisdiction has its own records. </li></ul><ul><li>Record-keeping is subject to confidentiality and sealing restrictions. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many sentencing options available for juveniles. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics are often dated. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  6. 6. Causation/Correlation <ul><li>Correlates – variables that are related to each other. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be interpreted to imply causation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk factors – variables that increase the probability of juvenile delinquency. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective factors – variables that reduce the probability of juvenile delinquency. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. Measuring Crime: Official Records <ul><li>Official records: statistics and data collected by law enforcement agencies, courts, and correctional institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Crime Reports (UCR): statistical report compiled by the FBI from law enforcement agencies across the country. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part I Offenses: Index offenses, most serious crimes in the UCR: murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, larceny, burglary, auto theft, and arson. </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  8. 8. Juvenile Arrest Rates For Property Crime: 1980-2003 Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention <ul><li>Primary Federal Agency responsible for addressing the issues of juvenile crime and delinquency and the problem of missing and exploited children. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  10. 10. Other Terminology <ul><li>Funnel Effect – the way in which the number of cases processed through the juvenile justice system decrease at each step. </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate data – data collected by agencies on how many total crimes they process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No individual level data are collected, only summary statistics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dark figure of crime – the phrase used to describe the number of crimes committed but unreported. </li></ul><ul><li>Victimless crimes – crimes in which the victim is a willing participant. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) <ul><li>Data collection system implemented to collect individual-level data on offenders, victims, and crime from police departments. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to address many of the problems with the UCR. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  12. 12. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) <ul><li>A national survey of households on the subject of victimization conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates that crime is much higher than the UCR records. </li></ul><ul><li>People are asked if they have been the victim of a crime in the last year. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. Self-Report Studies <ul><li>Juveniles are asked if they have committed an offense within the last year. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-report data has shown that juveniles commit many more offenses than those for which they are arrested. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  14. 14. Why Did Juvenile Crime Drop? <ul><li>The punitive juvenile justice system explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>The society has changed its values explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>The community policing/community justice explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>The regression to the mean explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased capacity to deal with juvenile offenders, the incapacitation effect. </li></ul>Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. Juvenile Homicide and Victimization Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  16. 16. Juvenile Victimization in School Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Biological and Genetic Risk and Protective Factors Copyright © 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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