Chapter 2  History of the Juvenile Justice System
Chapter Outline  <ul><li>The Changing Shape of the Juvenile Justice System </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Treatment of the J...
Chapter Outline  Continued <ul><li>Early Juvenile Justice in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Justice Duri...
Chapter Outline  Continued <ul><li>The Punitive Model of Juvenile Justice  (1980s-Present) </li></ul><ul><li>The Shifting ...
Historical Treatment of Juveniles <ul><li>Chattel – the legal term for property. Juveniles were viewed as property in the ...
Early American Juvenile Institutions <ul><li>Puritans – a religious group who believed that through hard work, religion, a...
Development of  Parens Patriae   <ul><li>In loco parentis  – the legal concept of allowing the state to “act in place of t...
Ex Parte Crouse <ul><li>The first court case in the U.S. that declared the concept of  parens patriae  constitutional. </l...
Child Savers <ul><li>The group of progressive reformers who, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, were responsible for the c...
Anthony Platt <ul><li>Alternative view to Child Savers: </li></ul><ul><li>Child Savers are not benevolent and, in fact, re...
The Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 <ul><li>Established the first juvenile court in Cook County, IL in 1899.  </li></u...
The Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 -  Continued <ul><li>Established the right of the court to continue to supervise c...
Due Process Model of Juvenile Justice: 1960s – 1980s  <ul><li>Supreme Court concluded that juveniles receive the “worst of...
Punitive Model of Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Determinate sentence–a fixed number of years that is associated with punitive g...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Taylor2 ppt ch2

620

Published on

CRJ235

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
620
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Taylor2 ppt ch2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 History of the Juvenile Justice System
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>The Changing Shape of the Juvenile Justice System </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Treatment of the Juveniles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Justice under the English Common Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Justice in Colonial America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children during the Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early American Juvenile Institutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Houses of Refuge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Development of Parens Patriae and Reform Schools </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Early Juvenile Justice in the United States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Juvenile Justice During the Victorian Era </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Traditional Model of Juvenile Justice (1900s-1960s) </li></ul><ul><li>The Due Process Model of Juvenile Justice (1960s-1980s) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>The Punitive Model of Juvenile Justice (1980s-Present) </li></ul><ul><li>The Shifting Assumptions of Juvenile Justice in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclical Changes in Juvenile Justice: History Repeating Itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Cycles of Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Three Key Periods of Juvenile Justice History </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Historical Treatment of Juveniles <ul><li>Chattel – the legal term for property. Juveniles were viewed as property in the eyes of the law. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents were free to sell their children into slavery. </li></ul><ul><li>Orphanages, workhouses, training schools, and apprenticeships. </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary servitude – the practice of selling children into service to a business person or wealthy person. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Early American Juvenile Institutions <ul><li>Puritans – a religious group who believed that through hard work, religion, and education a person could get closer to God. </li></ul><ul><li>Walnut Street Jail – the first jail that separated inmates and sought to reform their behavior rather than just punishing them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separated women and children from adult male inmates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional agrarian values – the ideas and beliefs shared by those who work the land such as puritans or Quakers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development of Parens Patriae <ul><li>In loco parentis – the legal concept of allowing the state to “act in place of the parents.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ex Parte Crouse – the first court case in the U.S. that declared the concept of parens patriae constitutional. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ex Parte Crouse <ul><li>The first court case in the U.S. that declared the concept of parens patriae constitutional. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The right of parental control is a natural, but not an inalienable one.” </li></ul><ul><li>The court found that when the natural parent was not prepared for the task of parenting, parens patriae allowed for the state to take the place of the parents ( in loco parentis ). </li></ul><ul><li>In essence, the state was not punishing the child, but saving him. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Child Savers <ul><li>The group of progressive reformers who, in the late 1800s and early 1900s, were responsible for the creation of the juvenile justice system in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Jane Adams, Julia Lathrop of the settlement house movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The system was not intervening in the lives of juveniles for society’s good, but for the juvenile’s good. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Anthony Platt <ul><li>Alternative view to Child Savers: </li></ul><ul><li>Child Savers are not benevolent and, in fact, recommended increased punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle and Upper Class bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred the distinction between dependent and delinquent children. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 <ul><li>Established the first juvenile court in Cook County, IL in 1899. </li></ul><ul><li>Established the age at which a juvenile becomes an adult. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadened the definitions of dependent, neglected, and delinquent children. </li></ul><ul><li>Established a separate courtroom with different procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Specified placement for juveniles. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Illinois Juvenile Court Act of 1899 - Continued <ul><li>Established the right of the court to continue to supervise children who have been adjudicated delinquent. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized that the juvenile court is not a criminal court, but a civil court. </li></ul><ul><li>Developed probation programs and authorized probation officers to assist the court in juvenile cases. </li></ul><ul><li>Established the statutory concept of parens patriae . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Due Process Model of Juvenile Justice: 1960s – 1980s <ul><li>Supreme Court concluded that juveniles receive the “worst of both worlds.” The child received neither fair treatment nor rehabilitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting goals of juvenile justice: best interest of the child vs. best interest of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Due process revolution granted the juvenile more rights. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Punitive Model of Juvenile Justice <ul><li>Determinate sentence–a fixed number of years that is associated with punitive goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of Juvenile Justice has shifted to meting out a punishment to fit the crime. </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×