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  • 1. Chapter 13 Gangs and Delinquency
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Gangs in Society
    • Defining Gangs
      • What is a Gang?
      • Gangs? Who is a Gang Member?
      • Crime? Why do Youths Join
    • The Extent of the Gang Problem
  • 3. Chapter Outline Continued
    • Types of Gangs
      • Other Categories of Gangs
    • Characteristics of Gangs
      • Age
      • Race and Ethnicity
      • Gender-Females and Gangs
      • Gang Migration
      • Communication
      • Delinquent Activity
    • Responses to Gangs
  • 4. Chapter Outline Continued
    • Controlling Gang Activity
      • Law Enforcement Efforts
      • Prosecution Efforts
        • RICO
        • STEP Acts
      • Nuisance Abatement
      • Legislative Efforts
        • Enhanced Penalties for Gang-Related Crime
        • Gang Membership and Participation Defined as Illegal
        • Drive-By Shootings Defined as a Separate Offense
    • The Future of Gangs
  • 5. Gangs and Society
    • Heightened concerns for gangs grew for
    • several reasons:
    • Emergence of youth gangs in small and rural communities
    • Increased diversity of gang composition
    • Increased use of highly dangerous weapons and the higher level of violence
    • The role of gang in drug trafficking
  • 6. Definition of Gangs
    • Michael W. Klein: An adolescent group who are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in their neighborhood, recognize themselves as a group, and have been involved in a number of delinquent incidents.
    • Walter B. Miller: A self-formed association of peers, bound together by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership, well- defined lines of authority, and other organizational features, who commit illegal activity and control a particular territory.
  • 7. Types of Gangs C. Ronald Huff
    • Hedonistic gangs are primarily involved in using drugs and getting high with little involvement in delinquency.
    • Instrumental gangs are primarily involved in committing property offenses such as burglary, auto theft, and theft.
    • Predatory gangs are the more serious type of gang and are actively involved in serious offenses including violent crimes such as robbery.
  • 8. Other Categories of Gangs Cheryl Maxson and Malcolm Klein
    • Traditional gang: very large with as many as several hundred members.
    • Neo-traditional gang: smaller and newer than the traditional gang.
    • Compressed gang: new gang with less than 50 members of the same age.
    • Collective gang: short history, limited size, and little defined territory.
    • Specialty gang: well-defined territory, narrow age range, small in size, drug trafficking.
  • 9. Responses To Gangs
    • Community organization: mobilize the community to deal with gangs.
    • Opportunities provision: employment, job training and education.
    • Organizational change and development
      • Gang units in police departments
    • Social intervention: counseling, role models, inter-gang mediation, and drug treatment.
    • Suppression: juvenile justice system, arrest, and incarceration.
  • 10. Gang Intelligence Officer
    • Work for police departments and are the gang specialists in the department.
    • Document gang members and gather intelligence on gang related crime.
    • Functions:
      • Gang information available to other officers
      • Assist in identifying gang suspects
      • Provide training to officers
      • Monitor areas of gang activity
      • Testify in court as gang experts
  • 11. Gang Resistance Education And Training (G.R.E.A.T.)
    • Goal: to reduce adolescent involvement in gangs.
    • National school-based gang prevention program in which uniform law enforcement officers teach a 13-week curriculum to middle-school students.
    • Designed to help children set goals for themselves, resist pressures, learn how to resolve conflicts without violence, and understand how gangs and youth violence impact the quality of their lives.
  • 12. Racketeer Influence Corrupt Organization Act (RICO)
    • Requirements for RICO to be applicable:
    • Operates with a criminal purpose over time
    • Established managerial order
    • Restricts membership
    • Criminal activity generates income
    • Achieves goals through violence
    • Has a power/profit motive