Taylor2 ppt ch13


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Taylor2 ppt ch13

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Gangs and Delinquency
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Gangs in Society </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Gangs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is a Gang? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gangs? Who is a Gang Member? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime? Why do Youths Join </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Extent of the Gang Problem </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Types of Gangs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Categories of Gangs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Gangs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race and Ethnicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-Females and Gangs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang Migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delinquent Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responses to Gangs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter Outline Continued <ul><li>Controlling Gang Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement Efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosecution Efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RICO </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STEP Acts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuisance Abatement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative Efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Penalties for Gang-Related Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gang Membership and Participation Defined as Illegal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-By Shootings Defined as a Separate Offense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Future of Gangs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gangs and Society <ul><li>Heightened concerns for gangs grew for </li></ul><ul><li>several reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of youth gangs in small and rural communities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased diversity of gang composition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of highly dangerous weapons and the higher level of violence </li></ul><ul><li>The role of gang in drug trafficking </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Gangs <ul><li>Michael W. Klein: An adolescent group who are generally perceived as a distinct aggregation by others in their neighborhood, recognize themselves as a group, and have been involved in a number of delinquent incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Walter B. Miller: A self-formed association of peers, bound together by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership, well- defined lines of authority, and other organizational features, who commit illegal activity and control a particular territory. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Gangs C. Ronald Huff <ul><li>Hedonistic gangs are primarily involved in using drugs and getting high with little involvement in delinquency. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental gangs are primarily involved in committing property offenses such as burglary, auto theft, and theft. </li></ul><ul><li>Predatory gangs are the more serious type of gang and are actively involved in serious offenses including violent crimes such as robbery. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Other Categories of Gangs Cheryl Maxson and Malcolm Klein <ul><li>Traditional gang: very large with as many as several hundred members. </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-traditional gang: smaller and newer than the traditional gang. </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed gang: new gang with less than 50 members of the same age. </li></ul><ul><li>Collective gang: short history, limited size, and little defined territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty gang: well-defined territory, narrow age range, small in size, drug trafficking. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Responses To Gangs <ul><li>Community organization: mobilize the community to deal with gangs. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities provision: employment, job training and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational change and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang units in police departments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social intervention: counseling, role models, inter-gang mediation, and drug treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression: juvenile justice system, arrest, and incarceration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gang Intelligence Officer <ul><li>Work for police departments and are the gang specialists in the department. </li></ul><ul><li>Document gang members and gather intelligence on gang related crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang information available to other officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist in identifying gang suspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide training to officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor areas of gang activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testify in court as gang experts </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Gang Resistance Education And Training (G.R.E.A.T.) <ul><li>Goal: to reduce adolescent involvement in gangs. </li></ul><ul><li>National school-based gang prevention program in which uniform law enforcement officers teach a 13-week curriculum to middle-school students. </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to help children set goals for themselves, resist pressures, learn how to resolve conflicts without violence, and understand how gangs and youth violence impact the quality of their lives. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Racketeer Influence Corrupt Organization Act (RICO) <ul><li>Requirements for RICO to be applicable: </li></ul><ul><li>Operates with a criminal purpose over time </li></ul><ul><li>Established managerial order </li></ul><ul><li>Restricts membership </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal activity generates income </li></ul><ul><li>Achieves goals through violence </li></ul><ul><li>Has a power/profit motive </li></ul>