Session 10 feedstuffs

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  • 1. Feedstuffs Large Animal Nutrition Swine, Sheep and Goats
  • 2. Feedstuffs  Feedstuffs- any component of a diet ( ration) that serves some useful function Functions: 1. Provide source of nutrients and energy 2. Combined to produce rations 3. Modify characteristics of diet Functions 1. Provide one of more nutrients 2. Modify characteristics of diet
  • 3. International Feed ID System  System for classifying feedstuffs based on descriptive characteristics  Based on the primary nutrient provided by the feedstuff  Each feedstuff is assigned an International Feed Number ( IFN)
  • 4. There are 8 international Feedstuff classes  1. Dry Roughages  2. Pasture Range and Grasses  3. Ensiled Roughages  4. High Energy Concentrates  5. Protein Sources  6. Minerals  7. Vitamins  8. Additives
  • 5. 1. Dry Roughages Characteristics: 1. Bulky feed that has low weight per unit of volume 2. High crude fiber content, low protein and fat digestibility 3. Contains greater than 18% crude fiber and less than 70% total digestible nutrients
  • 6. Dry Roughagae Examples  Hay- legume ( alfalfa), grass legume, non legume  Straw and chaff  Corn cobs  Cottonseed hulls  Shells and hulls  Sugarcane byproducts  Paper and wood byproducts
  • 7. 2. Pasture and Range grasses 1. Grazed plants 2. Soilage or greenchop 3. Cannery and food crop residues
  • 8. Grass examples  Cool season grasses - ryegrass, orchardgrass, tall fescue, timothy and smooth brome grass  Warm Season grasses - Bermudagrass, Johnsongrass, Dallisg rass, Bluestem grass  Cereal grain grasses - barley, oats, winter wheat and rye
  • 9. Legume examples  Alfalfa is most common, used for pasture, hay-crop silage and hay  Clovers – ladino, red, white, sweetclover  Lespedeza, crown vetch, kudzu and birdsfoot trefoil are other legumes that may be fed to animals
  • 10. Toxic plants  Cyanide containing - Arrow grass, blue flax, chokecherry, elderberry, Johnson grass ( sudan), yew  Nitrate containing - Johnson grass, lambs quarter, nightshades, pigweed, russian thistle, sunflower  Alkaloid containing - Death camas, water hemlock  Oxalate containing
  • 11. 3. Silages and Haylages - fermented, high moisture feed made from the entire plant. Stored in silos Examples: 1. corn, sorghum 2. Grass, grass-legume, legume
  • 12. Hay Crop Silage vs Corn Silage  Hay crop silage is lower in density than corn silage  Corn silage is harvested once a year and needs a silo for storage of an entire years worth of silage  Hay silage is harvested several times a year and does not need a silo that can hold 1 years worth  Corn silage is more stable when exposed to air ( as you are using it) than hay silage
  • 13. Evaluating optimum moisture of silage/haylage Hold ball of silage/haylage in your hand and squeeze ( like making a mudball) 1. Too wet- juice flows out, leads to seepage and low acid production which leads to butyric acid fermentation 2. Optimum- ball holds shape or slowly falls apart 3. Too dry- does not form a ball, silage will be hard to pack, heat damage and molding more likely
  • 14. Forage Composition and Nutritive Value  Maturity- as forage plants mature, protein and soluble carbohydrate content declines while fiber and lignin increase (lignin is indigestible and affects digestibility of entire diet)  Soil fertility, fertilization and weather affect quality of forage  Harvesting and storage methods ((significant leaf loss reduces nutrient content)
  • 15. 4. High Energy Concentrate  Cereal grains  Beet and citrus pulp  Molasses  Animal, marine and vegetable fats  Roots and tuber  High energy feeds generally have low levels of protein ( the exception is high-protein oilseed meals)
  • 16. Carbohydrates in Herbivores Take Home Message  Starch is the form of carbohydrate storage in plants  Cellulose is the carbohydrate used for structural support in the plant  They are the major source of energy in the herbivore diet and must be managed carefully  Bacteria in the digestive tract digest the cellulose to release energy for the herbivore
  • 17. Carbohydrates in Herbivores Take Home Message  Starch is the form of carbohydrate storage in plants  Cellulose is the carbohydrate used for structural support in the plant  They are the major source of energy in the herbivore diet and must be managed carefully  Bacteria in the digestive tract digest the cellulose to release energy for the herbivore
  • 18. Carbohydrates in Herbivores Take Home Message  Starch is the form of carbohydrate storage in plants  Cellulose is the carbohydrate used for structural support in the plant  Bacteria in the digestive tract digest the cellulose to release energy for the herbivore  They are the major source of energy in the herbivore diet and must be managed carefully avoid excesses ( $$$) or deficiency which can lead to reduced production ($$$)
  • 19. Carbohydrate sources  Sugar cane  Starchy plants and roots  Grains, seeds and tubers  Potatoes, tubers, artichokes  Citrus fruits, apples  Cottonseed, sugar beets  Fibrous portion of plants  corn cobs,  Liver and muscle
  • 20. 5. Protein Supplements Contains greater than 20% crude protein 1. animal, avian, marine sources ( blood meal, feather meal, fish meal, meat meal) 2. Plant proteins soybeans, canola, and cottonseed are the most important 3. Milk and by-products 4. Legume seeds 5. Brewery and distillery by-products 6. Urea, ammonia ( non protein nitrogen sources)
  • 21. Essential Amino Acids  Must be provided in the diet  PVT TIM HALL- phenylalanine, valine, threonine, trypto phan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine , arginine, leucine, lysine  Taurine is a dietary essential only for the cat
  • 22. 6. Mineral supplements and 7. Vitamin supplements  Must be added by sources that animal is able to absorb  Vitamin concentration in plants and animal tissues varies greatly  Plants: vitamin concentration affected by harvesting, processing and storing  Animals: liver and kidney are good sources of most vitamins
  • 23. Function of Minerals  Participate in catalytic activity of enzymes  Structure functions  Acid base and electrolyte balances
  • 24. Macrominerals  Calcium  Phosphorus  Sodium  Potassium  Magnesium  Chloride  Sulfur
  • 25. Microminerals  Iodine  Iron  Manganese  Copper  Molybdenum  Zinc  Selenium  Chromium  cobalt
  • 26. Fat Soluble Vitamins  A- to maintain epithelial tissue  D- facilitate mobilization, transport, absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus  E – for normal reproductive health and antioxidant  K- used in the body’s blood clotting mechanism
  • 27. Water Soluble Vitamins  Thiamin B1- nervous system function and ATP production  Riboflavin B2- cofactor for many enzymes  Pyridoxine B6- metabolism of proteins  Cyancobalamin B12 cofactor for enzymes esp DNA synthesis and protein metabolism  Pantothenic Acid B5- skin health, fat metabolism
  • 28. Water Soluble Vitamins Continued  Nicotinic Acid B3- normal skin health, ATP  Folate or Folic Acid B9- red and white blood cell manufacture  Biotin B 7- gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis  Choline- nitrogen containing classified as B Vitamin  Vitamin C- most animals can synthesize in tissues, antioxidant ( guinea pigs need a dietary source, deficiency causes SCURVY)
  • 29. Water  Amount needed influenced by type of animal, temperature, pregnancy, lactat ion, feed  Softens and prepares food for passage  Hydrolysis of compounds during digestion  Carrier for nutrients and hormones  Waste removal from body  cooling
  • 30. Water Sources  Water in diet  Voluntary consumption of water  Metabolic water- formed when nutrients are completely broken down in aerobic respiration to yield ATP, waste products are carbon dioxide and water
  • 31. Water evaluation affect palatability  High bacteria count from contamination  Reddish brown due to Fe, Mn or S  Black specks in water Fe, Mn  Water feels greasy Fe, Mn, S  Rotten egg odor hydrogen sulfide or bacteria  Corroded valves, rust, low ph  Suspended reddish slime iron, bacteria  Cloudy water sediment
  • 32. Most salt blocks contain a combination of the following minerals  Sodium chloride  Zinc  Manganese  Iron  Copper  Iodine  Cobalt  Cane molasses
  • 33. 8. Additives Non- nutritive ingredients added to stimulate growth or performance or improve the efficiency of feed 1. Added in very small quantities 2. Antibiotics, antifungals, antimicrobials 3. Buffers, colors, flavors 4. Probiotics, antioxidants 5. Hormones, enzymes
  • 34. Fatty Acid Requirement  About meeting energy needs  Essential fatty acids are linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and linolenic acid  Most livestock diets made with the usual ingredients meet these fatty acid requirements without supplementation  Plant oils and animal fats are rich sources
  • 35. Estimating Nutritional Value of a Feed Goal: estimate how well nutrients in feedstuffs matches the animal’s needs Three methods for Estimating 1. Chemical Analysis 2. Digestion and Balance Trials 3. Feeding Trials
  • 36. Chemical Analysis  Subdivides the components of the feedstuff into general groups ( protein, water, carbohydrates, lipids, m inerals, vitamins) to estimate the relative amount present  Problem: Doesn’t estimate how well the animal utilizes the feed
  • 37. Digestion and Balance Trials  Measures the digestibility of a feed  Feed consumption and fecal excretion are measured over period of time  Problem: Not a true measure because feces contain sloughed cells and tissue
  • 38. Feeding Trials  Used extensively  Usually done before chemical analysis or digestion and balance trials  Can evaluate growth, egg production, wool production
  • 39. Swine Nutrition  Porcine  Monogastric ominivore  Terms 1. Sow – adult female 2. Boar- adult male 3. Piglet- young pig 4. Gilt- sexually mature female, no litter yet 5. Barrow- castrated male
  • 40. Swine Nutrition- Water  Neonates 80% water, finishing pigs 55% water  Requirement is influenced by many factors ( environment, moisture content of feed, urine output, etc.)  General guidelines 1-11/2 quarts of water per 1 lb of feed consumed  Lactating sows require more for milk production  Water quality affects consumption, high total dissolved solids can cause diarrhea, high levels of sulfates should be avoided
  • 41. Swine Nutrition- Energy  Required for buildup of lean and fat tissue  Nursing pigs- most energy from fat and sugar in milk  Growing pigs- most energy from cereal grains  Sows and finishing pigs- some energy is gained from volatile fatty acids from fermentation in large intestine  Dietary need is directly related to body weight  Amount of feed consumed ad libitum is controlled by energy content of diet
  • 42. Energy source feedstuffs for Swine  Cereal grains ( especially swine)  Damaged grains  Grain by- products  Purified sugars ( sucrose, lactose for piglets)  Fat ( tallows, animal and vegetable fats)  Processed food waste
  • 43. Swine Nutrition – Protein and Amino acids  Pig carcasses contain 50% muscle. About 8% of the whole body is edible protein  Pigs need 10 essential amino acids to maintain tissues  Amino acids required are arginine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, met hionine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonin e, tryptophan, valine  Lysine is the first limiting amino acid, high requirements, low content in feedstuffes ex. Corn  Most diets are based on soybean meal due to its higher lysine content
  • 44. Protein Source Feedstuffs in Swine  Plant proteins: soybeans  Animal proteins: by-products of meat packing industry, fish meal, dried milk products  Bacteria  Synthetic amino acids
  • 45. Swine Nutrition- Minerals Highest Mineral Needs Ca and P- usually fed as limestone and oyster shells NaCl- inadequate amounts suppress feed intake I- soybean and grain diets deficient, supplement required Fe- injected in piglets to prevent anemia- lasts 3 weeks, milk is iron deficient Mg- required in growing pigs, present in feedstuffs Z- supplemented to prevent parakeratosis
  • 46. Swine Nutrition- Vitamins  Vitamin A- supplement 2-3 times need because corn has low Vit A and it breaks down with processing, dehydrated alfalfa is a good source  Vitamin D- absent in most feedstuffs, expose pigs to sunlight or add sun cured hays or fish oils to diet  Vitamin E – required in all life stages, legume hay, green forage and cereal grains are good sources  Vitamin K- present in feeds, synthesized by hind gut fermentation but pig must have access to feces. Supplement added to prevent hemorrhaging in newborns
  • 47. Vitamin, Mineral and Additive Source Feedstuffs in Swine  Mineral- trace mineral salt  Vitamin- alfalfa meal, fermentation by products, animal protein  Additives: antibiotics, anthelmintics etc
  • 48. Nutritional Diseases in Swine  Amino Acid Deficiency: anemia, edema, immunocompromise, impaired growth  Parakeratosis: Occurs between the 6- 16th week of life. From low zinc, high calcium diet; bilateral abnormal keratinization of the skin, forming horny scales; starts as brown spots on underside
  • 49. Swine Feeding Management  Pre-breeding: gilt is bred at 7-8 mos. Flushing 1-2 weeks prior to breeding increases ovulation and litter size, high antibiotics added to dieet  Gestation: normal nutritional needs for first two trimesters. Majority of growth is in last month. Overweight sows are more likely to crush piglets  Farrowing: include laxatives to prevent constipation when in farrowing crate; wheat bran or dried beet pulp 10-15% of diet; high antibiotics  Lactation: nutrient requirements 3-4 times higher than during gestation, produce 2.5 lbs milk per piglet; if feed restricted can suffer bone fractures and paralysis  Nursing pigs: all nutrients from sow’s milk for first 2 weeks. Must supply iron( injectable) Begin eating dry food at 2 weeks
  • 50. Sheep Nutrition  Ovine  Ruminant Herbivores  Terms: Ewe- female of reproductive age Ram- intact male of reproductive age Lamb- young sheep of either sex Wether- neutered adult male Mutton- meat derived from adult sheep
  • 51. Sheep Nutrition- Water  Water is limiting nutrient in many areas  Water quality is more important to sheep than any other livestock species ( stagnant, odor, high bacterial or mineral content)  Water intake is influenced by feed, vegetation, protein intake, environmental temperature, amount of rain, dew, or
  • 52. Water Requirements for Sheep  1 gallon of water per 4 lbs of dry feed consumed  More water when air temp is above 70F  Less intake if water temp is <40 or > 50F  Lower requirement where there is daily rain, heavy dew or soft, wet snow  Lower requirement for those eating silage, succulent or range forage
  • 53. Sheep Nutrition- Energy  Insufficient energy from low intake or poor quality feed  Energy deficiency reduces growth, fertility, wool quality, death  High energy needs: - Immediately before and after lambing - Flushing ewes and rams for breeding - Finishing lambs
  • 54. Energy Source Feedstuffs for Sheep  Good quality pasture, hay, silage  Grains: barley, corn, wheat, oats and milo  Precautions: when feeding wheat grain- lambs susceptible to acute indigestion
  • 55. Sheep Nutrition- Protein  Usually quantity is more important than quality due to bacterial conversion in rumen  Microbial protein synthesis supplies protein needs except when lactating or very young lambs  Add extra protein feeds when pastures are mature or when feeding creep rations
  • 56. Protein source feedstuffs for sheep  Green pastures, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, alfalfa hay, urea ( sometimes0  Urea levels: < 1% of total ration  No urea in young lambs, creep rations, straw, poor quality hay or lambs on limited feed
  • 57. Sheep Nutrition- Minerals Highest Mineral Needs NaCl- usually provided ½-1/3 lb per ewe per month Ca, P – highest need during lactation, provide leafy legumes for Ca, grains for P I- usually provided in salt Co- more in legumes than grasses Se- small difference between deficiency and lethal toxicity, muscular dystrophy Zinc- high needs for normal testicular development
  • 58. Sheep Nutrition- Vitamins Vit A- can store excess for 6-12 months Vit D- fast growing lambs kept inside may show problems Vit E- low selenium leads to Vit E deficiency Vit K- synthesized by rumen Vit C- synthesized by tissues
  • 59. Vitamin and Mineral Feedstuffs in Sheep Vitamins- green feeds, germs of seeds, sun-cured hays Minerals- leafy legumes, grains, trace mineral and salt mix
  • 60. Sheep Nutritional Diseases Enterotoxemia type D- intestinal toxins present in blood; caused by stress and sudden diet changes; vaccinate lambs prior to weaning Urinary calculi- common in rams and wethers in drylot; results from Ca/P ration imbalance and decreased water intake
  • 61. Sheep Feed Management Pre-breeding: ewe is flushed for 4-6 weeks, 2 weeks prior to breeding and continuing for 2-3 weeks after bred; flushed on either high quality pastures or ¼ to ½ lb of grain or pellets per day; treat for internal parasites and trim hooves Gestation- 70% of fetal growth happens in the last 6 weeks of gestation
  • 62. continued  Late pregnancy feed requirement - 50% more feed if single lamb - 75% more feed if twin lamb - Add grain to high roughage diet, more energy Lactation- maximum milk production 2-3 weeks post parturition; feed three times her maintenance requirements; must have increase protein intake to make milk Nursing lambs- born with non functioning rumen; colostrum is a must within first 12-18 hours. If no ewe colostrum, can use fresh cow colostrum. Creep feeding used for early weaning and getting lambs to market
  • 63. Goat Nutrition  Caprine  Ruminant Herbivore  Terms Doe- female Buck- intact male Kid- baby goat, either sex Wether- castrated male - Inquisitive feeding behavior - Raised for meat, milk, fiber and hides
  • 64. Goat Feeding Behavior  Confinement feeding: will pick through offered feed and eat what they want  This results in 2 important effects: 1. Composition of consumed diet differs from formulated diet 2. Goats will eat more if they have more to select, so offer less feed to force them to choose more of the diet Range feeding: active forager, browses all plant types including trees, shrubs, grasses, creating a browse line. Will sometimes defoliate one type of plant; goats grazing hilly terrain have higher energy requirements than those on level terrain
  • 65. Goat Nutrition- Water  Requirements - Intake is related to feed intake and feed intake correlates to productivity - Free access to good quality water - More sensitive to water quality, won’t touch fecal/urine contaminated water - Lactation increases needs
  • 66. Goat Nutrition- Energy  Wide variances among breed, productivity, production and size  Mostly from carbohydrates and low levels of fat, high fat inhibits rumen fermentation  Excess fat is stored in the body around internal organs  Consume more dry matter then other livestock species
  • 67. Energy Source- Feedstuffs for Goats  Forages: alfalfa hay, bermuda grass hay  grains: corn, sorghum, oats  molasses
  • 68. Goat Nutritional Diseases  Enterotoxemia type D- can occur after high intake of immature succulent forage. Toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type D  Urinary calculi- can occur when Ca and P rations are unbalanced
  • 69. Goat Nutrition- Protein  Most expensive component of diet  Needed to support rumen fermentation and supply amino acids  Unlike fat, excess is not stored  Vary with developmental stage  Protein source feedstuffs for goats - Soybean meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower meal
  • 70. Goat Nutrition- Mineral  Ca and P are two major minerals- needed for bone development and milk production  Mobilize bone stores for high needs  Phosphorus need is met due to goats high selectivity in diet  Only salt should be provided free choice  Lush pasture is deficient in magnesium
  • 71. Goat Nutrition- Vitamins  Only Vit A is likely to be deficient  Occurs in confinement fed goats in dry cold weather  Occurs in range fed goats when vegetation contains little or no green plant material