San Ecalcs & ls ls

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  • The energy requirements for carbohydrates increase in dogs during pregnancy. Because cats are strict carnivores, they don’t have a dietary requirement for carbohydrates and cannot metabolize large amounts of simple carbohydrates. It bulks up food – more bulk/fiber It reduces cost – in the manufacturing process, CHO less expensive than fat or protein.
  • Normalize bowel transit time is IMPORTANT because fiber pulls water into the bowel and softens it for passage. If an animal has diarrhea, the fiber absorbs the excess water. Probiotics help to establish the best balance of microorganisms in the GI tract. They live in the colon and break down long chain insoluble carbohydrates into healthy short-chain fatty acids. They nourish colonic cells.
  • Cats lose taurine in their feces due to normal GI bacterial action, and coupled with the fact that they can’t synthesize it, makes it an important essential amino acid. Tell story of litter of kittens and vegetarian owner at ASPCA. Importance of Taurine.
  • AAFCO doesn’t publish ranges in its profiles – only minimums of nutrients and in the case of certain minerals like calcium and phosphorus – maximums.
  • Alpha linolenic , Linoleic acid and Arachaonic acid are all ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS. DOGS: Linoleic is essential in the dog, and from that dogs can make alpha linolenic. Dogs can also synthesize arachidonic acid CATS: Arachidonic is essential in the cat only – they cannot synthesize it. Omega-6 fatty acids are required for growth and reproduction, and are precursors to certain hormones – like prostaglandin CELL MEMBRANE: remember from your anatomy class that the cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bi-layer
  • Ben was a patient at the Animal Referral Center in Ft. Pierce, Florida.
  • This is a radiograph taken of Ben’s pelvis prior to surgery. You can see cardinal signs of hip dysplasia here. The left femur head doesn’t fit into the acetabulum, and has worn away some.
  • This is a post-surgery radiograph – Ben had his left femur head removed – a femoral head ostectomy. The point of all this is to illustrate the connection between obesity and skeletal problems.
  • This research was done by Purina. The Purina Life Span Study www.Purinavets.com Password: nutrition
  • San Ecalcs & ls ls

    1. 2. The Iterative Process <ul><li>Two step clinical nutrition process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Assess the patient, food and feeding method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Develop feeding plan including food choice and feeding method </li></ul></ul>Animal Food Feeding Method ASSESSMENT Food Feeding Method FEEDING PLAN
    2. 3. Iterative Process <ul><li>Factors in Patient Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Signalment : species, breed, age, gender, neuter status, activity level, environment </li></ul><ul><li>Medical History: medical conditions, vaccines, surgeries, medications </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostics: blood chemistry, radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Exam: abnormalities, BCS </li></ul>
    3. 4. Body Condition Scoring <ul><li>Subjective method of assessing an animal’s fat stores </li></ul><ul><li>Fat cover is evaluated over the ribs, down the topline, around the tail base and along the abdomen </li></ul>1 2 4 5 EMACIATED THIN OVERWEIGHT OBESE PALPATION IS KEY! 3 IDEAL
    4. 5. Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
    5. 6. Body Condition Scoring © Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
    6. 7. Iterative Process: Dietary History <ul><li>What Do You Need to Know About the Animal’s Dietary History? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brand of Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Form of Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding Method & Frequency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treats? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Table food? … </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Review of Nutrients <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Antioxidants* </li></ul>Energy Producing Nutrients
    8. 9. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dogs & Cats meet most water requirements through food and drink </li></ul><ul><li>Amount required varies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Stage </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water As fed Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product including water Dry matter basis Nutrients are calculated as a percentage of the product without the water Vs. Nutrients in food…
    10. 11. Which Has More Protein? <ul><li>Moist Product </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% protein </li></ul><ul><li>8% fat </li></ul><ul><li>9% CHO </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Product </li></ul><ul><li>10% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>18% protein </li></ul><ul><li>12% fat </li></ul><ul><li>32% CHO </li></ul>
    11. 12. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Moist Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>75% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>10% protein </li></ul><ul><li>8% fat </li></ul><ul><li>9% CHO </li></ul>For Moist Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis (DMB) equals approximately 4x the percent on an as fed basis This product contains ~40% protein DMB
    12. 13. Review of Basic Nutrients: Water <ul><li>Dry Product – as fed </li></ul><ul><li>10% moisture </li></ul><ul><li>18% protein </li></ul><ul><li>12% fat </li></ul><ul><li>32% CHO </li></ul>For Dry Products the percentage of nutrients on a Dry Matter Basis equals approximately 10% more than the percent on an as fed basis This product contains ~20% protein DMB
    13. 14. Review of Basic Nutrients: Carbohydrates <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditionally essential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23% for gestation and lactation in dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cats are different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides form to dry and canned food </li></ul><ul><li>Increases food volume </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces cost </li></ul>
    14. 15. Review of Basic Nutrients - Carbohydrates <ul><li>Benefits of Insoluble Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>“ Normalize” bowel transit time </li></ul><ul><li>Increase satiety </li></ul><ul><li>Provide probiotics for intestinal health </li></ul>Soluble Insoluble “Fiber” Sugars Starches … etc. Beet pulp Cellulose Soybean hulls … etc.
    15. 16. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins <ul><li>Tissue Building </li></ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source </li></ul>Comprised of Amino Acids
    16. 17. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins Essential Amino Acids Arginine Phenylalanine Histidine Threonine Isoleucine Tryptophan Leucine Valine Lysine Taurine* Methionine
    17. 18. Amino Acids of Special Concern Arginine (Essential) Immune system stimulant; key in management of dogs with cancer Taurine (Essential in cats) Critical for retinal and cardiac muscle development in cats; Conditionally essential in Newfoundlands Carnitine (Conditionally essential) Improves fat metabolism, builds lean body tissue, make mitochondria more efficient
    18. 19. Review of Basic Nutrients: Protein Plant Protein Sources Animal Protein Sources More consistent in quality More bioavailable (no cellulose layer to break down) Needs to be combined with other plants to be complete More complete More expensive
    19. 20. AAFCO <ul><li>Association of American Feed Control Officials </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Profiles for dogs and cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minimum nutrient values required at different life stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some maximum values </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Review of Basic Nutrients - Proteins AAFCO PROTEIN minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 18% Puppy – 22% Adult Cat – 26% Kitten – 30%
    21. 22. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li>Energy source </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for the absorption, storage & transport of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Common sources: Flaxseed, linseed, menhaden fish, animal fat, evening primrose oil, black currant oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contributes to food’s palatability </li></ul>
    22. 23. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat <ul><li> Linoleic acid (n-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha linolenic acid (n-3) </li></ul><ul><li> Arachidonic acid (n-6) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain cell membrane integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Help control water loss from skin </li></ul>
    23. 24. Review of Basic Nutrients - Fat AAFCO FAT minimums - DMB Adult Dog – 5% Puppy – 8% Adult Cat – 9% Kitten – 9%
    24. 25. Review of Basic Nutrients – Minerals Minerals of Special Concern in Dogs & Cats Mineral Diseases Exacerbated Sodium Heart failure Hypertension Kidney disease Calcium Skeletal disease (pups) Bladder stones Phosphorus Kidney failure Skeletal disease Bladder stones Magnesium Struvite bladder stones
    25. 26. What Determines How Much an Animal Eats? <ul><li>Energy Needs </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Palatability </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
    26. 27. Energy Needs <ul><li>Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction/ </li></ul><ul><li>lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Breed </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Intact or neutered </li></ul>
    27. 28. Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>RER – Resting Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure of the amount of energy needed based on animal’s metabolic body size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formula: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed in kilocalories </li></ul></ul>STEP 1 RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70
    28. 29. Calculating Energy Requirements <ul><li>DER = Daily Energy Requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An animal’s RER multiplied by a factor that accounts for the animal’s life stage or life style </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DER Factor = Numeric value that accounts for life stage, neuter status, life style, body condition, gestation or lactation </li></ul>STEP 2 DER = RER x DER factor
    29. 30. Calculating Energy Needs <ul><li>What You Need to Know About the Animal Before You Calculate: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neuter Status </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current Weight </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target Weight (if not at ideal weight) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 31. How Much Will We Feed Gracie Whitesox? <ul><li>“ Gracie Whitesox” </li></ul><ul><li>3yrs; Female(N) Maine Coon; Wt. 11lbs; BCS 3/5 </li></ul>
    31. 32. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 </li></ul>
    32. 33. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 </li></ul>
    33. 34. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x (5)+70 = 220 kcals </li></ul>
    34. 35. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = </li></ul>(Use DER factors provided in notes)
    35. 36. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER </li></ul>
    36. 37. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Calculate RER: 30 x (BW in kg) +70 30 x (11  2.2) + 70 30 x 5+70 = 220 kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate DER: (Use DER factors provided in notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Average, neutered feline adult = 1.2 x RER 1.2 x 220 = 264 kcals per day </li></ul>Gracie should have 264 kcals per day
    37. 38. Calculating Gracie’s Energy Needs <ul><li>Find the food’s metabolizable energy : </li></ul><ul><li> ex: Purina ® Cat Chow ® Indoor Formula = 379 kcal per cup </li></ul><ul><li>Divide Gracie’s DER by the #kcal per cup/can of food </li></ul><ul><li>DER = 264  379 = ~3/4 cup per day </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Gracie should eat ~3/4 cup of cat food per day Gracie’s DER is 264 kcal per day How much food should she eat per day?
    38. 39. How Much Should Breeze Eat? 11-years old M(N) Shetland Sheepdog, 21# BCS 3/5
    39. 40. Source: Geneva Acor
    40. 41. Terminology <ul><li>Life Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduction/ Lactation </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Life Stage Feeding The practice of feeding animals foods designed to meet their optimal nutritional needs at a specific age or physiologic state Feeding an animal above or below their optimal nutritional level can negatively affect their health. “ Cowboy” 5 mos.
    42. 43. Nutrition Recommendation <ul><li>“ An animal’s health status must be assessed individually in order to determine the most beneficial course of action.” </li></ul>
    43. 44. What types of life stages and would you consider when making a nutritional recommendation?
    44. 45. Different Life Stages = Different Nutritional Requirements <ul><li>Growth, Reproduction & Lactation Small & Medium Breeds vs. Large Breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Senior </li></ul>
    45. 46. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrient Profiles Published For </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs and Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended Nutrient Ranges (OPTIMAL LEVELS) </li></ul><ul><li>All Life Stages </li></ul>On reserve in Library
    46. 47. Life Stage: Adult
    47. 48. Life Stage: Adult – Canine Recommended 3500 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 2.5% 1.6% 0.5% 0.6% 5% 18% .4%-.9% .5%-1.0% 10-20% 15-30% 3500 - 4500 Kcal/kg Image Source: Dr. Geneva Acor, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Calories/Energy Fat Calcium Phosphorus Protein
    48. 49. What Defines a Large Breed Dog? <ul><li>ANY DOG WHOSE IDEAL ADULT WEIGHT IS 55# OR MORE </li></ul>
    49. 50. Life Stage: Large Breed Adult <ul><li>Carnitine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases & improves fat metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports healthy heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glucosamine & Chondroitin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps maintain healthy joints </li></ul></ul>
    50. 51. Life Stage: Adult - Feline Recommended 4000 Kcal/kg AAFCO Minimum 0.5% 0.04% 9% 26% 0.5%-0.8% 0.04-0.1% 10-30% 30-45% 4000 - 5000 Kcal/kg Source: Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc. Calories/Energy Fat Calcium Phosphorus Protein
    51. 52. Life Stage: Adult - Feline <ul><li>Taurine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential Amino Acid; Helps maintain normal heart function, retinal structure, and reproduction and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid excesses </li></ul></ul>
    52. 53. How Much Food Does Bevo Need? 616 kcals 1.6 1.6 x 616 kcals = 986 kcals 986 kcals per day 441 kcals/cup = 2¼ cups RER RER = 30 x (BWkg) +70 DER Factor Pg. 15 DER # cups to be fed/day <ul><li>“ Bevo” 2yrs old; </li></ul><ul><li>M(N) 40# BCS 3/5 </li></ul><ul><li>Average activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Eats Purina ONE™ Beef & Rice Formula 441 kcals/cup </li></ul>
    53. 54. Life Stage: Growth Carly, 5 months Amanda Adels “ Maisey” 8 months Stephanie Caviglia
    54. 55. Life Stage: Puppies & Kittens <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Nutritional Needs </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT Carbohydrates
    55. 56. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy
    56. 57. Life Stage: Large Breed Puppy <ul><li>As Compared with Small/Medium Breed Puppies </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO
    57. 58. Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    58. 59. Pre-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    59. 60. Post-surgical radiograph Ben, 8-year old, mixed breed
    60. 61. What Purina Learned… <ul><li>The Purina Life Span Study </li></ul><ul><li>14 year study (1987 – 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: “Evaluate the effects of food intake on body condition…and life span.” </li></ul>www.purinavets.com User name: purinavets Password: nutrition Search: Life Span Study JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002
    61. 62. <ul><li>Life Span Study Parameters </li></ul><ul><li>48 Labrador Retrievers </li></ul><ul><li>Paired by sex and weight and assigned at random to control or limit-fed group </li></ul><ul><li>Followed for 14 years </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluated radiographs for osteoarthritis </li></ul>Obesity & Skeletal Disease
    62. 63. Clinical Findings JAVMA, Vol. 220, No. 9, May 1, 2002 Control Group Limit-fed Group Hip joint lesions 15/22 3/21 Shoulder joint lesions 19/22 12/21
    63. 64. Clinical Findings <ul><li>Feeding dogs to a leaner body condition increases their life span and reduces incidences of osteopathies </li></ul>Excess Fat/ Energy Density
    64. 65. Beware Excessive Calcium in Large Breed Dog Diets <ul><li>11 Great Dane pups (5 - 10 weeks old) </li></ul><ul><li>Fed free choice for 1 hour twice daily </li></ul><ul><li>5 fed food with 1.1% Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>6 fed food with 3.3% Calcium </li></ul>JAAHA, 21:377 1985 Excess Calcium
    65. 66. 1.18% Ca 3.3% Ca Excessive Calcium Hazewinkle, Thesis, Utrecht 1985
    66. 67. Life Stage: Reproduction/Lactation Baby & Pups
    67. 68. Life Stage: Canine Reproduction/Lactation Canine Gestation <ul><ul><li>First 42 days: Feed as average adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 21 days: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed 3 x RER </li></ul></ul>Canine Lactation <ul><ul><li>Varies with number of puppies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range is from 3 x RER to ≥ 6 x RER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed ad libitum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy needs peak at 4 th week of lactation </li></ul></ul>
    68. 69. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/Lactation Thepetcenter.com Wikipedia.com
    69. 70. Life Stage: Feline Reproduction/Lactation Feline Gestation <ul><ul><li>Consumption increases linearly during gestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase to 1.6 x RER at breeding </li></ul></ul>Feline Lactation <ul><ul><li>Greatest nutritional need peaks at 6 th week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 6 x RER, ad libitum </li></ul></ul>
    70. 71. FEEDING ANNIE 910 kcals 5.5 5.5 x 910 kcals = 5005 kcals 5005 kcals per day 372 kcals/cup = 13½ c. Which Type of Food Will You Feed Annie While She’s Pregnant And Lactating? REGULAR PUPPY FOOD SD Puppy Lamb Meal and Rice Formula <ul><li>“ Annie” F(I); 4 yrs old Dalmatian </li></ul><ul><li>62# BCS 3/5 </li></ul><ul><li>Whelped 7 pups 2 wks ago </li></ul>RER RER = 30 x BWkg +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day
    71. 72. Life Stage: Senior Stephanie’s Cat 18 yrs, M(N) DSH Crystal Branch Stephanie Caviglia “ Ginger” 14 yrs, F(N) Scottish Terrier
    72. 73. Life Stage: Senior Dogs & Cats <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS SODIUM FAT CHO
    73. 74. Life Stage: Senior “ Minky” 15 years <ul><li>Glucosamine & Chondroitin </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain healthy joints </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Helps protect heart health </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Helps protect kidneys in old age </li></ul>
    74. 75. Life Style Feeding <ul><li>Feeding animals foods formulated to support optimal health and meet their nutritional needs based on their life style and activity level. </li></ul><ul><li>Life Style Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity Prone </li></ul></ul>
    75. 76. Life Style: Active Adult What is the most important nutritional factor for an active lifestyle? High Energy Density
    76. 77. Life Style: Active Canine <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT CHO  Flickr
    77. 78. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>“ Light” or “Lite” or “Low Calorie” </li></ul><ul><li>AAFCO Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3100 kcal/kg dry dog food </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 3250 kcal/kg dry cat food </li></ul>
    78. 79. Life Style: Obesity & Obese Prone <ul><li>As Compared with Adult Life Stage </li></ul>PROTEIN PHOSPHORUS CALCIUM FAT FIBER Source: Funny-cats.com
    79. 80. No visible waistline Fat pools around tailbase “ Missy” English Pointer F(N); 92# BCS 5/5 Karen Pogmore
    80. 81. “ Rocky” 7years, M(N) DSH 20# BCS 5/5 (enjoys yoga  ) Nicole Polizzi
    81. 82. Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
    82. 83. Managing Obese & Obese Prone Animals <ul><li>Beware of Marketing Claims </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
    83. 84. <ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>Amadeus, 26lbs
    84. 85. Feeding Methods <ul><li>Ad libitum </li></ul><ul><li>Time limited </li></ul><ul><li>Portion limited </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
    85. 86. Exercise is Important Too! <ul><li>What Are Some Ways To Get Your Cat to Exercise? </li></ul><ul><li>FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>FEEDING METHOD </li></ul><ul><li>EXERCISE </li></ul><ul><li>OWNER </li></ul>
    86. 87. Rocky’s Energy Needs “ Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RULE FOR OVERWEIGHT ANIMALS Calculate RER based on TARGET WEIGHT , NOT Current Weight WHERE WOULD YOU FIND ROCKY’S TARGET WEIGHT?
    87. 88. Rocky’s Energy Needs 315 kcals 0.8 0.8 x 315 kcals = 252 kcals 252 kcals per day 283 kcals/cup = ~ 4 / 5 cup INTERIM Target Weight: 18 lbs Science Diet® Feline Hairball Control Light Adult – Dry 283 kcals/cup “ Rocky” 7yrs; M(N), DSH 20lbs, BCS 5/5 RER RER = 30 x BW(kg) +70 DER Factor DER # cups to be fed/day
    88. 89. Next Week: Pet Food Labels <ul><li>BRING A LABEL FROM A CAN, BAG, POUCH, CHUB, or FOIL PACK OF DOG OR CAT FOOD ONLY </li></ul>

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