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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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  1. 1. Pigsporcine
  2. 2. Terminology• Sow- adult female having had one or more litters• Gilt- female not having reached sexual maturity or has not had a litter• Boar- intact adult male• Pig- any swine other than sow, gilt, boar• Barrow- neutered adult male• Farrow- to give birth
  3. 3. Production Management• Pasture- Fewer animals per acre- Decreased incidence of respiratory disease, parasitism- Alternate land use when hog market is poor
  4. 4. • Confinement units- Environment impact- Animal welfare issues- Management intensive- Increased production, increased investment- All in/ all out management
  5. 5. Production information• Sows average 2 litters per year• Litter size average 9-10 piglets• Average weaned per litter, 8• Highest death losses in first 3-4 days of life• Weaned at 3-4 weeks, 10-15 lbs• Nursery to 10 weeks of age, 50 lbs• Finishes at 250 lb market weight
  6. 6. Estrus in swine• Polyestrus all year• Estrus detection- Lumbar pressure- Boar scent
  7. 7. Behavior• Aggressive behavior has serious economic and physical consequences• Adult boars will circle and threaten, fighting sideways, pushing and slashing with tusks• Separate boars with solid plywood• Do not put new animal in established group, they will attack and my kill• Lactating sows will attack if perceive baby is hurt
  8. 8. Hog Breeds• Yorkshire- white, ears up, most common• Duroc- red, floppy ear, second most common• Landrace- white, bigger floppy ears, long bacon body• Chester white- white, floppy ears, not as long as landrace• Hampshire- Black pig with white band around belly, similar to beltedGalloway cattle
  9. 9. Market Stock• Birth to feeder- 40 lbs• Feeder to finisher – 40-200 lbs• Birth to slaughter – 250 lbs
  10. 10. Environmental temp• Newborn 90-95• Weaning 80-85• Post weaning 70• Adult 50-60• Mature sow/pigs 50-55Farrowing pen- one space with twotemperatures by a warming light for piglets
  11. 11. Nutrition• Pigs have the same GI tracts as humans, monogastric• Usually utilize soy for protein and corn for energy in hog diets
  12. 12. Porcine Stress Syndrome• Pigs are very sensitive to stress• Trucking, environmental change, management• People that treat pigs nicely are rewarded with increased production
  13. 13. Breeding Sow• Bred at 6-7 months, 200 lbs• Want 14 teats per sow• Males bred at 5-6 months, 200 lbs• Back fat and loin eye measured on live animals with ultrasound• 1 male/20 females• 8-15 gilts per pen• Artificial insemination regularly used• Progesterone for estrus synchronization
  14. 14. Newborns• Must have iron as milk is deficient, indoor do not have access to iron in soild• Inject iron in neck or feed sod• Castrate males at 2 weeks• Intact males stink and meat tastes funny, wait 6 months after castration before slaughter
  15. 15. Housing• Water nipples place so pigs reach up slightly to drink• 1 nipple/10 pigs, minimum 2 nipples per pen• Monitor environment at floor level• Will climb vertical slats• Chutes and docks should have solid walls• Humidity 50-60%• Ventilate from young to old• Remove tails to prevent them from being chewed off
  16. 16. Swine Viral Diseases• Swine influenza- Highly contagious, whole herd in 1-3 days- Fever, anorexia, coughing, barking sound, mortality 1-4%, morbidity 100%- Treatment: nursing care- Rare but can be zoonotic, affected animals cannot appear at pubic functions
  17. 17. • Transmissible Gastroenteritis ( TGE)- Affects baby pigs less than 10 days of age- Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, death- Morbidity and mortality 100%- Prepatent period 24-48 hours- DX- virus isolation from baby pigs intestine at onset of diarrhea- Tx of little value- Prevention: vaccinate during gestation, feed pregnant sows macerated intestines of baby pigs that have dies of TGE
  18. 18. • Parvovirus- SMEDI: stillbirths, mummified fetuses, embryonic deaths, infertility- Trans: oral, consumption of viremic fecal material- Tx: none- Preventiona. Vaccinate sows pre-breedingb. Allow gilts/replacement sows to comingle with stock or access to stock feces prior to breeding
  19. 19. • Pseudorabies ( Aujesky’s disease/mad itch)- Affects pigs ( cattle, dogs)- Morbidity and mortality: suckling pigs 100%, mature pigs asymptomatic infection and spontaneous recovery- Trans: direct contact with contaminated feces and water- Prepatent period: 2-7 days
  20. 20. • Pseudorabies signs• Suckling pigs- Fever 107, incoordination, recumbency, paddling- Convulsions, death within 12 hours of onset of symptoms• Feeder pigs- Mortality < 5%, fever, posterior incoordination, weakness• Pregnant sows abort
  21. 21. • Pseudorabies cont• Diagnosis: serology, virus isolation, fluorescent antibody• Tx: hyperimmune serum administered to baby pigs in presence of outbreak• Prev: strict sanitation, isolation, all in all out• REPORTABLE DISEASE
  22. 22. Bacterial Diseases of Swine• Atrophic Rhinitis• Infectious agents: Bordatella bronchiseptica and Pasteurella multocida• Symptoms- Atrophy of turbinate bones- Deviation of snout- Increased susceptibility to other respiratory diseases- Decreased rate of gain- Carcass devalued at slaughter
  23. 23. • Atrophic rhinitis cont• Trans: aerosol and direct nose to nose, carrier sows infect piglets, piglets infect other piglets• Prevention- Vaccinate prior to clinical disease- Prevalence of organisms in herds 25-50%- NOTE: vacc does not eliminate organisms from herd but prevents signs
  24. 24. • Colibacillosis• Infectious agent: E.coli enterotoxin producing• Symptoms: related to age of pig, 1-4 days of age mortality 70%• Prepatent: 12-24 hours• Litters from gilts more likely to be affected• Dx: fecal culture• Litmus test- ph> 8 E. coli, ph<7 viral or protozoal
  25. 25. • Colibacillosis con’t• Tx: antibiotics, fluid replacement, nutrition• Prevention- Commercial vaccine, autogenous bacterin- Milk culture fed to sows during gestation- Sanitation, good management, minimize stress
  26. 26. • Clostridial Enteritis ( hemorrhagic enteritis, bloody scours)• Infectious agent: Clostridium perfringens Type C• Affected: baby pigs <7 days old• Symptoms: bloody diarrhea, dehydration, death• Tx: none, symptoms due to toxin• Prevention: vaccinate sows/gilts during gestation, administer Type D antitoxin to baby pigs at birth
  27. 27. • Erysipelas• Infectious agent: Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, is ubiquitous in environment, cultured from 50% of normal swine• Symptoms:Acute- Fever > 108, abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses- Diamond shaped skin lesions- Sudden death
  28. 28. • Erysipelas contSubacute/chronic- Inappetance, infertility, arthritis, heart valve damage, endocarditisPrevention- Vaccination- Good management practices, sanitation, deworming, nutrition, eliminate other co-existing diseases in herd, minimize stressZOONOTIC
  29. 29. • Leptospirosis• Symptoms: abortions, stillbirths, birth of weak, non-viable pigs• NOTE: permanent carrier state exists. Organisms persist in kidneys and or reproductive tract, intermittently shed in urine or repro tract secretions and discharge• Prevention- vaccinateZOONOTIC
  30. 30. Disease Rules of Thumb• If the disease manifests during pregnancy ( abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses, weak pigs at term), vaccinate prior to breeding• If the disease manifests post farrowing, ( in baby pigs) vaccinate during pregnancy
  31. 31. Miscellaneous Diseases/conditions• Mastitis/Metritis/Agalactica• Affected: sows 12-48 hours post farrowing• Symptoms: fever, depression, anorexia, lack of interest in baby pigs, mastitis• Duration: 2-4 days• Mortality- Sows < 2%- Baby pigs >80% due to starvation and crushing• Tx: antibiotics, oxytocin, transfer baby pigs to another clinically normal sows
  32. 32. • Porcine Stress Syndrome ( malignant hyperthermia)• Heritable disease of Ca metabolism in heavilty muscled breeds• Stress ( handling, processing, transportation) not necessarily related to high env. Temps and halothane anesthesia result in elevation of core temp
  33. 33. • Porcine stess syndrome cont• Symptoms:- Muscle tremors, twitching, dyspnea, cyanosis- Muscle rigidity, death within 15-20 minutes- Post mortem pale, soft, exudative meat, (PSE) carcass devalued• Prev/control: genetic testing for recessive gene
  34. 34. • Iron deficiency• Disease of confinement- baby pigs on dirt have access to iron in soil• Routine processing of baby pigs include:- Nipping teeth, notching ears, docking tails, ironinjection, nose rings ( installed in pasture raisedhogs to prevent rooting/destructive behavior)
  35. 35. Historical diseases1. Swine pox- virus, carried by lice, skin lesions, immune by recovery2. Parakeratosis- Deficiency in Zn or excess Ca, 6-16 weeks, skin lesions, correct diet to control3. Greasy pig disease- Exudative epidermitis, sick pigs with abnormally thickened and exudative skin, Staph. Hyicus, recovery leads to immunity
  36. 36. Preventative Health Program• Prebreeding recommendations for Boars- Purchase at least 60 days before breeding- Quarantine at least 30 days, then allow fence contact with sows/gilts for 30 days- Immunize for leptospirosis and erysipelas- Treat for internal and external parasites
  37. 37. • Prebreeding for sows and gilts- Immunize for leptospirosis, porcine parvovirus and psuedorabies 2-4 weeks prebreeding- Flush gilts by increasing energy in diet to increase ovulation for breeding- Treat for internal and external parasites
  38. 38. • Prefarrowing for sows and gilts- Limit feed to 4 lb per head to avoid obesity- Immunize for colibacillosis, atrophic rhinitis, erysipelas, TGE, porcine rotavirus and Clostridium perfringens type D- Treat for internal and external parasites with approved products• Farrowing- gradually increase feed ( 1lb of feed for every pig nursed)
  39. 39. General Recommendations for piglets• Birth- Clip needle teeth, dock tails, ear notch, inject iron dextran• One week- Immunize for TGE, rotavirus, atrophic rhinitis• Two weeks- castrate
  40. 40. Piglets con’t• 4-5 weeks- weaning, immunize for atrophic rhinitis, erysipelas, Actinobacillosis infection• 6-8 weeks- Treat for internal and external parasites• > 8 weeks- Repeated treatments for external parasites