Physical Geography
Class 5: Earth Movements and
Seasons
What are the changes that happen
seasonally?
• Think about local changes
• Changes elsewhere
• List, with your group, as m...
What do you notice about the Sun’s
angle throughout the year?
• Is the sun at the same height each morning
when you wake u...
Why is it warmer in Summer?
14%
7%
79%
1 2 3
1. We’re closer to the
Sun in our annual
orbit
2. We receive more
direct sunl...
What causes Earth’s seasons?
• Is it the distance to the Sun?
How does distance to Sun change
throughout year?
• Perihelion – orbital point closest to sun
• Aphelion – orbital point fu...
So what does cause seasons?
• Angle of sun’s rays changes
• This changes the “subsolar point” = point on
Earth that receiv...
Why is it hotter in summer?
What caused the angle of the Sun’s
rays to change?
• From day to night…..
• From season to season……
• And from place to pl...
1. Rotation
2. Axial Parallellism
• North Pole stays
pointed toward Polaris
• All day long….
• All year long
3. Revolution
4. Tilt of Earth
This shows axial parallelism, revolution
and tilt
5. Sphericity
• Also shows rotation and tilt
Changing Day Lengths
Where are seasonal changes the most
pronounced?
7%
57%7%
29%
1 2 3 4
1. Sub Polar
2. Mid Latitudes
3. Sub Tropical
4. Equa...
What if Earth were NOT tilted?
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
7%
13% 13%
0%
60%
0%
7%
1. No change
2. Day lengths would stay same all
year ...
What if Earth were more tilted?
1 2 3 4
0% 0%0%0%
1. Conditions would stay the same
2. Summers would be warmer and
winter ...
Special Latitudes
Time lapse “Sunset” at Barrow
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons
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Pg tps12-class5-earth movements and seasons

  1. 1. Physical Geography Class 5: Earth Movements and Seasons
  2. 2. What are the changes that happen seasonally? • Think about local changes • Changes elsewhere • List, with your group, as many seasonal differences as you can think of
  3. 3. What do you notice about the Sun’s angle throughout the year? • Is the sun at the same height each morning when you wake up? • Is the sun in the same direction every morning when you drive to school? • Does the sun reach the same height in the sky at its highest throughout the year? • Think about changes – in your home, along your commute, at school, etc.
  4. 4. Why is it warmer in Summer? 14% 7% 79% 1 2 3 1. We’re closer to the Sun in our annual orbit 2. We receive more direct sunlight 3. Our hemisphere is tilted toward the sun, making us closer to the sun than the other hemisphere
  5. 5. What causes Earth’s seasons? • Is it the distance to the Sun?
  6. 6. How does distance to Sun change throughout year? • Perihelion – orbital point closest to sun • Aphelion – orbital point furthest from sun
  7. 7. So what does cause seasons? • Angle of sun’s rays changes • This changes the “subsolar point” = point on Earth that receives Sun’s direct (90 degree) rays
  8. 8. Why is it hotter in summer?
  9. 9. What caused the angle of the Sun’s rays to change? • From day to night….. • From season to season…… • And from place to place?
  10. 10. 1. Rotation
  11. 11. 2. Axial Parallellism • North Pole stays pointed toward Polaris • All day long…. • All year long
  12. 12. 3. Revolution
  13. 13. 4. Tilt of Earth
  14. 14. This shows axial parallelism, revolution and tilt
  15. 15. 5. Sphericity • Also shows rotation and tilt
  16. 16. Changing Day Lengths
  17. 17. Where are seasonal changes the most pronounced? 7% 57%7% 29% 1 2 3 4 1. Sub Polar 2. Mid Latitudes 3. Sub Tropical 4. Equatorial
  18. 18. What if Earth were NOT tilted? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7% 13% 13% 0% 60% 0% 7% 1. No change 2. Day lengths would stay same all year long for every latitude 3. All latitudes would experience the same temp; earth would have one consistent climate 4. There would be no seasonal change in weather conditions anywhere 5. There would be no diurnal (day to night) changes in temp 6. Both 2 and 4 would be correct 7. Both 2 and 5 would be correct
  19. 19. What if Earth were more tilted? 1 2 3 4 0% 0%0%0% 1. Conditions would stay the same 2. Summers would be warmer and winter would be colder, but average temps would be same 3. More direct rays at higher latitudes in summer would lead to warmer overall annual temps 4. Less direct rays at higher latitudes in winter would lead to colder temps, more snowfall, more reflection and less absorption of sun, leading to overall cooling
  20. 20. Special Latitudes
  21. 21. Time lapse “Sunset” at Barrow
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