Pg tp-class24-precipitation
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    Pg tp-class24-precipitation Pg tp-class24-precipitation Presentation Transcript

    • Physical Geography Class 24 Types and Formation Of Precipitation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 1
    • Precipitation • Cloud droplets or crystals are too small to fall • Must combine to form precipitation
    • Warm Clouds: Collision - Coalescence • Water drops form by condensation • Grow by colliding with other drops • Result: Rain
    • Cold Clouds: Bergeron process • A mix of ice crystals and supercooled water droplets (water droplets below freezing but haven’t frozen yet) • Deposition (sublimation) causes ice crystals to grow • Snowflakes grow big enough to fall from cloud
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Cold Clouds 5 Figure 6-28
    • At which latitude would the Collision- Coalescense process be most common? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 6 73% 27% 0% 1. Polar 2. Mid-latitudes 3. Tropical
    • Types of Precipitation • Snow (ice crystals) • Rain and drizzle (liquid) • Freezing rain or Glaze • Sleet • Hail
    • At which surface temperature would it be hardest to predict type of precipitation? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 8 20% 50% 30% 0% 1. -10 to -6 degrees C 2. -2 to 2 degrees C 3. 6 to10 degrees C 4. 16 to 20 degrees C
    • Snow © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 9
    • What can happen to ice crystals on their way from a cloud to the ground? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 10 100% 0% 0% 0% 1. It can remain in its original frozen form 2. It can melt and become rain 3. It can melt and then refreeze 4. Any of the above can occur
    • What can happen to snow on its way to Earth? • Can melt and form raindrops • Can stay snowflakes • Can melt and then refreeze  sleet or freezing rain
    • Sleet = frozen pellets • Snow melts, then refreezes in air
    • Freezing Rain • Melts on its way to Earth, freezes only when it contacts a solid surface
    • Which is more hazardous? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 16 0% 100% 0% 1. Sleet 2. Freezing rain 3. Snow
    • Hail • Forms in cumulonimbus clouds only
    • During which season is hail most common? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 18 27% 9% 0% 18% 45% 1. Winter 2. Spring 3. Summer 4. Fall 5. Equally common in all four seasons
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Atmospheric Lifting • Four types of atmospheric lifting 19 Figure 6-32
    • Orographic Precipitation • Ask me to tell you about my Glacier Park camping trip (or stop me from repeating myself)
    • Hawaii – where do the winds come from?
    • Winds travel from: © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 22 82% 0% 9% 9% 1. Bottom right to upper left 2. Top left to bottom right 3. Bottom left to upper right 4. Top right to bottom left
    • GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF PRECIPITATION 23
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Distribution of Precipitation • High precipitation regions, tropics • Low precipitation regions, deserts and poles 24 Figure 6-34
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Distribution of Precipitation 25 Figure 6-35
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Acid Rain • Definition of acid rain • Sources of acid rain • Principal acids— sulfuric and nitric • Number of hydrogen ions—pH 26 Figure 6-38
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Distribution of acid rain in US 27
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 28
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 29
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. 30
    • THE END 31
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary • Moisture can impact the landscape in a variety of ways, including fog, haze, and precipitation • The hydrologic cycle shows the balance between water removed from the oceans and water returned by precipitation • Water has a number of unique properties • Water vapor is the gas form of water • Evaporation rates change as surrounding atmospheric conditions change • There are several measures of vapor content in the atmosphere 32
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary • There are several measures of vapor content in the atmosphere, called humidity measurements • Condensation is the process by which vapor is converted to liquid • Adiabatic processes explain changes in parcel temperature without the addition or subtraction of heat to the parcel • Clouds are a visual identification of saturation • Air has buoyancy associated with it that describes its stability 33
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Summary • Many processes are responsible for precipitation • There are five primary types of precipitation • Atmospheric lifting occurs through four primary mechanisms • The most highly variable rainfall worldwide occurs over deserts • Tropical regions are generally wet • Acid rain affects the Northeast and results from compounds released into the air by humans 34
    • © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Global Distribution of Precipitation 35 Figure 6-37