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Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
Pg class32-biosphere
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Pg class32-biosphere

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  • 1. Chapter 10: Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere McKnight’s Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation, Tenth Edition, Hess
  • 2. Photosynthesis and Respiration 2© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-3
  • 3. Carbon Cycle 3© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-6
  • 4. • 4© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-7
  • 5. Nitrogen Cycle 5© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-8
  • 6. Food Chains • Food chain—direct passage or energy and nutrients from one organism to another • More complex - food “web” 6© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-9
  • 7. Food Chains • Fundamental unit: producers (autotrophs), self feeders • Producers eaten by consumers (heterotrophs) – Primary consumers: herbivores – Secondary consumers: carnivores • Food pyramid • Decomposers begin the food pyramid again 7© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-10
  • 8. 8© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 9. THE END 9© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 10. Environmental Relationships • The influence of climate – Light • green plants need light to survive • Light changes shapes of plants (Figure 10-19) • Photoperiodism: stimulates seasonal plant behavior – Moisture • Distribution of biota governed more by moisture than any other factor • Biota evolution dictated by adaptation to moisture conditions 10© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-19 Figure 10-20
  • 11. Environmental Relationships • The influence of climate – Temperature • Different species can survive in different temperatures • Plants have limited cold temperature tolerance – Wind • Wind effects generally limited • Persistent winds can have limiting effects through increased drying • Strong winds can be destructive to biota 11© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-21
  • 12. Environmental Relationships • Topographic influences – Plants and animals in a plains region vastly different from a mountainous region – Slope and drainage • Wildfires – Result in complete or partial devastation of plant live and death or driving away of animals – Can be helpful for regrowth and maintaining of plant type 12© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-22
  • 13. Environmental Relationships • Example of selva (rainforest) – Occurs when climate is warm and has abundant precipitation – Abundance of precipitation and warmth leads to abundance of natural vegetation (flora), jungle – Numerous plants allow for fauna – Leaves, trees, branches decomposed by abundant fauna on floor, put into soil – Water runoff 13© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 10-24
  • 14. Summary • Plants and animals impact and interact with the landscape in numerous ways • Need a classification scheme for biota to understand geographically • Flora and fauna refer to plants and animals, respectively • Energy originates from the Sun and flows to organisms through photosynthesis • The hydrologic cycle describes the transition of water through the biosphere • The interaction of carbon with the biosphere is the carbon cycle 14© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  • 15. Summary • Oxygen and nitrogen cycle through the biosphere through the oxygen and nitrogen cycles, respectively • Other minerals cycle through the biosphere as well, but they are not as commonly observed • Food chains describe the passage of energy from one organism to another • There are four primary components to the natural distributions of biota • Numerous environmental relationships affect which biota exist in which regions 15© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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