2. X WordsThere are twenty words that are the fulcrum around which English sentences are built. What are they? Can you guess?
3. Words• am is are was were (to be)• have has had (to have)• do does did (to do)• shall will (future)• can may might must (one c and 3 m’s)• could would should (ould)
4. DEFINITION OF A SENTENCEIn the context of Sector Analysis, thedefinition of a sentence is:Any group of English words that we canchange into a logical yes/no question.
5. How to test for yes/no questionsX-WORDSFinding the subject of a sentenceam do couldis does wouldare did shouldwaswere shall can will mayhave mighthas musthad In order to find the subject of a sentence using x-words, we must learn the x-words first. Let’s memorize them.
6. Finding the subject of a sentenceTo find the subject of a sentence, first find the x-word. Put an “x” over the x-word.Example: This is an English class.Move the x-word to the beginning of thesentence. x Is this an English class?
7. We can see that this is a question that canonly be answered by a “yes” or “no”. And if welook at where the x-word was originally andwhere we moved it, we see that the word inbetween those positions is the subject of thesentence. Therefore, “this” is the subject ofthe sentence.
8. Two Rules1. You may not add or subtract any words with the exception of negatives – (“no” or “not” may be crossed out when making the question).2. There may be more than one x-word, but only one has the power to change the group of words to logical yes/no question.
9. Practice x xx x x x
10. The simple sentence: Using obvious x-words1. That man is very tall.2. The students are studying.3. Those who memorize the x-words will learn how to find the subject of a sentence.4. House cats should always be declawed.5. We could do our homework after dinner.
11. 6. Those students who are very diligent can get good grades.7. Students who do their homework may pass this class.8. The teacher isn’t being very clear.9. English grammar can be easy.10. Learning to write sentences should be fun.
12. The yes/no questions: x x1. Is that man very tall? x x2. Are the students studying? x x3. Will those who memorize the x-words learn how to find the subject of a sentence? x x4. Should house cats always be declawed? x x5. Could we do our homework after dinner?
13. 6. Those students who are very diligent can get good grades.7. Students who do their homework may pass this class.8. The teacher isn’t being very clear.9. English grammar can be easy.10. Learning to write sentences should be fun.
14. Hidden X-Words DO DOES DIDIn order to figure out if there is a hidden x-word in the sentence, we first look for words ending in “s”. Does ends in “s”.For example, if we see a sentence like this: Mary wants to pass the English final exam.We need to ask the question, “are there any obvious x- words in the group of words?Answer: No.
15. The next question we ask is, are there any words ending in “s”? Yes.There are two: wants and passWe will try the word “wants” first. Mary wants to pass the English final exam. (wants = does want) Mary does want to pass the English final exam. Does Mary want to pass the English final exam?Logical? Yes.
16. We could try it with “pass” just to check the logic. Mary wants to does pass the English exam.This makes no sense at all!
17. Therefore, we will go with “does want”.Put an “x” over the word “does”. x Mary does want to pass the English final exam.Move “does” to the beginning of the sentence. x x Does Mary want to pass the English final exam? Is this a logical yes/no question? Yes. Is this a sentence? Yes. The subject of this sentence is Mary.
18. Hidden X Words DOES PracticePractice making yes/no questions by findingdoes as the x-word. Underline the subject ofeach sentence. The subject is all the wordsbetween the original x-word position andwhere you moved it to make a yes/noquestion.
19. 1. Maria loves to draw with colored pencil. (loves= does love)2. The big, strong man named Ted likes to work out at the gym. (likes=does like)3. The student learns x-words in order to make yes/no questions. (learns=does learn)4. Giving students A’s makes the teacher happy. (makes=does make)5. Amanda makes friends wherever she goes. (makes=does make)
20. x x1. Does Maria love to draw with colored pencils? x x2. Does the big, strong man named Ted like to work out at the gym.? x x3. Does the student learn x-words in order to make yes/no questions? x x4. Does giving students A’s make the teacher happy? x x5. Does Amanda make friends wherever she goes.
21. Hidden x-words DO DOES DIDIn order to test a sentence for the x-word did, we must ask a few questions. Are there words ending in ed or are there words going on in the past tense? DID is found in words that end in ed or words that are going on in the past tense.
22. Example: The men worked in the house allday.In this example, we have a word ending in ed.(worked)Change worked to did work, and put an x overdid.
23. X did workThe men worked in the house all day.Move the did to the front of the group of words.XDid the men work in the house all day?(Notice that the ed drops out once you change it to did) Is this logical yes/no question? YES! The subject of the sentence is the men.
24. New example: The dogs ran around the yard.In this example, we have a word going on in the past tense. RanThere is another way to express ran; it is did run.The dogs did run around the yard.
25. Now we can put an x over the x-word. x The dogs did run around the yard.And we move it to the front of the group of words. x x Did the dogs run around the yard?Is this a logical yes/no question? Yes!The subject of the sentence is the dogs.
26. Hidden X Words DID PracticePractice making yes/no questions with wordsending in ed or that are going on in the pasttense. Find the did, move it to the front of thesentence is. The subject of the sentence is allthe words in between the original x-wordposition and where you moved it.
27. 1. The chefs grated carrots for the salad. (grated=did grate)2. We gave money to charity last year. (gave=did give)3. The working students found it harder to keep awake during class. (found=did find)4. Working diligently and consistently on essays made getting a good grade easier. (made=did make)
28. X x1. Did the chefs grate carrots for the salad? x x2. Did we give money to charity last year? x x3. Did the working students find it harder to keep awake during class? x4. Did working diligently and consistently on essays x make getting a good grade easier?
29. Hidden X-Words DO DOES DID DOIn order to find do, look between words. For example, consider thissentence: I walk to school.Is there any obvious x-word in this group of words? No.Is there any word ending in “s”? No.Is there any word ending in “ed” or going to be past tense? No.
30. Therefore, we must put the word “do” between each word to see if it makes sense anywhere.I do walk to school.That makes sense, doesn’t it? Yes.Now we can put an x-word over the word do. xI do walk to school.
31. Move the x-word to the beginning of the sentence. x xDo I walk to school?Is this a logical yes/no question? Yes.Therefore, is this a sentence? Yes!The subject of this sentence is I.
32. Hidden X Words DO PracticePractice finding the hidden x-word do and turningthese groups of words into logical yes/noquestions. Underline the subject of eachsentence. The subject is all the words betweenthe original x-word and where you moved it.
33. 1. Students create interesting essays from their experiences. (create= do create)2. Students working diligently and consistently pass their exams. (pass=do pass)3. The women wearing aprons and chefs hats grate carrots for the salad. (grate=do grate)4. The working men with sweat on their brows build houses every day. (build=do build)
34. x x1. Do students create interesting essays from their experiences? x x2. Do students working diligently and consistently pass their exams? x x3. Do the women wearing aprons and chef’s hats grate carrots for the salad? x x4. Do the working men with sweat on their brows build houses every day?
35. Compound Sentences and, but, for, or, nor so, yetThe list above has the coordinating conjunctions which are used to form compound sentences. Learn them! They are sometimes called FANBOYS: For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
36. Compound sentences consist of two (or more) completesentences (two or more yes/no questions) that the writerwants to put together to form a conjoined thought. Whenthe writer does this, there must be a conjunction with acomma before it to join the thoughts.Example: Mary washed her hair, and she brushed herteeth.Here, we have two yes/no questions joined by aconjunction plus a comma.That is a compound sentence.
37. The yes/no questions are: Did Mary wash her hair? Did she brush her teeth? or Did Mary wash her hair, and did she brush her teeth?
38. However, if we say:Mary washed her hair and brushed her teeth.
39. We do not have a compound sentence. Thiswould be a simple sentence, and it gets nocomma. The yes/no question for thatsentence would be:Did Mary wash her hair and brush her teeth?
40. This rule applies to many of the sentences you write onyour papers. For example, here is one from last week’sassignment: “ I knew it would be a lot of work, but now I think I’m ready.”As yes/no questions, this is how it would look. Did I know it would be a lot of work? Do I think I’m ready now?
41. Here is another example of a student’s use ofcompound sentences:“I have a better attitude, and I know mybehavior will play a big part in my success.”Find the yes/no questions in the abovesentences.
42. You will find another explanation ofcompound sentences in your text on pages540-543.Do Practices 1 and 2 for homework. Be sure tofollow the directions! And you can use yes/noquestions to test the sentences, as well.
43. Practice Compound Sentences Place a comma before the conjunction when there are two logical yes/no questions.1. We thought we knew English grammar but we were mistaken.2. There were so many movies to choose from so we tossed a coin to see which one we wanted.3. We loved eating popcorn and loved watching this movie.4. We did not want to go home nor did we want to study for our test.
44. Complex Sentences (Putting the X to the comma)This type of sentence has two groups of words: dependent clause and independent clause. ( A fragment plus a logical yes/no question)
45. First, we must test a group of words to see if it is afragment.Example: Because I am a student.Is this a sentence? Test for x. Find the x word and moveit to beginning of the group of words. x xBecause I am a student. Am because I a student?Does this make sense? NO.It is not a sentence. It is a FRAGMENT.
46. Therefore, we must add another group of words thatcan be changed into a logical yes/no questions. Because I am a student I go to the library every day.Put a comma directly after the fragment and changethe other group of words into a logical yes/noquestion.Hint: MOVE THE X WORD TO THE COMMA! The X wordis do. x x Because I am a student, do I go to the library every day?
47. The subject of the sentence is I. All the otherwords are part of the predicate, including thewhole independent clause (or fragment).Note: How do we know that the x word is do?We know this because am is already in thesentence, so we know we have to keep thesentence in present tense.
48. Practice Complex Sentences Put the x-word to the comma, and change the rest of the words to a logical yes/no question.1. Because I am a student, I must learn to study smart.2. When I study my x-words, I do have a powerful tool to learn English.3. While the teacher was teaching, we listened.4. If I can manage to sleep with my eyes open, I may be able to get through this class.5. Although I am studying all the time.6. I still find it difficult to be a good student.7. As the final exam will be coming up soon, I know I need to write many essays for practice.
49. There is one other rule to consider whenwriting a complex sentence. Although we canwrite a complex sentence with the dependentclause (fragment) first, we can also write itwith the dependent clause second in thesentence.Example: I go to the library every day becauseI am a student.
50. In this example, we have the independent clausefirst in the sentence. Notice that there is nocomma when we write the sentence this way.Change this sentence to a logical yes/noquestion. x xDo I go to the library every day because I am astudent?
51. It looks like a simple sentence when we write it this way, but it is not. The subordinating conjunction, because, tells us that we have a complex sentence no matter where it occurs in the sentence. Study the subordinating conjunctions to know when you have a complex sentence.Most Common Subordinating Conjunctions After, although, as, as if, as soon as, as though, because, before, even though, if, since though, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever , while