Dairy cattle
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Dairy cattle



VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing



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Dairy cattle Dairy cattle Presentation Transcript

  • Dairy Cattle
  • Terminology• Cow- female that has had one or more calves• Bull- intact sexually mature male• Calf- newborn of either sex or intact male that has not reached sexual maturity• Calve-verb, to give birth• Heifer- female that has not had a calf• Steer- neutered male of any age
  • • Freemartin- genetic female born twin to a male, sterile as a result of arrested development of the reproductive tract. Ovaries are hypoplastic and most lack a cervix. More common in cattle than in sheep and goats.
  • • Polled- born without horns• Shrink- weight loss, ( leading to financial loss) associated with stress, transportation, weaning• Freshen- verb, to give birth• Pasteurize- flash heating to kill bacteria• Homogenize- blending technique used to prevent cream from separating from milk
  • Breeds of Dairy Cattle• Holstein- black and white or red and white• Jersey- soft brown, small cow, fat and protein production higher in milk• Ayrshire- brick red and white, looks like a small Holstein• Guernsey- butterscotch color, lots of white, skin is yellow, resemble jersey• Brown Swiss- largest, chocolate milk color, late to mature
  • Industry Facts• Average milk production per cow is 18,200 lbs• 305 day lactation period ( 10 mos) and a 60 day dry period ( 2 mos) equals a 12 month calving interval• Milk production peaks 4-6 weeks after freshening• Milked 2 times a day
  • Dairy Products• Milk and milk by products• Replacement heifers ( average 30-40% of the herd is replaced each year)• Veal calves• Dairy steers fed out as beef cattle
  • Nutrition• Water- most important nutrient, average 20 gallons per head per day• Factors that increase water consumption- Environmental heat and humidity- Lactation- Exercise- diet
  • Factors that decrease water consumption• Palatability• Temperature• Salinity/mineral content• Medication• Availability/ competition• illness
  • Body Scoring System• Monitoring body score to maximize production• Monitoring body score to minimize disease
  • Conditions associated with high body scores ( 4 or 5)• Dystocia- impeded fetal passage through birth canal• Retained placenta, metritis• Ketosis- increase in ketone bodies in tissues and body fluids• Displaced abomassum, liver abcesses• Milk fever- acute flaccid paralysis after calving, need emergency ca
  • Conditions associated with low body scores ( 1 or 2)• Infertility/ delayed conception• Prolonged interval before resuming normal estrus cycles post calving• Decreased milk production• Decreased milk fat content
  • When to assess body score• Midway through the period• At freshening• 45 days into lactation• 90 days into lactation• 180 days into lactation• 270 days into lactation
  • Body Score Goals• Midway through dry period 3.5• At freshening 3.5• 45 days into lactation 3.0• 90 days into lactation > 2.5• 180 days into lactation 3.0• 270 days into lactation 3.5
  • Terminology• Vector- individual ( arthropod, mammal, avian etc) which transfers and infectious agent• Fomite- inanimate object which mechanically transfers an infectious agent• Intermediate host- an organism passes through its larval or asexual stages of development• Dead end host- organisms life cycle is interrupted, disease not transmitted
  • • Definitive host- host in which organism attains sexual maturity and is able to be transmitted• Reservoir host- host, other than definitive, in which organism can exist, usually w/o causing clinical disease• Latency- presence of a pathogenic organism without clinical disease but with the potential for clinical disease to develop when triggered
  • • Pre-patent period- interval from exposure to onset of clinical symptoms• Infective period- period during which a disease is able to be transmitted from one definitive host to another• Lateral/horizontal transmission- transmission other than by placental transfer or lactation• Vaccination- the administration of a vaccine
  • • Immunization- the development of protective immunity through challenge with pathogen, with vaccine or natural exposure• Bacterin- vaccine derived from killed bacteria or bacterial fragments• Index case- initial case of disease outbreak• Endemic- present in the population at a steady rate• Epidemic- disease occurrence rises
  • • Morbidity- incidence of disease in a population, stated as a percentage• Mortality- incidence of death ( as caused by a specific disease) stated as a percentage
  • Disease Outbreak Management• Index case• Symptomatic animals• Asymptomatic animals• Latency• resevoirs
  • Disease ContainmentOrganism identification- virus/bacteria/parasitic/other- Prepatent period- Infective period- Environmental persistance/viability- Mode of disease transmission- Source of organism
  • Hosts immune response to pathogenic organisms• Does natural infection confer immunity?• What is the duration of immunity?• Vaccinal immunity?a. Vaccinate prior to exposureb. Vaccinate in face of outbreakc. Vaccination intervals
  • • Reinfection• Chronicity• Residual effects of disease after organism has been eliminated from the body• Mitigating/exacerbating conditionsa. Immunocompentencyb. Stressc. Nutritiond. Sanitation/hygiene
  • Zoonotic Diseases
  • Anthrax• Bacteria- bacillus anthracis• Species affected- all warm blooded animals, cattle especially affected• Route of exposure- consumption of spores while grazing, usually in areas where soil has recently been disturbed ( spores persist in soil for >35 years)• Symptoms- sudden death, +/- hemorrhage from all body openings
  • Anthrax, cont• Treatment – none• Carcass disposal- CRITICAL- burial minimum 10 feet covered with lime
  • Anthrax in Humans• Route of exposure- Cutaneous Woolsorters disease, bacteria spores on hair/hide/wool/leather products enter a wound on skin- Inhalation pulmonary anthrax, spores inhaled- Intestinal consumption of contaminated meat
  • Anthrax in Humans• Symptomsa. cutaneous- papule resembles insect bite, progresses to necrotic lesion, 20% mortality in untreated casesb. Pulmonary- symptoms resemble common cold, death occurs in 1-2 daysc. Intestinal- gastroenteritis, mortality 25-60%
  • Anthrax treatment• Antibiotics if diagnosed earlyCommentsReportable disease in humans and animalsNo human to human transmission through normal contact
  • Brucellosis• Bacteria- Brucella abortus/Brucella suis• Bang’s disease in animals• Route of exposure- direct contact with reproductive tract secretions from infected animal• Infected animals are identified with orange ear tag in the right ear
  • Symptoms• Abortion• Birth of weak calves• Diminished fertility
  • Control of Brucellosis Brucellosis Eradication Programa. Surveillance- Testing bulk milk containers- Livestock market testingb. Vaccinationc. Test and slaughter, no treatment
  • Brucellosis in Humans Undulent Fever1. Route of exposure- oral- consumption of unpasteurized milk or milk products- Mucus membranes in contact with aborted fetuses, placental membranes, uterine discharges or carcasses of infected animals
  • Symptoms of Brucellosis in Humans• Fatigue, headaches, fever, chills, drenching sweats, joint pain,• Rarely fatal but symptoms persist for months• Treatment- antibiotics• Prevention- no vaccine available, wear gloves and protective clothing
  • Rabies• Virus- rhabdovirus, affects all warm blooded animalsAnimal symptomsa. Furious form- aggresssion, hyper- alertness, excessive response to stimulib. Dumb/paralytic form- tail paralysis, loss of sensation, incoordination, choke, urine dribbling
  • Rabies Note• Any warm blooded animal with neurologic symptoms should be considered a rabies suspect until proven otherwisess
  • Human Rabies1. Route of exposure- animal bite, saliva entering skin wound, defect, mm2. Prevention- vaccination for individuals at risk3. Control- post exposure anti serum for exposed, unvaccinated individuals4. Treatment- none, once contracted, rabies is always fatal
  • Ringworm Fungus - MicrosporumAnimal1. Species affected- cattle, horses, sheep, goats, swine2. Route of exposure- organism is ubiquitous in environment, development of clinical disease is associated with immunosuppression3. Symptoms- dermal lesions4. Treatment- antifungal meds, topical or systemic, UV light ( sunlight)
  • Human Ringworm1. Route of exposure- direct contact with skin lesions of affected animals, immunosuppression is not necessary to high conc. Of organisms in lesion2. Symptoms- skin lesions w/wo pruritis3. Diagnosis- fungal culture4. Treatment- antifungal medications, topical or systemic
  • SalmonellosisAnimal1. Species affected- cattle, swine, goats, sheep, horses, poultry, reptiles, amphibians2. Route of exposure- oral contact with feces from infected animals3. Symptoms- profuse watery diarrhea, endotoxic shock, ( carrier state exists)4. Treatment- supportive, fluid replacement, intestinal protectants
  • Human Salmonella1. Route of exposure- consumption of contaminated food or water, inadequate hygiene after handling patient with salmonella2. Symptoms- fever, headache, diarrhea, abdominal pain3. Treatment- usually requires hospitalization
  • Tuberculosis ( bacteria) Mycobacterium bovis, tuberculosisAnimal1. Route of exposure- consumption of contaminated water, milk from infected cows2. Symptoms- animals may remain asymptomatic until disease is advanced, weight loss, unthriftiness, poor hair coat3. Post mortem- lung abcesses resulting in devaluation/condemnation of carcasses
  • Tuberculosis in animals cont4. Diagnosis- intradermal skin testing5. Control/prevention- maintain closed herd, test replacement stock
  • Tuberculosis in Humans1. Route of exposure- consumption of raw, unpasteurized milk, aerosol2. Symptoms- cough, pulmonary disease, debilitation, “consumption”3. Diagnosis- tuberculin skin test, chest rads, culture of sputum4. Treatment- 95% recovery rate with 6-9 months of antibiotic treatment