Explain the concept of prison as a total institution.
Total institution – an institution that provides all of the necessities for existence to those who live within its boundaries. Who is in Prison? ◦ An Aging Inmate Population ◦ An Ailing Inmate Population
Describe the possible patterns of inmate behavior, which are driven by the inmate’s personality and values.
Prisonization – the socialization process through which a new inmate leans the accepted norms and values of the prison population Adapting to Prison Culture: ◦ Doing time ◦ Jailing ◦ Gleaning ◦ Disorganized criminals
Indicate some of the reasons for violent behavior in prisons.
Violence in prison exists because: ◦ It establishes the prison hierarchy ◦ It provides a deterrent against being victimized ◦ It enhances self-image ◦ In the case of rape, it gives sexual relief ◦ It is a means of acquiring material goods
Prison Rape: Due to the nature of the inmate victimization, accurate data is difficult to gather Prison rape, like all rape, is an act of violence rather than sex Victims of prison rape are often at the bottom of the social hierarchy in prisons, and suffer both physical and mental trauma from their victimization
Characteristics of Female Inmates ◦ Most are racial or ethnic minorities between the ages of 30 and 39 ◦ Most are incarcerated for nonviolent drug or property offenses ◦ Distinguishing characteristic of female inmates is a history of abuse ◦ Female inmates have an increased likelihood of health problems when they are incarcerated
A History of Abuse The Motherhood Problem ◦ An estimated 7 out of every 10 female prisoners have at least one minor child Violence in Women’s Prisons ◦ Compared to men’s prisons, women exhibit low levels of physical violence The Pseudo Family
List and briefly explain the six general job categories among correctional officers.
Job categories among correctional officers: Block officers Work detail supervisors Industrial shop and school officers Yard officers Tower guards Administrative building assignments
Questions: ◦ Would you be interested in pursuing a career as a correctional officer? Why or why not? ◦ What do you think would be the most challenging aspect of this career?
Discipline • Sanctioning Prisoners • Use of Force Whitley vs. Albers (1986) Hudson vs. McMillan (1992) Protecting Prisoners’ Rights – “Hands-Off” Doctrine The “Deliberate Indifference” Standard “Identifiable Human Needs” The First Amendment in Prison
Questions: ◦ Do you agree with the reforms suggested in the video? Why or why not? ◦ What was your reaction to learn that often individuals employed by Walmart earn more than those employed as correctional officers? Does this have any impact on the criminal justice system?
Contrast probation, parole, mandatory release, pardon, and furlough.
Mandatory Release – Release from prison that occurs when an offender has served the full length of his/her sentence, minus an adjustments for good time Pardon – An act of executive clemency that overturns a conviction and erases mention of the crime from the person’s criminal record Furlough – Temporary release from a prison for purposes of vocational or educational training, to ease the shock of release, or for personal reasons
Discretionary Release – the release of an inmate into a community supervision program ◦ Eligibility for Parole Under indeterminate sentencing, parole is not a right, but a privilege ◦ Life Without Parole
Questions: ◦ Discuss the importance of the role of a parole officer. ◦ What would be the most challenging aspect of this career?
Basic Roles of the Parole Board: To decide which inmates should be given parole To determine the conditions of parole To discharge the offender when the conditions of parole have been met To determine whether or not parole privileges should be revoked when a violation occurs.
The Parole Hearing Hearings are relatively short Participants include the judge, attorneys, the offender, law enforcement officers, and the victim Parole guidelines attempt to measure risk of recidivism
Describe truth-in-sentencing laws and their goals.
The Goals of Truth-in-Sentencing: To restore “truth” to the sentencing process To increase the percentage of the sentence that is actually served To better control the use of prison space
Prisoner reentry is a corrections strategy designed to prepare inmates for a successful return to the community and to reduce their criminal activity after release. Specifically focus on the transition from prison to the community Involve a treatment curriculum that continues after release
Parole is an agreement between the offender and the state that establishes conditions by which the offender will be released. When a parolee breaks the conditions of parole, the process of withdrawing parole and returning the person to prison is called parole revocation.
Explain the goal of prisoner reentry programs.
Barriers to Reentry ◦ Challenges of Release ◦ The Threat of Relapse Promoting Desistance Preparation for Reentry Behind Bars ◦ Positive Reinforcement on Parole ◦ Work Release and Halfway Houses The Special Case of Sex Offenders ◦ Sex Offender Notification Laws ◦ Active and Passive Notification ◦ Conditions of Release