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6. The Skeletal System
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6. The Skeletal System

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  • Transcript

    • 1. The Skeletal System
    • 2. Learning Objectives
      • List the cell types that make up bone; describe the function of each cell type.
      • List the functions of bone and differentiate between cancellous and compact bone.
      • Describe the process of endochondral bone formation and growth.
      • Describe the process of intramembranous bone formation.
      • List and describe the four shapes of bone.
      • Differentiate between yellow and red bone marrow.
      • List and define terms used to describe shape and surface features of bone.
      • List the components of the axial and appendicular skeletons.
      • Name the bones of the thoracic and pelvic limbs; the internal and external bones of the face and cranium.
      • List the divisions of the spinal column and describe the structure of the ribs and sternum.
      • List and describe the three classification of joints.
    • 3. Bone
      • Second hardest substance in the body
      • Composed of cells embedded in a matrix
        • Matrix is made up of collagen fibers embedded in a protein and polysaccharides
    • 4. Functions of Bone
      • Support
      • Protection
      • Leverage
      • Storage
      • Blood cell formation
    • 5. Bone Structure
      • Two types of bone
      • Cancellous bone: light and spongy
      • Compact bone: dense and heavy
    • 6. Cancellous Bone
      • Tiny "spicules" of bone that appear randomly arranged
      • Spaces between the spicules contain bone marrow
    • 7. Compact Bone
      • Shafts of long bones and the outside layer of all bones
      • Composed of haversian systems that run lengthwise with the bone
    • 8. Haversian Systems
      • Concentric layers of ossified bone matrix arranged around a central canal
        • Blood and lymph vessels and nerves
    • 9. Bone Structure
      • Periosteum: membrane that covers outer surfaces of bones
        • Outer layer is composed of fibrous tissue
        • Inner layer contains osteoblasts
        • Not present on articular surfaces
    • 10. Bone Structure
      • Endosteum: membrane that lines the hollow interior surfaces of bones
        • Also contains osteoblasts
    • 11. Bone Cells
      • Osteoblasts: cells that produce bone
        • Harden matrix through ossification
      • Once surrounded by bone, osteoblasts are called osteocytes
      • Osteoclasts: remodel/remove bone
    • 12. Blood Supply to Bone
      • Volkmann canals : channels through bone matrix that contain blood vessels
      • Blood vessels in the Volkmann canals join with blood vessels in the haversian systems.
    • 13. Blood Supply to Bone
      • Nutrient foramina: channels in many large bones
      • Contain large blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves
    • 14. Bone Formation
      • Two possible mechanisms:
      • 1. Endochondral bone formation
        • Grows into and replaces cartilage
      • 2. Intramembranous bone formation
        • Develops from fibrous tissue membranes
    • 15. Endochondral Bone Formation
      • Primary growth center: bones develop in the diaphyses
        • Cartilage rod
      • Cartilage is removed as bone is created
      • Secondary growth centers: develop in the epiphyses of the bone
    • 16. Endochondral Bone Formation
      • Epiphyseal plates:
      • cartilage located
      • between diaphysis
      • and epiphyses of bone
        • Sites where new bone
        • develops to allow long
        • bones to lengthen
    • 17. Endochondral Bone Formation
      • Osteoblasts replace
      • cartilage with bone
      • on the diaphyseal
      • surface of the plate.
      • When the bone has
      • reached its full size,
      • the epiphyseal plates
      • completely ossify.
    • 18. Intramembranous Bone Formation
      • Occurs in certain skull bones
      • Bone forms in the fibrous tissue membranes that cover the brain in the developing fetus.
    • 19. Bone Shapes
      • Four basic shapes:
        • Long
        • Short
        • Flat
        • Irregular
    • 20. Bone Marrow
      • Fills the spaces within bones
      • Two types:
        • Red bone marrow
        • Yellow bone marrow.
    • 21. Red Bone Marrow
      • Forms blood cells
      • Majority of the bone marrow of young animals
      • Only a small portion of the marrow of older animals
      • Confined to a few specific locations in older animals
    • 22. Yellow Bone Marrow
      • Consists primarily of adipose connective tissue
      • Most common type of marrow in adult animals
      • Can revert to red bone marrow if needed
    • 23. Bone Features
      • Articular Surfaces :
      • Condyle: large, round articular surface
      • Head: spherical articular surface on the proximal end of a long bone
        • Joins with the shaft of the bone at the neck region
      • Facet: flat articular surface
    • 24. Bone Features
      • Processes
      • Projections off a bone surface
      • Name depends on location
      • Examples:
        • Spinous process of a vertebra
        • Trochanter on the femur
        • Tuberosity on the ischium
        • Spine on the scapula
        • Wing on the atlas
    • 25. Bone Features
      • Foramen: hole in a bone; may contain blood vessels, nerves
      • Fossa: depressed area on the surface of a bone
    • 26. Axial Skelton
      • Skull
      • Hyoid bone
      • Spinal column
      • Ribs
      • Sternum
    • 27. Skull
      • Usually consists of 37 or 38 separate bones
      • Most of the skull bones are joints called sutures.
      • The mandible is connected to the rest of the skull by a synovial joint.
    • 28. Bones of the Cranium
      • External bones :
      • Frontal bones (2)
      • Interparietal bones (2)
      • Occipital bones (1)
      • Parietal bones (2)
      • Temporal bones (2)
      • Internal Bones :
      • Ethmoid bone (1)
      • Sphenoid bone (1)
    • 29. Hyoid Bone
      • Sometimes included with the cranial bones
      • Also called the hyoid apparatus
      • Composed of several portions of bone united by cartilage
    • 30. Bones of the Ear
      • Incus (2)
      • Malleus (2)
      • Stapes (2)
    • 31. Bones of the Face
      • External :
      • Incisive bones (2)
      • Lacrimal bones (2)
      • Mandible (1 or 2)
      • Maxillary bones (2)
      • Nasal bones (2)
      • Zygomatic bones (2)
    • 32. Bones of the Face
      • Internal :
      • Vomer bone (1)
      • Turbinates (4)
      • Pterygoid bones (2)
      • Palatine bones (2)
    • 33. Vertebrae
      • Consist of a body, an arch, and processes
      • Intervertebral disks: cartilage separating bodies of adjacent vertebrae
    • 34. Vertebrae
      • Vertebral arches
      • line up to form the
      • spinal canal
      • Vertebrae usually
      • contain several
      • processes
        • Spinous process
        • Transverse processes
        • Articular processes
    • 35. Vertebral Regions
      • Cervical
        • C1 atlas
        • C2 axis
    • 36. Vertebral Regions
      • Thoracic
      • Lumbar
      • Sacral
      • Coccygeal
    • 37. Ribs
      • Flat bones that form lateral walls of the
      • thorax
      • Dorsal heads of the ribs articulate with thoracic vertebrae
    • 38. Ribs
      • Costal Cartilage:
      • ventral ends of the ribs
      • Costochondral junction :
      • area where costal
      • cartilage meets bony rib
    • 39. Ribs
      • Costal cartilages
      • join the sternum or
      • the costal cartilage
      • ahead of them
      • Floating ribs: cartilage does not join anything at all
        • Often end in the muscles
        • of the thoracic wall
    • 40. Sternum
      • The breastbone
      • Forms the floor of the thorax
      • Composed of sternebrae
      • Manubrium sterni: most cranial sternebra
      • Xiphoid process: most caudal sternebra
    • 41. Appendicular Skeleton
      • Thoracic Limb
      • Scapula
      • Humerus
      • Radius
      • Ulna
      • Carpal bones (carpus)
      • Metacarpal bones
      • Phalanges
    • 42. Scapula
      • Flat, triangular bone
      • Forms portion of the shoulder joint
      • Spine of the scapula: longitudinal ridge on lateral surface
      • Glenoid cavity : shallow, concave articular surface
    • 43. Humerus
      • Long bone of the
      • brachium
      • Forms portion of
      • the shoulder joint
      • and elbow joint
      • Tubercles: processes
      • where shoulder
      • muscles attach
    • 44. Humerus
      • Condyles: articular
      • surfaces
        • Trochlea: articulates
        • with ulna
        • Capitulum: articulates
        • with radius
      • Olecranon fossa:
      • indentation above
      • condyle
      • Epicondyles: non-articular
    • 45. Antebrachium
      • Ulna
      • Olecranon process
        • Point of the elbow
        • Site for tendon attachment of triceps brachii muscle
      • Trochlear notch: concave articular surface
      • Anconeal and coronoid processes
    • 46. Antebrachium
      • Radius
      • Main weight-bearing bone of the antebrachium
      • Articulates with humerus and ulna
      • Styloid process articulates with carpus
    • 47. Carpus
      • Two rows of carpal bones
      • Proximal row bones are named (“radial carpal bone,” “ulnar carpal bone,” etc.)
      • Distal row bones are numbered medial to lateral
    • 48. Metacarpal Bones
      • Extend distally from distal carpal bones to proximal phalanges
      • Dogs & cats - 5 digits
        • Numbered medial to
        • lateral
        • Metacarpal I: dewclaw
    • 49. Metacarpal Bones
      • Horses
        • One large metacarpal bone (cannon bone)
        • Two smaller vestigial metacarpal bones (splint bones)
          • Non weight-bearing
    • 50. Metacarpal Bones
      • Cattle
        • Two fused metacarpal bones (bones III and IV)
    • 51. Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Equine
      • 1 digit with 3 phalanges
        • Proximal phalanx (long pastern bone)
        • Middle phalanx (short pastern bone)
        • Distal phalanx (coffin bone)
      • Also have sesamoid bones
    • 52. Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Bovine
      • Four digits on each limb
      • Two support weight, two are vestigial (dewclaws)
      • Each digit has a proximal, middle, and distal phalanx
      • Also proximal distal sesamoid bones
    • 53. Thoracic Limb Phalanges - Canine and Feline
      • Digit I (dewclaw): one proximal and one distal phalanx
      • Digits II to V: a proximal, a middle, and a distal phalanx
        • Ungual process –surrounds the claw on distal phalanx
    • 54. Appendicular Skeleton
      • Connected to the axial skeleton at the sacroiliac joint
      • Pelvic Limb:
      • Pelvis
        • Ilium
        • Ischium
        • Pubis
      • Femur
      • Tibia
      • Fibula
      • Tarsal bones (tarsus)
      • Metatarsal bones
      • Phalanges
    • 55. Pelvis
      • 3 fused bones
        • Ilium
        • Ischium
        • pubis
      • Pelvic symphysis: cartilaginous joint between the two halves of the pelvis
    • 56. Pelvis
      • Ilium
        • Projects in dorsocranial direction
        • Forms sacroiliac joint with the sacrum
      • Ischium
        • Caudalmost pelvic bone
        • Forms caudal portion of the pelvic floor
      • Pubis
        • Forms cranial portion of the pelvic floor
    • 57. Femur
      • Proximal end forms
      • part of hip joint
      • Femoral head fits
      • deeply into acetabulum
      • of pelvis
      • Trochanters: processes
      • where hip and thigh
      • muscles attach
    • 58. Femur
      • Shaft extends downward
      • to form the stifle joint
      • with patella & tibia
      • Articular surfaces:
        • 2 condyles
        • trochlea
      • Trochlea: articular
      • groove containing
      • the patella
    • 59. Patella and Fabellae
      • Patella
      • Large sesamoid bone
      • Formed in the distal tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle
      • Protects the tendon
      • Fabellae
      • Two small sesamoid bones in proximal gastrocnemius muscle tendons of dogs and cats
      • Not present in cattle or horses
    • 60. Tibia
      • Main weight-bearing bone of lower limb
      • Forms the stifle joint with the femur, the hock with the tarsus
      • Tibial tuberosity
      • Tibial crest
    • 61. Fibula
      • Parallel to tibia
      • Not weight-bearing
      • Serves as a muscle attachment site
      • Lateral malleolus: knob-like process
    • 62. Tarsus
      • Hock
      • 2 rows of tarsal bones
        • Proximal row is named; distal row is numbered medial to lateral
      • Calcaneal tuberosity: point of attachment for the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle
    • 63. Metatarsal Bones
      • Dogs & cats: four metatarsal bones (II to V)
      • Horses: one large metatarsal bone (cannon bone) and two small metatarsal bones (the splint bones)
    • 64. Pelvic Limb Phalanges
      • Similar to thoracic limb phalanges
      • Exceptions: dogs and cats
        • Usually only 4 digits (II to V)
    • 65. Visceral Skeleton
      • Bones that form in organs
      • Examples
        • os cordis: in heart of cattle and sheep
        • os penis : in penis of dogs, beaver, raccoons, and walruses
        • os rostri : in nose of swine
    • 66. Joints
      • Three general classifications :
      • Fibrous joints: immovable
      • Cartilaginous joints: slightly movable
      • Synovial joints: freely movable
    • 67. Fibrous Joints
      • Synarthroses
      • United by fibrous
      • tissue
      • Examples: sutures
      • of skull, splint bones
      • of horses
    • 68. Cartilaginous Joints
      • Amphiarthroses
      • Capable of slight rocking movement
      • Examples: mandibular symphysis, pubic symphysis, intervertebral disks
    • 69. Synovial Joints
      • Diarthroses
      • Components
        • Articular surfaces on bones
        • Articular cartilage (hyaline) covering articular surfaces
        • Fluid-filled joint cavity enclosed by a joint capsule
          • Synovial membrane
          • Synovial fluid
        • Ligaments - fibrous connective tissue
    • 70. Synovial Joint Movements
      • Flexion
      • Extension
      • Adduction
      • Abduction
      • Rotation
      • Circumduction
    • 71. Synovial Joint Movements
      • Flexion and Extension
      • Opposite movements
      • Increase or decrease the angle between two bones
    • 72. Synovial Joint Movements
      • Adduction and Abduction
      • Opposite movements
      • Move an extremity toward or away from medial plane
    • 73. Synovial Joint Movements
      • Rotation
      • Twisting movement of a part on its own axis
      • Circumduction
      • Movement of an extremity so that the distal end moves in a circle
    • 74. Types of Synovial Joints
      • Hinge joints
      • Gliding joints
      • Pivot joints
      • Ball-and-socket joints
    • 75. Hinge Joints
      • Ginglymus joints
      • One joint surface swivels around another
      • Only capable of flexion and extension
      • Example: elbow joint
    • 76. Gliding Joints
      • Arthrodial joints
      • Rocking motion of one joint surface on the other
      • Primarily capable of flexion and extension
      • Abduction and adduction possible
      • Example: carpus
    • 77. Pivot Joints
      • Trochoid joints
      • One bone pivots
      • (rotates) on another
      • Only capable of
      • rotation
      • Example: the
      • atlantoaxial joint
    • 78. Ball-and-Socket Joints
      • Spheroidal joints
      • Allow for all joint movements
      • Examples: shoulder and hip joints