1. Introduction to Anesthesia


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  • In 1846, Dr. William T.G. Morton gave the first successful demonstration of the pain-relieving properties of diethyl ether” One month later, Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. suggested the name “anesthesia” to describe the state of insensibility to pain produced by this agent
  • From the Greek anaisthesia meaning without feeling or insensibility. This is a very general definition.
  • The effect of anesthesia does not always include loss of consciousness.
  • Characteristics include unconsciousness, immobility, muscle relaxation, and loss of sensation. Used to prepare patients for acutely painful procedures, including surgery.
  • Analgesia is a loss of sensitivity to pain.
  • Diagnostic imaging, grooming, and wound treatment are minor procedures. These terms are often used interchangeably even though they don’t produce the same conditions.
  • For example, a local anesthetic may be injected into the tissue surrounding a small cutaneous tumor to facilitate its removal without having to use general anesthesia.
  • For example, topical anesthetics may be applied to the eye before an ophthalmic examination or to an open wound for pain relief.
  • Nerve blocks can be used to block specific limbs or a dental arcade. Epidural anesthesia is used for pain control of the pelvis and hind quarters.
  • Text gives an example of one balanced anesthetic regime.
  • Knowledge, competence, commitment, and confidence are necessary in all these aspects for the safety of the patient and operating room personnel.
  • The anesthetist is responsible for the well-being and indeed the life of a patient. A good anesthetist is confident, competent, caring, and dedicated.
  • 1. Introduction to Anesthesia

    1. 1. Introduction to Anesthesia Anesthesia is utilized daily in most veterinary practices to provide sedation, tranquilization, immobility, muscle relaxation, unconsciousness, and pain control Chapter 1
    2. 2. Human Anesthesia <ul><li>Dr. William T.G. Morton </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. </li></ul><ul><li>1846—diethyl ether </li></ul>
    3. 3. Veterinary Anesthesia <ul><li>1850s—ether and chloroform </li></ul><ul><li>Early twentieth century—inhalation anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>1930s—injectable barbiturates </li></ul>
    4. 4. Anesthesia <ul><li>Loss of sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system (CNS) depression or stimulation </li></ul>
    5. 5. Use of Anesthesia in Veterinary Medicine <ul><li>Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tranquilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconsciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dentistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grooming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wound care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture and transport of wild animals </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. General Anesthesia <ul><li>Reversible </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by administration of one or more anesthetic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul>
    7. 7. Surgical Anesthesia <ul><li>A stage of general anesthesia </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesia and muscle relaxation </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate pain and patient movement during the procedure </li></ul>
    8. 8. A Continuum of CNS Depression
    9. 9. Sedation vs. Tranquilization <ul><li>Sedation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CNS depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drowsiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug-induced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly aware or unaware of surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroused by noxious stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses: minor procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tranquilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calmness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient is reluctant to move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aware of surroundings but doesn’t care </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Hypnosis vs. Narcosis <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug-induced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeplike state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs patient’s ability to respond to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient can be aroused with sufficient stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug-induced sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient is not easily aroused </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with narcotic drugs </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Local Anesthesia <ul><li>Targets a small, specific area of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sensation to a specific area </li></ul><ul><li>Drug is infiltrated into the desired area </li></ul>
    12. 12. Topical Anesthesia <ul><li>Applied to body surfaces or a wound </li></ul><ul><li>Produces a superficial loss of sensation </li></ul>
    13. 13. Regional Anesthesia <ul><li>Loss of sensation to a limited area of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Epidural anesthesia </li></ul>
    14. 14. Balanced Anesthesia <ul><li>Using multiple drugs in smaller quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Maximizes benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes adverse effects </li></ul><ul><li>Gives anesthetist greater control </li></ul>
    15. 15. The Veterinary Technician’s Role as an Anesthetist <ul><li>Anesthetic machine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administer anesthetic agents </li></ul><ul><li>Endotracheal intubation </li></ul><ul><li>Patient monitoring </li></ul>
    16. 16. Anesthesia Challenges and Risks <ul><li>Dose calculation and rate adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Vital signs and anesthetic depth </li></ul><ul><li>Assess multiple pieces of information </li></ul><ul><li>Patient management </li></ul><ul><li>Anesthetic accidents </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dose Calculation and Rate Adjustment <ul><li>Narrow therapeutic index </li></ul>
    18. 18. Vital Signs and Anesthetic Depth <ul><li>Drugs may cause changes in cardiovascular and pulmonary systems </li></ul><ul><li>Changes may be lethal </li></ul><ul><li>Patient must be closely monitored </li></ul>
    19. 19. Assess Multiple Pieces of Information <ul><li>Visual, tactile, and auditory </li></ul><ul><li>From patient, anesthetic machines, and monitors </li></ul><ul><li>Must be able to make rapid decisions </li></ul>
    20. 20. Patient Management <ul><li>Understand physical parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Understand anesthetic equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Understand monitoring devices </li></ul>
    21. 21. Anesthetic Accidents <ul><li>The outcome can be devastating or lethal </li></ul><ul><li>Owners may pursue legal action </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent accidents by using high standards </li></ul><ul><li>Keep meticulous records </li></ul>