1. Introduction to  Anatomy and Physicology
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1. Introduction to  Anatomy and Physicology 1. Introduction to Anatomy and Physicology Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
  • Learning Objectives
    • Define the terms anatomy and physiology.
    • Differentiate between microscopic and macroscopic anatomy.
    • Differentiate between the study of regional anatomy and the study of systemic anatomy.
    • Describe the four anatomical planes of reference.
    • List and describe the anatomical terms of direction.
    • List the components of the dorsal body cavity.
    • List the components of the ventral body cavities.
    • List the four basic types of body tissues.
    • Define homeostasis.
    • Anatomy: the form and structure of the body and its parts
    • Physiology: the functions of the body and its parts
  • Approaches to the Study of Anatomy and Physiology
    • Microscopic vs. macroscopic anatomy
      • Macroscopic = gross anatomy
    • Regional vs. systematic
      • Regional = study of individual regions of the body (e.g., neck, abdomen)
      • Systematic = study of systems of the body (e.g., nervous system , skeletal system)
  • Anatomic Planes of Reference
  • Directional Terms Human Left Right Superior Nasal Inferior Posterior Anterior Medial Lateral Deep (internal) Superficial (external) Proximal Distal Palmar Plantar Anterior Domestic Animal Left Right Cranial Rostral Caudal Dorsal Ventral Medial Lateral Deep (internal) Superficial (external) Proximal Distal Palmar Plantar Dorsal Direction Individual’s left Individual’s right Toward the head end of the body Toward the tip of the nose (head only) Toward the tail end of the body Toward the back Toward the belly Toward the median plane Away from the median plane Toward the center (whole body or part) Toward the surface (whole body or part) Toward the body (extremity) Away from the body (extremity) “ Back” of forelimb distal to carpus “ Back” of hindlimb distal to tarsus “ Front” of forelimb & hindlimb distal to carpus & tarsusl
  • General Plan of the Animal Body
    • Bilateral symmetry: The left and right halves of an animal's body are essentially mirror images of each other.
  • General Plan of the Animal Body
    • Body cavities
      • Dorsal body cavity contains the central nervous system
      • Ventral body cavity contains most of the viscera of the body
  • Levels of Organization
    • Cells: basic functional units of animal life
    • Tissues: groups of specialized cells
    • Organs: groups of tissues that work together for common purposes
    • Organ Systems: groups of organs that are involved in a common set of activities
  • Homeostasis
    • The maintenance of a dynamic equilibrium in the body
    • All the physiological processes that actively maintain balance in the various structures, functions, and properties of the body