Ch16 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227

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Ch16 slides

  1. 1. Writing a proposal requires seven steps:• Analyze your audience.• Analyze your purpose.• Gather information about your subject.• Choose the appropriate type of proposal.• Draft the proposal.• Format the proposal.• Revise, edit, proofread, and submit the proposal. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  2. 2. The logistics of proposalsChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  3. 3. Solicited and unsolicited proposals respond to different needs:• Solicited proposals are sent in response to an information for bid (IFB) or a request for proposal (RFP).• Unsolicited proposals are submitted by a supplier who believes that the prospective customer has a need for goods or services. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  4. 4. Proposals lead to two kinds of deliverables: • research • goods and services Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. A successful proposal is a persuasive argument:• Show that you understand your readers’ needs.• Show that you have decided what you plan to do and that you are able to do it.• Show that you are a professional and that you are committed to fulfilling your promises. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Follow these six suggestions when writing international proposals:• Understand that what makes an argument persuasive can differ from one culture to another.• Budget enough time for translating.• Use simple graphics, with captions.• Write short sentences, using common vocabulary.• Use local conventions regarding punctuation, spelling, and mechanics.• Ask if the prospective customer will do a read- through. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Follow these four guidelines to demonstrate your professionalism:• Describe your credentials and work history.• Provide your work schedule.• Describe your quality-control measures.• Include your budget. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Avoid these four common dishonest practices:• saying that certain qualified people will participate in the project, even though they will not• saying that the project will be finished by a certain date, even though it will not• saying that the deliverable will have certain characteristics, even though it will not• saying that the project will be completed under budget, even though it will not Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. There are three reasons to write honest proposals:• to avoid serious legal trouble stemming from breach-of-contract suits• to avoid acquiring a bad reputation, thus ruining your business• to do the right thing Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. To follow through on a proposal,you need three categories of resources:• personnel• facilities• equipment Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. A typical proposal includes six sections:• summary• introduction• proposed program• qualifications and experience• budget• appendixes Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. An introduction answers seven questions:•What is the problem or opportunity?•What is the purpose of the proposal?•What is the background of the problem or opportunity?•What are your sources of information?•What is the scope of the proposal?•What is the organization of the proposal?•What key terms will you use in the proposal? Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Task schedules are presented in one of three formats:• table• bar chart or Gantt chart• network diagram Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. An example of a task schedule as a table Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  15. 15. An example of a task schedule as a bar chartChapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  16. 16. An example of a task schedule as a network diagramA network diagram provides more useful information than either atable or a bar chart. Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 16
  17. 17. There are several techniques for evaluating completed work:• quantitative evaluations• qualitative evaluations• formative evaluations• summative evaluations Chapter 16. Writing Proposals © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
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