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Ch12 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft …

Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227


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  • 1. Graphics serve five functions:• They can catch readers’ attention and interest.• They can help writers communicate information that is difficult to communicate with words.• They can help writers clarify and emphasize information.• They can help nonnative speakers of English understand information.• They can help writers communicate information to multiple audiences with different interests, aptitudes, and reading habits. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  • 2. Graphics offer benefits that words alone cannot:• Graphics are indispensable in demonstrating logical and numerical relationships.• Graphics can communicate spatial information more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can communicate steps in a process more effectively than words alone.• Graphics can save space.• Graphics can reduce the cost of documents intended for international readers. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  • 3. An effective graphic has five characteristics: • It serves a purpose. • It is simple and uncluttered. • It presents a manageable amount of information. • It meets readers’ format expectations. • It is clearly labeled. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  • 4. Follow these six suggestions to create honest graphics:• Cite your source and obtain permission.• Include all relevant data.• Begin the axes in your graphs at zero—or mark them clearly.• Do not use a table to hide a data point that would be obvious in a graph.• Show items as they really are.• Do not use color or shading to misrepresent an item’s importance. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  • 5. Follow these five guidelines for integrating graphics and text:• Place the graphic in an appropriate location.• Introduce the graphic in the text.• Explain the graphic in the text.• Make the graphic clearly visible.• Make the graphic accessible. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  • 6. The process of creating graphics includes four steps:• planning• producing• revising• citing Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  • 7. As you plan graphics, consider the following:• audience• purpose of the graphic and the document• kind of information you want to communicate• physical conditions in which readers will use the document• time• money• equipment• expertise Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  • 8. When producing graphics, choose one of the following four approaches:• use existing graphics• modify existing graphics• create graphics on a computer• have someone else create the graphics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  • 9. Use color effectively:• Don’t overdo it.• Use color to emphasize particular items.• Use color to create patterns.• Use contrast effectively.• Take advantage of any symbolic meanings colors may already have.• Be aware that color can obscure or swallow up text. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  • 10. Use color to establish patterns: Source: Myers, 2010, p. 72. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  • 11. Use color to create effective contrast:The text is hard to read because of insufficientcontrast.Effective contrast makes the text easier to read. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  • 12. Choose the category of technical information you want to communicate:• numerical information• logical relationships• process descriptions and instructions• visual and spatial characteristics Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  • 13. Five kinds of graphics help illustrate numerical information:• tables• bar graphs• pictographs• line graphs• pie charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  • 14. Two kinds of graphics help illustrate logical relationships:• diagrams• organization charts Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  • 15. Three kinds of graphics help illustrate process descriptions and instructions:• checklists• flowcharts• logic trees Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15
  • 16. Four kinds of graphics help illustrate visual and spatial characteristics:• photographs• screen shots• line drawings• maps Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 16
  • 17. A typical table has these parts:Table numberTable titleColumn headColumn subheadsStubRowData cellSource statementFootnotes Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 17
  • 18. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables:• Indicate the units of measure.• In the stub (the left-hand column), list the items being compared.• In the columns, arrange the data clearly and logically.• Do the math.• Use dot leaders if a column contains a “blank” spot: a place where there are no appropriate data. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 18
  • 19. Follow these nine guidelines for creating effective tables (cont.):• Don’t make the table wider than it needs to be.• Minimize the use of rules.• Provide footnotes where necessary.• If you did not generate the information yourself, indicate your source. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 19
  • 20. Horizontal and vertical bar graphs look like this:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 20
  • 21. Follow these six guidelines for creating effective bar graphs:• Make the proportions fair.• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use tick marks (marks along the axis) to signal the amounts.• Arrange the bars in a logical sequence.• Place the title below the figure.• Indicate the source of your information if you did not generate it yourself. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 21
  • 22. This is an effective bar graph:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 22
  • 23. The basic bar graph has five variations:• grouped bar graph• subdivided bar graph• 100-percent bar graph• deviation bar graph• stratum graph Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 23
  • 24. This is an effective pictograph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 24
  • 25. This pictograph is misleading:Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 25
  • 26. Follow these three guidelines for creating effective line graphs:• If possible, begin the quantity scale at zero.• Use reasonable proportions for the vertical and horizontal axes.• Use grid lines—horizontal, vertical, or both— rather than tick marks when your readers need to read the quantities precisely. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 26
  • 27. This is an effective line graph: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 27
  • 28. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts:• Restrict the number of slices to six or seven.• Begin with the largest slice at the top and work clockwise in order of decreasing size.• Include a miscellaneous slice for very small quantities.• Label the slices (horizontally, not radially) inside the slice. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 28
  • 29. Follow these eight guidelines for creating effective pie charts (cont.):• To emphasize one slice, use a bright, contrasting color or separate the slice from the pie.• Check to see that your software follows the appropriate guidelines for pie charts.• Don’t overdo fill patterns.• Check that your percentages add up to 100. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 29
  • 30. How effective is this graphic? Source: Defense Intelligence Agency, 2003 <www.dia.mil/thisisdia/ DIA_Workforce_of_the_Future.pdf>.Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 30
  • 31. Use these four techniques to show motion: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 31
  • 32. Follow these five guidelines for presenting photographs effectively:• Eliminate extraneous background clutter that can distract readers.• Do not electronically manipulate the photograph.• Help readers understand the perspective.• If appropriate, include a common object to give readers a sense of scale.• If appropriate, label components or important features. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 32
  • 33. Line drawings offer three advantages over photographs:• Line drawings can focus readers’ attention on desired information better than a photograph can.• Line drawings can highlight information that might be obscured by bad lighting or a bad angle in a photograph• Line drawings are sometimes easier for readers to understand than photographs are. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 33
  • 34. Line drawings offer a uniqueadvantage over other graphics: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 34
  • 35. The basic line drawing has three variations: Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 35
  • 36. Follow these six guidelines for creatingeffective graphics for multicultural readers:• Be aware that reading patterns differ.• Be aware of varying cultural attitudes toward giving instruction.• Deemphasize trivial details.• Avoid culture-specific language, symbols, and references.• Portray people very carefully.• Be particularly careful in portraying hand gestures. Chapter 12. Creating Graphics © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 36