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Ch10 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft …

Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227


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  • 1. Use these seven techniques for structuring effective sentences:• Use lists.• Emphasize new and important information.• Choose an appropriate sentence length.• Focus on the “real” subject.• Focus on the “real” verb.• Use parallel structure.• Use modifiers effectively. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  • 2. Use these five guidelines for creating effective lists:• Set off each listed item with a number, a letter, or a symbol (usually a bullet).• Break up long lists.• Present the items in a parallel structure.• Structure and punctuate the lead-in correctly.• Punctuate the list correctly. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  • 3. Use parallel structure:• Use the same grammatical form for coordinate elements in a sentence. – all clauses either active or passive – all verbs either indicative or imperative – all nouns preceded by the same article• Parallel structure creates a recognizable pattern and makes a sentence easier to follow. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  • 4. Use modifiers effectively:• Distinguish between restrictive and nonrestrictive modifiers.• Avoid misplaced modifiers.• Avoid dangling modifiers. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  • 5. Choose the right words and phrases:• Select an appropriate level of formality.• Be clear and specific.• Be concise.• Use inoffensive language. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  • 6. Select an appropriate level of formality:There are three levels of formality:• informal• moderately formal• highly formalUse a level and tone appropriate for your• audience• subject• purpose Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  • 7. Informal writing can cause two problems:• It tends to be imprecise.• It can be embarrassing. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  • 8. Use these seven techniques for writing clearly and specifically:• Use the active and passive voice appropriately.• Be specific.• Avoid unnecessary jargon.• Use positive constructions.• Avoid long noun strings.• Avoid clichés.• Avoid euphemisms. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  • 9. Use the active and passive voice appropriately:Use the active voice unless• the agent is clear from the context• the agent is unknown• the agent is less important than the action• a reference to the agent is embarrassing, dangerous, or in some other way inappropriate Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  • 10. Use these three techniques for writing specifically:• Use precise words.• Provide adequate detail.• Avoid ambiguity. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  • 11. Avoid unnecessary jargon for four reasons:• It can be imprecise.• It can be confusing.• It is often seen as condescending.• It is often intimidating. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  • 12. Be concise:• Avoid obvious statements.• Avoid filler.• Avoid unnecessary prepositional phrases.• Avoid wordy phrases.• Avoid fancy words. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  • 13. Follow these six guidelines for avoiding sexist language:• Replace the male-gender words with non-gender- specific words.• Switch to a different form of the verb.• Switch to the plural.• Switch to he or she, he/she, s/he, or his or her.• Address the reader directly.• Alternate he and she. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  • 14. Follow these five guidelines for using the people-first approach:• Refer to the person first, the disability second.• Don’t confuse handicap with disability.• Don’t refer to victimization.• Don’t refer to a person as “wheelchair bound” or “confined to a wheelchair.”• Don’t refer to people with disabilities as abnormal. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14
  • 15. Use these seven techniques in preparing text for translation:• Use short sentences.• Use the active voice.• Use simple words.• Include a glossary.• Use words that have only one meaning.• Use pronouns carefully.• Avoid jokes, puns, and culture-bound references. Chapter 10. Writing Effective Sentences © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 15