Ch09 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227

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Ch09 slides

  1. 1. Consider seven questions whenrevising your document for coherence:• Have you left out anything in turning your outline into a draft?• Have you included all the elements your readers expect to see?• Have you organized the document logically?• Is the document persuasive? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  2. 2. Consider seven questions when revising your document for coherence (cont.):• Do you come across as reliable, honest, and helpful?• Have you presented all the elements consistently?• Is the emphasis appropriate throughout the document? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  3. 3. Follow four guidelines when revising headings:• Avoid long noun strings.• Be informative.• Use a grammatical form appropriate to your audience.• Avoid back-to-back headings. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  4. 4. Turning paragraphs into lists presents four advantages:• It forces you to look at the big picture.• It forces you to examine the sequence.• It forces you to create a helpful lead-in.• It forces you to tighten and clarify your prose. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Study documents from other cultures to answer four questions:• How does the writer make the information accessible?• How does the writer show the relationship among types of information?• How does the writer communicate the organization of the document as a whole?• How does the writer make transitions from one subject to another? Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. There are two kinds of paragraphs:• A body paragraph is a group of sentences (or sometimes a single sentence) that is complete and self-sufficient and that contributes to a larger discussion.• A transitional paragraph helps readers move from one major point to another. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Most paragraphs contain two elements:• The topic sentence summarizes or forecasts the main point of the paragraph.• The supporting information makes the topic sentence clear and convincing. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Avoid burying bad news in paragraphs:• The most emphatic location is the topic sentence.• The second most emphatic location is the end of the paragraph.• The least emphatic location is the middle of the paragraph. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Supporting information usually fulfills one of five roles:• It defines a key term or idea included in the topic sentence.• It provides examples or illustrations of the situation described in the topic sentence.• It identifies causes: factors that led to the situation.• It defines effects: implications of the situation.• It supports the claim made in the topic sentence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Follow three guidelines when dividing long paragraphs:• Break the discussion at a logical place.• Make the topic sentence a separate paragraph and break up the supporting information.• Use a list. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Use three techniques to emphasize coherence:• Add transitional words and phrases.• Repeat key words.• Use demonstrative pronouns followed by nouns. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 11
  12. 12. Use transitional words and phrases: Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12
  13. 13. Use two techniques to create a coherent design:• Use headers and footers to enhance coherence.• Use typefaces to enhance coherence. Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 13
  14. 14. Headers and footers are coherence devices. Source: U.S. Department of State, 2007 <www.usaid.gov/policy/coordination/strat plan_fy07-12.pdf>.Chapter 9. Writing Coherent Documents © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 14

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