Beef cattle
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Beef cattle



VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing



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Beef cattle Beef cattle Presentation Transcript

  • Beef Cattle
  • Beef Cattle BreedsLong Horn:- Original beef cattle- USA/Spanish extraction- Lean meat
  • Angus Aberdeen- 1930’s or earlier- Solid black, occasionally red- More fat in meat for a better taste- Polled: born without horns- Black, red becoming more popular
  • Hereford- More fatty meat, increases flavor- Red with a white face- Polled or horned- White on underline
  • Black Baldy- Not a breed, a hybrid of breeds- Hereford/angus cross- All black cow with a white face
  • Charolais- 1940- Leaner meat- Good conversion of fiber to meat- White/cream color- High carcass quality and good taste
  • Simmental- Brought from Canada- Red and white spotted- White face with yellow skin- Good conversion of fiber to grain,- High carcass value
  • Limousin- From France- Wheat or rust coloredChianina- Italy- White with black switch on tail- Largest of modern breeds, 4000 lb male, 2400 lb female
  • Brahma- India- Grey or red- Hump on shoulder, heat tolerantSanta Gertrudis- texas, cherry red- First north american cross breed
  • Beef Cattle Operations• Cow/Calf- Conditioning, weaned, introduce grain, vaccinated- Calves in spring, feb, mar, april- At 6 months, sold as 500 lb feeders
  • Cow Calf system• Replacement heifers• Calves to feed out or sell• Average birth weight 75-80lbs• Average weaning weight 400-500 lbs• Weaning weight: influenced by environment factors, sire and dam growth genetics, and dams milk production
  • Preconditioning• A vaccination, nutrition, and management program designed to prepare young cattle to withstand the stress of weaning and shipment
  • • Backgrounding- Also called stocker- Buy 6 mo old calves and switch gradually to hay
  • Backgrounding• Weaned cattle turned out on pasture/corn stalks• Average daily gain is 2 lbs• Move to feedlot at 800-900 lbs
  • • Finisher- Stock yard feeder- 1 year old on high concentrates for 6 months- 18 months at 1000 lbs for slaughter
  • Feeder Cattle• Purchased at 800-900 lbs• Exercise restricted an fed concentrates for 90- 120 days• Average daily gain is 3 lbs• Finished cattle average market weight is 1200 lbs
  • Beef Cattle ProcessingHandling- Movement of cattle at plant, stress diminishes quality of meat- Captive bolt renders animal unconsciousKosher- Processing is a religious ritual slaughter
  • Beef Grading• Quality- based on marbling, firmness and color1. Prime2. Choice3. Select4. Standard• Maturity- age of animal at slaughter
  • Cost Benefit Ration• If cost of medical care exceeds the potential return on investment then it is not a viable option• Production animal medicine requires an understanding of the fluidity of the animal production industry• Variable expenses: feed, livestock, labor, equipment, land, interest, meds, vaccines, veterinary care
  • Efficiency• Minimize infectious disease, parastism• Maximize rate of gain• Feed conversion ratios ( lb of feed/lb gain)- Beef cattle 8-10 lb feed /lb gain- Hogs 3-6 lb feed /lb gain- Poultry 2 lb feed/lb gain
  • Variable product value• Supply and demand• Public perception may determine value• Genetically engineered products banned in some areas• Mad cow disease rendered all british beef worthless