9. respriatrory system drugs


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9. respriatrory system drugs

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Respiratory System Drugs Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Basic Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>The respiratory system is the body system that brings oxygen from the air into the body for delivery via the blood to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration is the exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the cells of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation is the bringing in of fresh air </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Basic Anatomy and Physiology Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Respiratory Conditions <ul><li>Respiratory conditions are categorized into upper and lower respiratory conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper respiratory conditions in animals are mainly caused by infectious agents that produce clinical signs such as congestion and coughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower respiratory conditions in animals include asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COPD in horses is commonly called “heaves” </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Expectorants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the flow of respiratory secretions to allow material to be coughed up from the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the fluidity of mucus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example is guaifenesin </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Mucolytics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the viscosity or thickness of respiratory secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example is acetylcysteine (also used to treat acetaminophen toxicity) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Antitussives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppress coughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be centrally acting or locally acting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrally acting antitussives include butorphanol, hydrocodone, codeine, dextromethorphan, and trimeprazine (in a combination product) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Decongestants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease the congestion of nasal passages by reducing swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Bronchodilators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen the lumen of the bronchi and counteract bronchoconstriction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include cholinergic blocking agents (anticholinergics such as aminopentamide, atropine, and glycopyrrolate), beta-2-adrenergic agonists (such as epinephrine, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and albuterol), and methylxanthines (such as aminophylline and theophylline) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Antihistamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Block the effects of histamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antihistamine drug names usually end with –amine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects include CNS depression and anticholinergic effects such as dry mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Respiratory Drugs <ul><li>Respiratory stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate the animal to increase its respirations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include naloxone (usually used to stimulate respiration following narcotic overdose) and yohimbine (used to reverse xylazine administration or overdose) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Asthma Drugs <ul><li>Glucocorticoids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anti-inflammatory drugs administered orally or by inhalation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orally used to treat feline asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhaled used to decrease swollen and narrowed airways by decreasing inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are fewer side effects with inhaled glucocorticoids than with oral ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bronchodilators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in addition to glucocorticoids in the treatment of feline asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects include tracheal or bronchial irritation </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Asthma Drugs <ul><li>Methylxanthines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another group of bronchodilators used in the treatment of feline asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have a narrow therapeutic index </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyclosporin: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A fungal derived protein useful in the allergic response in feline asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects include nephrotoxicity and vomiting </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Drugs <ul><li>Is treated by using some forms of medication and keeping good management practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeping horses outside as much as possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing hay in a dry place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving ventilation in horse stables </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  15. 15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Drugs <ul><li>Glucocorticoids help decrease smooth muscle contraction, suppress inflammation, and reduce mucus production </li></ul><ul><li>Inhaled glucocorticoids are used to decrease swollen and narrow airways </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchodilators relax the smooth muscles of the airways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be combined with other anti-inflammatory drugs </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning