5. veterinary drug use, prescribing, acquisition and pharmacy managment
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5. veterinary drug use, prescribing, acquisition and pharmacy managment Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 5 Veterinary Drug Use, Prescribing, Acquisition, and Pharmacy Management Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 2. Brand Name (®) or Not?
    • Chemical name:
      • Provides scientific and technical information
      • Is a precise description of the substance
      • Example: 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 3. Brand Name (®) or Not?
    • Generic (nonproprietary) name:
      • Official identifying name of the drug (assigned by the U.S. Adopted Names Council)
      • Describes the active drug
      • Written using lowercase letters
      • Example: diazepam
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 4. Brand Name (®) or Not?
    • Brand (trade, proprietary) name:
      • Establishes legal proprietary recognition for the corporation that developed the drug
      • Is registered with the U.S. Patent Office and is used only by the company that registered the drug
      • Is written in capital letters or begins with a capital letter and has a circled, superscript R by its name
      • Example: Valium 
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 5. Compounding
    • Occurs when health professionals prepare a specialized drug product to fill an individual patient’s needs when an approved drug is not available
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 6. Compounding
    • Uses of compounding
      • Creating discontinued drugs
      • Creating dosages and strength specific to a dog’s weight and health
      • Creating alternative dose forms such as liquids, ointments, or chewable tablets
      • Adding flavoring to drugs to make them more appealing to animals
      • Customizing formulas that combine multiple drugs for one dose administration
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 7. Compounding
    • Concerns
      • Small compounding changes may turn an FDA approved drug into an unapproved drug
      • Compounded drugs are made without FDA oversight and may pose a risk to the patient
      • Compounded drugs may not be sterile and can cause infections to patients that use them
      • Errors in preparing compounded drugs may result in disease or death in patients who use them
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 8. Sources of Drug Information
    • United States Pharmacopoeia (USP)
      • Publication that is the legally recognized drug standard of the United States
      • Describes the source, appearance, properties, standards of purity, and other requirements of the most important pure drugs
      • The FDA requires that all drugs meet USP standards of purity, quality, and uniformity
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 9. Sources of Drug Information
    • Drug label must contain:
      • Drug names (generic and trade)
      • Drug concentration and quantity
      • Name and address of manufacturer
      • Manufacturer’s control or lot number
      • Expiration date of drug
      • Withdrawal time (if warranted)
      • Controlled substance status of drug (if warranted)
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 10. Sources of Drug Information
    • Package insert
      • Provided with drugs to meet regulatory requirements
        • Registered trade name, generic name, controlled substance notation if warranted
        • Description or composition statement
        • Clinical pharmacology, actions, or mode of action
        • Indications and usage
        • Contraindications
        • Precautions
        • Warnings
        • Adverse reactions or side effects
        • Overdosage information
        • Dosage administration
        • Storage
        • How supplied
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 11. Sources of Drug Information
    • Drug References
      • Bound book of information on package inserts
        • Physician’s Desk Reference (PDR): human-approved drugs
        • Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and Biologicals (VPB)
        • Compendium of Veterinary Products (CVP)
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 12. Expiration Dates
    • Expiration date is the date before which a drug meets all specifications and after which the drug can no longer be used
    • Expiration dates are assigned based on the stability of or experience with the drug
    • Expiration dates for drugs that are mixed in the clinic vary depending on the reconstitution and refrigeration status of the drugs
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 13. Dispensing vs Prescribing
    • Veterinary drugs are those approved only for use in animals
    • Human drugs are approved by the FDA and guidelines for their use in food-producing animals are provided in the Compliance Policy Guide
    • A veterinarian/client/patient relationship must be established before any medication is prescribed for an animal
      • For guidelines for veterinarian/client/patient relationships refer to Table 5-2 in your textbook
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 14. Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship
    • Veterinary prescription drugs are labeled for use only by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian
    • A veterinary/client/patient relationship (VCPR) exists when the following conditions have been met:
      • The veterinarian has assumed responsibility for making clinical judgments and the client has agreed to follow
      • The vet has sufficient knowledge of the animal to at least make a preliminary diagnosis
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 15. Veterinary/Client/Patient Relationship
      • The veterinarian is readily available for follow-up evaluation in the event of adverse reaction or failure of the treatment regimen
    • Veterinary prescription drugs must be properly labeled before being dispensed
    • Dispensing and treatment records must be maintained
    • Drugs should be dispensed only in quantities required for the treatment of the animals
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 16. Prescriptions
    • A prescription is an order to a pharmacist, written by a licensed veterinarian, to prepare the prescribed medicine, to affix the directions, and to sell the preparation to the client
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 17. Label on the Prescription
    • The label on the prescription should be complete and contain:
      • The name and address of the dispenser
      • The client’s name (+/- address)
      • The animal’s name and species
      • The drug name, strength, and quantity
      • The date of the order
      • Directions for use
      • Any refill information (if warranted)
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 18. Parts of a Prescription Label Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 19. Dispensing Drugs
    • Prescription drugs may be dispensed by pharmacists or trained veterinary staff
    • Veterinary prescription drugs should be properly labeled when dispensed
    • Remember that veterinary staff members cannot refill or dispense medications without veterinarian approval
    • Medications must be dispensed in childproof containers
    • Labels with cautionary statements may also be used on the prescription
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 20. Electronic and Paperless Record Keeping
    • Veterinarians write the medication order in a paper file or type it into an electronic record
    • As the medication is it recorded into the medical record with the date, time, and the initials of the person giving the drug
    • The numbers of veterinary hospitals that utilize a completely paperless electronic medical record system is increasing
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 21. Electronic and Paperless Record Keeping
    • Advantages of using an electronic system include:
      • Improved efficiency
        • No lost records
        • Immediate access to records
        • Ability to pull up all prescriptions on one screen
      • Space saving
        • No file cabinets, storage boxes
      • Cost saving
        • Less filing
        • No time needed to retrieve records
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 22. Electronic and Paperless Record Keeping
      • Avoidance of errors
        • Prompts for patients with allergic reactions
        • Information on drug interactions
        • Identification of clients with special considerations
      • Automated input
        • Laboratory data automatically transfers into patient record
        • Prescription instructions can be entered into the computer in advance
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 23. Pharmacy Economics
    • Maintaining a pharmacy is a business that depends on charging and collecting a fee for services to continue providing medical care
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 24. Pharmacy Economics
    • Inventory and Control Maintenance
      • Time invested in maintenance of appropriate stock levels benefits the overall business health of the veterinary practice
      • The goal is to stock quantities of each item as low as possible to reduce overhead and inventory costs, but now low enough to have a shortage
      • The longer inventory sits on the shelf, the longer it costs the practice in hidden costs
      • Too much inventory also ties up money that could be invested and earning
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 25. Pharmacy Economics
    • Inventory Purchasing
      • Direct marketing is when a drug is purchased directly from the company that manufacturers it
      • Distributors or wholesalers are agencies that purchase the drug from the manufacturers and resell it to the veterinarians
      • Other sources of drugs include veterinary practices, buying groups of several veterinary practices, and pharmacies
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 26. Pharmacy Economics
    • Inventory Management
      • Managing pharmaceuticals includes
        • Maintaining an adequate stock
        • Organizing so items are easy to locate
        • Identifying products that need to be reordered
        • Receiving and inspecting shipments
        • Rotating stock and monitoring expiration dates
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning