22. behavior modifying drugs


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22. behavior modifying drugs

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Behavior-Modifying Drugs Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  2. 2. Basic Terminology <ul><li>The use of drugs to treat problem behaviors is only a small part of treating animal behavior problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must correctly diagnose the condition, examine the social conditions, and alter external stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential side effects of long-term use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver, kidney, and cardiovascular problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used extra-label </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have veterinarian/client/patient relationship </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  3. 3. Classes of Behavior-Modifying Drugs <ul><ul><li>Anti-anxiety drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antihistamines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenothiazines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Azapirones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tricyclics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monoamine oxidase inhibitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Progestins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone inhibitors </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  4. 4. Anti-anxiety Drugs <ul><li>Anti-anxiety drugs attempt to decrease anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Types of anti-anxiety drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antihistamines produce some degree of sedation because they suppress the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat anxiety associated with pruritus; the antipruritic effects of antihistamines appear to lessen this anxiety as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  5. 5. Anti-anxiety Drugs <ul><li>Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Benzodiazepines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are chemically related compounds used to relieve anxiety; appear to work on the limbic system of the brain by potentiating GABA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to specific sites in the brain; appear to produce sedation and relieve anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat aggression, urine spraying, and noise phobias </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, flumazenil, and alprazolam </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  6. 6. Anti-anxiety Drugs <ul><li>Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phenothiazines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are chemically related compounds that work by antagonism of dopamine (increased dopamine levels are associated with some psychotic diseases) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat aggression (however, may make animals more reactive to noise) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include chlorpromazine, acepromazine, promazine, perphenazine, and prochlorperazine </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  7. 7. Anti-anxiety Drugs <ul><li>Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Azapirones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically different from other anti-anxiety drugs; do not cause sedation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work by blocking serotonin; used to treat urine spraying and anxiety-associated aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An example is buspirone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have anti-anxiety action due to their ability to cause CNS depression (they have an effect on GABA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to control vocalization in cats and seizure-like anxiety in dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include phenobarbital and carbamazepine </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  8. 8. Anti-anxiety Drugs <ul><li>Types of anti -anxiety drugs (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of anticonvulsants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbamazepine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>used to treat seizure-like anxiety in dogs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed slowly by the gastrointestinal tract </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May enhance the metabolism of other drugs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main side effect is hepatotoxicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  9. 9. Antidepressant Drugs <ul><li>Antidepressant drugs are used to treat various mood changes (including aggression) and cognitive dysfunction in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of nerve impulses between two nerves or between a nerve and tissue takes place via the release of neurotransmitters from storage sites at the nerve terminal </li></ul><ul><li>After the neurotransmitter combines with the appropriate receptors, reduction of neurotransmitter concentration occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One mechanism involves the reuptake of neurotransmitter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another mechanism involves destruction of neurotransmitter by monoamine oxidase (MAO) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  10. 10. Antidepressant Drugs <ul><li>Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work by interfering with the reuptake of serotonin by the presynaptic nerve cell; its metabolites inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the concentration of neurotransmitter at postsynaptic receptors in the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat separation anxiety, pruritic conditions, and compulsive disorders in animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects include anticholinergic effects, liver problems, and thyroid effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and doxepin </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  11. 11. Antidepressant Drugs <ul><li>Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, thus reducing the destruction of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAOIs irreversibly inhibit MAO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat cognitive dysfunction in dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects include hypotension, drowsiness, and anticholinergic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An example approved for dogs is selegiline; extra-label examples include phenelzine, isocarboxazid, and tranylcypromine sulfate </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  12. 12. Antidepressant Drugs <ul><li>Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work by inhibiting serotonin reuptake, resulting in increased serotonin neurotransmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat depression, aggression, anxiety, phobias, and compulsive disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side effects are few </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  13. 13. Hormones <ul><li>Progestins and estrogens have calming effects due to their suppression of the excitatory effects of glutamine and their suppression of male-like behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects include mammary gland hyperplasia, endometrial hyperplasia, bone marrow suppression, and endocrine disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diethylstilbestrol: used for urinary incontinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medroxyprogestone acetate: used to treat male-like behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Megestrol acetate: used to treat urine spraying, anxiety, aggression, and dermatitis conditions </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  14. 14. Hormones <ul><li>Testosterone inhibitors inhibit the production of testosterone or block enzymes that convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (its potent form) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to treat aggression in male dogs </li></ul><ul><li>An example is delmadinone, which is used to treat aggression in male dogs </li></ul><ul><li>The human product finasteride is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and may be used in the future in veterinary medicine </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  15. 15. Pheromones <ul><li>Chemical that trigger a behavioral response between members of the same species </li></ul><ul><li>Many different types such as sex and territorial pheromones </li></ul><ul><li>In most animals pheromones have a general calming effect </li></ul><ul><li>No significant side effects are noted for the use of pheromones </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  16. 16. Types of Pheromones Used in Veterinary Medicine <ul><li>Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by females to provide a feeling of safety and comfort to the young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used to treat separation anxiety, destruction, excessive barking, house soiling, phobias, and excessive licking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feline Facial Pheromone (FFP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made by cat cheek gland secretions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to treat urine marking or spraying, avoidance of social contact, stressful situations, inter-cat aggression, vertical scratching, or appetite loss </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  17. 17. Types of Pheromones Used in Veterinary Medicine <ul><li>Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A maternal pheromone found in the “wax area” close to the mammae of a nursing mare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is administered in 2 sprays into each naris 30 minutes before a stressful event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is used in horses to alleviate stressful situations such as transport, shoeing, clipping, new environments, and training </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning