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22. behavior modifying drugs


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  • 1. Chapter 22 Behavior-Modifying Drugs Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 2. Basic Terminology
    • The use of drugs to treat problem behaviors is only a small part of treating animal behavior problems
      • Must correctly diagnose the condition, examine the social conditions, and alter external stimuli
    • Potential side effects of long-term use
      • Liver, kidney, and cardiovascular problems
    • Used extra-label
      • Must have veterinarian/client/patient relationship
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 3. Classes of Behavior-Modifying Drugs
      • Anti-anxiety drugs
        • Antihistamines
        • Benzodiazepines
        • Phenothiazines
        • Azapirones
        • Barbiturates
      • Antidepressants
        • Tricyclics
        • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
        • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
      • Hormones
        • Progestins
        • Estrogen
        • Testosterone inhibitors
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 4. Anti-anxiety Drugs
    • Anti-anxiety drugs attempt to decrease anxiety
    • Types of anti-anxiety drugs
      • Antihistamines produce some degree of sedation because they suppress the CNS
        • Used to treat anxiety associated with pruritus; the antipruritic effects of antihistamines appear to lessen this anxiety as well
        • Examples include hydroxyzine and diphenhydramine
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 5. Anti-anxiety Drugs
    • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
      • Benzodiazepines
        • Are chemically related compounds used to relieve anxiety; appear to work on the limbic system of the brain by potentiating GABA
        • Bind to specific sites in the brain; appear to produce sedation and relieve anxiety
        • Used to treat aggression, urine spraying, and noise phobias
        • Examples include diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, flumazenil, and alprazolam
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 6. Anti-anxiety Drugs
    • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
      • Phenothiazines
        • Are chemically related compounds that work by antagonism of dopamine (increased dopamine levels are associated with some psychotic diseases)
        • Used to treat aggression (however, may make animals more reactive to noise)
        • Examples include chlorpromazine, acepromazine, promazine, perphenazine, and prochlorperazine
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 7. Anti-anxiety Drugs
    • Types of anti-anxiety drugs (cont.)
      • Azapirones
        • Chemically different from other anti-anxiety drugs; do not cause sedation
        • Work by blocking serotonin; used to treat urine spraying and anxiety-associated aggression
        • An example is buspirone
      • Barbiturates
        • Have anti-anxiety action due to their ability to cause CNS depression (they have an effect on GABA)
        • Used to control vocalization in cats and seizure-like anxiety in dogs
        • Examples include phenobarbital and carbamazepine
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 8. Anti-anxiety Drugs
    • Types of anti -anxiety drugs (cont.)
      • Types of anticonvulsants
        • Carbamazepine
          • used to treat seizure-like anxiety in dogs
          • Absorbed slowly by the gastrointestinal tract
          • May enhance the metabolism of other drugs
          • The main side effect is hepatotoxicity
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 9. Antidepressant Drugs
    • Antidepressant drugs are used to treat various mood changes (including aggression) and cognitive dysfunction in animals
    • Transmission of nerve impulses between two nerves or between a nerve and tissue takes place via the release of neurotransmitters from storage sites at the nerve terminal
    • After the neurotransmitter combines with the appropriate receptors, reduction of neurotransmitter concentration occurs
      • One mechanism involves the reuptake of neurotransmitter
      • Another mechanism involves destruction of neurotransmitter by monoamine oxidase (MAO)
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 10. Antidepressant Drugs
    • Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
      • Work by interfering with the reuptake of serotonin by the presynaptic nerve cell; its metabolites inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine
      • Increases the concentration of neurotransmitter at postsynaptic receptors in the CNS
      • Used to treat separation anxiety, pruritic conditions, and compulsive disorders in animals
      • Side effects include anticholinergic effects, liver problems, and thyroid effects
      • Examples include amitriptyline, imipramine, clomipramine, and doxepin
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 11. Antidepressant Drugs
    • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
      • Work by inhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, thus reducing the destruction of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine
      • MAOIs irreversibly inhibit MAO
      • Used to treat cognitive dysfunction in dogs
      • Side effects include hypotension, drowsiness, and anticholinergic effects
      • An example approved for dogs is selegiline; extra-label examples include phenelzine, isocarboxazid, and tranylcypromine sulfate
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 12. Antidepressant Drugs
    • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
      • Work by inhibiting serotonin reuptake, resulting in increased serotonin neurotransmission
      • Used to treat depression, aggression, anxiety, phobias, and compulsive disorders
      • Side effects are few
      • Examples include fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 13. Hormones
    • Progestins and estrogens have calming effects due to their suppression of the excitatory effects of glutamine and their suppression of male-like behaviors
    • Side effects include mammary gland hyperplasia, endometrial hyperplasia, bone marrow suppression, and endocrine disorders
    • Examples include
      • Diethylstilbestrol: used for urinary incontinence
      • Medroxyprogestone acetate: used to treat male-like behaviors
      • Megestrol acetate: used to treat urine spraying, anxiety, aggression, and dermatitis conditions
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 14. Hormones
    • Testosterone inhibitors inhibit the production of testosterone or block enzymes that convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (its potent form)
    • Used to treat aggression in male dogs
    • An example is delmadinone, which is used to treat aggression in male dogs
    • The human product finasteride is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and may be used in the future in veterinary medicine
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 15. Pheromones
    • Chemical that trigger a behavioral response between members of the same species
    • Many different types such as sex and territorial pheromones
    • In most animals pheromones have a general calming effect
    • No significant side effects are noted for the use of pheromones
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 16. Types of Pheromones Used in Veterinary Medicine
    • Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP)
      • Produced by females to provide a feeling of safety and comfort to the young
      • used to treat separation anxiety, destruction, excessive barking, house soiling, phobias, and excessive licking
    • Feline Facial Pheromone (FFP)
      • Made by cat cheek gland secretions
      • Used to treat urine marking or spraying, avoidance of social contact, stressful situations, inter-cat aggression, vertical scratching, or appetite loss
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 17. Types of Pheromones Used in Veterinary Medicine
    • Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP)
      • A maternal pheromone found in the “wax area” close to the mammae of a nursing mare
      • is administered in 2 sprays into each naris 30 minutes before a stressful event
      • Is used in horses to alleviate stressful situations such as transport, shoeing, clipping, new environments, and training
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning