21. vaccines
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21. vaccines






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21. vaccines Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 21 Vaccines Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 2. Immunity
    • Nonspecific immunity
      • Includes things such as physical barriers, mucus production, inflammation, fever, and phagocytosis
      • Directed against all pathogens; is the initial defense against invading agents
    • Specific immunity
      • Takes over when the nonspecific mechanisms fail
      • Targeted for a specific antigen; has memory
      • Arises from B- and T-lymphocytes
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 3. Types of Immunity
    • Cell-mediated immunity
      • T-lymphocytes directly attack the invading antigen
      • Important for protecting against intracellular bacterial or viral infections, fungal diseases, and protozoal diseases
    • Antibody-mediated immunity
      • B-lymphocytes produce antibodies that react to antigen
      • Important for extracellular phases of systemic viral and bacterial infections and protection against endotoxin and exotoxin-induced disease
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 4. Ways to Acquire Specific Immunity
    • Active immunity
      • Arises when an animal receives an antigen that activates B- and T-lymphocytes
      • Creates memory
    • Passive immunity
      • Arises when an animal receives antibodies from another animal
      • Provides immediate onset of immunity, but the animal is protected for a shorter time (no memory)
    • Natural immunity
      • Acquired during normal biological experiences
    • Artificial immunity
      • Acquired through medical procedures
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 5. Vaccines
    • A vaccine is a suspension of weakened, live, or killed microorganisms administered to prevent, improve, or treat an infectious disease
    • Types of vaccines:
      • Inactivated (killed): made from microbes, microbe parts, or microbe by-products that have been chemically treated or heated to kill the microbe
        • Contain adjuvants (substances that enhance the immune response by increasing the stability of the vaccine in the body); may cause vaccine reactions
        • Advantages: safe; stable; unlikely to cause disease
        • Disadvantages: need repeated doses; possible reactions
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 6. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Attenuated (modified-live): microorganisms go through a process of losing their virulence (called attenuation ), but must be able to replicate within the patient to provide immunity
        • Advantages: immunity lasts longer; has better efficacy and quicker stimulation of cell-mediated immunity than killed vaccines
        • Disadvantages: possible abortion; can produce mild forms of the disease; can shed into the environment; proper handling/storage is critical
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 7. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Live: made from live microorganisms that may be fully virulent
        • Advantages: fewer doses needed; last longer; inexpensive; adjuvants not needed
        • Disadvantages: residual virulence that requires carefully handling
      • Recombinant: a gene or part of a microorganism is removed from one organism (usually the pathogen) and inserted into another microorganism
        • Advantages: fewer side effects; effective immunity; varied routes of administration
        • Disadvantage: increased cost
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 8. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Adjuvants: substances that enhance the immune response
      • There are four types of adjuvants:
        • Depot
        • Particulate
        • Immunostimulatory
        • Mixed
      • Depot adjuvants protect antigens from rapid degradation which contributes to a prolonged immune response
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 9. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Particulate adjuvants deliver antigen in such a way that both cell-mediated and humoral immunity are enhanced by stimulation of antigen processing
      • Immunostimulatory adjuvants promote cytokine production
      • Mixed adjuvants combine a particulate or depot adjuvant with an immunostimulatory agent
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 10. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Polyneucleotides: or DNA vaccines injects DNA that encodes for foreign antigens is another type of vaccine
        • Advantage: that it is possible to select only the genes for the antigen of interest
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 11. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Toxoids: “vaccine” used against a toxin that has been deactivated by heat or chemicals, but is still able to stimulate antibody production
        • Advantage: provides protection against toxin
        • Disadvantages: shorter duration of effectiveness; may contain adjuvants
      • Antitoxins: substances that contain antibodies obtained from an animal that has been hypersensitized to neutralize toxins
        • Advantage: quick protection against a toxin
        • Disadvantages: short-lived protection; may contain preservatives that can cause reactions
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 12. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Antiserum: antibody-rich serum obtained from a hypersensitized or actually infected animal
        • Advantage: provides quick protection against a microorganism
        • Disadvantages: shorter duration of effectiveness; may contain adjuvants
      • Autogenous: vaccine produced for a specific disease in a specific area from a sick animal
        • Advantage: provides protection against the specific organism in a specific area
        • Disadvantage: may contain endotoxin and other by-products found in the culture
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 13. Vaccines
    • Types of vaccines (cont.):
      • Multiple-antigen vaccines are called polyvalent
      • Polyvalent vaccines contain more than one antigen
        • Contain a mixture of different antigens and are more convenient to administer because fewer injections are needed
        • Adverse reaction increases as the number of antigens increases
      • To be approved, must show that each part of the polyvalent vaccine induces the same level of immunity as does the single-antigen vaccine
      • Monovalent vaccines are vaccines with only a single antigen present
        • Using several monovalent vaccines may expose the animal to higher levels of adjuvants
        • Must give more injections
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 14. Maternally Derived Antibodies
    • Maternally derived antibodies are antibodies that offspring receive passively from their mothers, either from colostrum or via the placenta
    • Maternally derived antibodies give the offspring disease resistance for a few days and provide variable antibody levels for up to nine weeks
    • To enhance this protection, young animals receive vaccinations and booster vaccinations to ensure appropriate immunity
      • Booster vaccines are needed because effective vaccination varies among individuals, because of variable levels of maternal antibodies
      • Booster vaccines also allow antibody levels to rise to satisfactory levels
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 15. Vaccine Reactions
    • Although vaccines are considered safe, vaccine reactions can occur
    • All vaccine reactions must be recorded in the medical record
    • Typical vaccine reactions:
      • Location reactions at the injection site
      • Fever
      • Lethargy
      • Vomiting
      • Salivation
      • Difficulty breathing
      • Vaccine-associated sarcomas in cats
      • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in dogs
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 16. Issues in Vaccine Use
    • Consider the following with all vaccine protocols:
      • Vaccine issues
        • Proper care and handling
        • Proper route of administration
        • Proper use (do not mix vaccine products)
        • Proper dose
      • Patient issues
        • Animal age
        • Freedom from disease
        • Concurrent use of medication
        • Pregnancy
        • Environment
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 17. Vaccine Protocols
    • Practice of annual vaccination is now under debate
    • One way to discover when revaccination is necessary is via the antibody titer
      • An antibody titer is a serum test that reveals the level of antibody to a particular antigen in a particular individual
      • Antibody titers are expressed as 1:2, 1:4, etc., a ratio that represents the dilution at which the immune response is still adequate
    • Core vaccines are recommended for all individual animals
    • Noncore vaccines are recommended only for individual animals deemed to be at high risk for contact with the organism
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning
  • 18. Species-Specific Vaccine Protocols
    • Examples of vaccines available for a variety of species are listed in the textbook
    Copyright © 2011 Delmar, Cengage Learning