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12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
12. Nutrients and Metabolism
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12. Nutrients and Metabolism

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    • 1. Nutrients and Metabolism
    • 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List the six categories of nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the three categories of carbohydrates. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the four categories of lipids. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the general structure of proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between the water-soluble vitamins and fat-soluble vitamins and list their dietary sources and functions. </li></ul><ul><li>List the common macrominerals, microminerals and trace elements found in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the processes of catabolism and anabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>List the events that occur in each stage of cellular metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the processes of glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general structure of enzymes and explain the role of enzymes in initiation and control of metabolic reactions. </li></ul>
    • 3. Nutrients <ul><li>Substances derived from food; necessary for carrying out normal body functions </li></ul><ul><li>Six categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. <ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Energy-producing nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-energy producing nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, vitamins, and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrients - ones that an animal cannot manufacture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be in diet </li></ul></ul>
    • 5. Oxygen and Water <ul><li>Oxygen - most vital requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Water - obtained by ingesting food and drink and by oxidizing protein, fat, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals consist of about 70% water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of water that is needed daily by an animal is equal to the amount of its daily energy requirement </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Oxygen and Water <ul><li>Almost all metabolic processes of the body involve water </li></ul><ul><li>Water serves as a lubricant for body tissues, a circulatory and transport medium, and a chemical reactant in digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Water is excreted as sweat and evaporated during panting to assist in temperature regulation </li></ul>
    • 7. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Sugars - monosaccharides and disaccharides that come from fruits, sugar cane, honey, milk, and sugar beets </li></ul><ul><li>Starches - polysaccharides that come from grains, root vegetables, and legumes </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose - polysaccharides that are found in most vegetables </li></ul>
    • 8. Glucose <ul><li>Monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><li>Simplest, smallest dietary carbohydrate </li></ul><ul><li>Used to make ATP through glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Excess glucose is converted to glycogen (stored in liver) or converted to fat (stored in adipose tissue) </li></ul>
    • 9. Lipids <ul><li>Insoluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble in other lipids and organic solvents </li></ul><ul><li>Four major categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other lipoid substances </li></ul></ul>
    • 10. Neutral Fats <ul><li>Composed of fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids - classified depending upon number of carbon atoms in backbone of molecule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long chain, medium chain, short chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glycerol is a modified simple sugar </li></ul>
    • 11. Neutral Fats <ul><li>Triglycerides - three chains of fatty acid molecules attached to a single molecule of glycerol </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats - fatty acids with single bonds between carbon atoms; full complement of hydrogen </li></ul>
    • 12. Neutral Fats <ul><li>Unsaturated fats - one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms; not a full complement of hydrogen atoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Neutral Fats <ul><li>Liver can convert one fatty acid to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acids - cannot be synthesized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linoleic acid, lino leni c acid, and arachidonic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neutral fats contain over twice as much potential energy by weight as protein or carbohydrates </li></ul>
    • 14. Neutral Fats <ul><li>Aid absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K </li></ul><ul><li>Stored subcutaneous fat is an important insulator </li></ul><ul><li>Fat surrounds and cushions vital organs such as the heart, kidneys, and eyes </li></ul>
    • 15. Phospholipids <ul><li>Modified triglycerides derived primarily from cell membranes of plant and animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Glycerol core and two fatty acid chains </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorous group attached to the glycerol molecule; “polar head” </li></ul>
    • 16. Steroids <ul><li>Composed of four flat interlocking rings of hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Include cholesterol, bile salts, sex hormones and hormones released from the cortex of the adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>All of the other steroid molecules can be made from cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is found in the plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Liver is able to manufacture cholesterol </li></ul>
    • 17. Other Lipoid Substances <ul><li>Fat soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Eicosanoids - regulatory molecules derived from arachadonic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipoproteins </li></ul>
    • 18. Protein Functions <ul><li>Primary structural material of the animal body </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate body functions - enzymes and hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Transport oxygen - hemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in body movement - contractile proteins in muscle cells </li></ul>
    • 19. Protein Structure <ul><li>Composed of amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amine group (-NH2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic acid group (-COOH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ R” group - variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>22 different types of amino acids </li></ul>
    • 20. Protein Structure <ul><li>Peptide bond - forms between acid group from one amino acid and basic group on the next </li></ul><ul><li>Polypeptide - more then ten amino acids bonded together </li></ul><ul><li>Protein - 50 or more amino acids </li></ul>
    • 21. Protein Structure <ul><li>Proteins can be composed of 100 to 10,000 amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Type and order of amino acids determines structure and function of the protein </li></ul>
    • 22. Essential Amino Acids <ul><li>Must be present in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Animal either cannot make them at all or cannot make them fast enough to meet the body’s needs for tissue maintenance and growth </li></ul>
    • 23. Nitrogen Balance <ul><li>Amino acids not used to make protein are used by the cell to make energy or converted to carbohydrates or fats. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive nitrogen balance - body is incorporating more protein into tissues than it is using to make energy (ATP) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative nitrogen balance - occurs when protein breakdown exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues </li></ul>
    • 24. Vitamins <ul><li>Function as co-enzymes or parts of co-enzymes or regulatory molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Most vitamins are not made in the body and must be consumed in the diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exceptions: Vitamin D, made in the skin; vitamin K and biotin, made in the intestine by bacteria; beta carotene can be converted into vitamin A </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Water-Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>Absorbed through the GI tract wall when water is absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>Excesses excreted in urine; toxicities are rare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B1 (thiamine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B2 (riboflavin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B3 (niacin or nicotinamide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B5 (pantothenic acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B9 (folacin or folic Acid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit B12 (cyanocobalamin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit C (ascorbic Acid) </li></ul></ul>
    • 26. Fat-Soluble Vitamins <ul><li>Bind to ingested lipids before they are absorbed with ingesta </li></ul><ul><li>Stored for long periods of time in tissues; toxicity a possibility if high levels are consumed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit A (retinol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit D (antirachitic factor or calciferol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit E (antisterility factor or tocopherols) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vit. K (coagulation factor or quinones) </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic substances; non energy-producing </li></ul><ul><li>Macrominerals - calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium </li></ul><ul><li>Microminerals - copper, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Trace elements - chromium, cobalt, fluorine, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, sulphur and vanadium </li></ul>
    • 28. Cell Metabolism <ul><li>Catabolism - involves breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules to produce energy </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolism - use of stored energy to assemble new molecules from the small components that are produced from catabolism </li></ul>
    • 29. Catabolism <ul><li>Three stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 1 - digestion in lumen of the gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - anaerobic respiration in cytoplasm of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 - aerobic respiration in mitochondria of cells </li></ul>
    • 30. Catabolism - Stage 1 <ul><li>Hydrolysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates broken down to monosaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins broken down to amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids broken down to nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>Fat broken down to fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul>
    • 31. Catabolism - Stage 1 <ul><li>Once hydrolysis is complete, nutrient molecules are absorbed by cells that line the small intestine. </li></ul>
    • 32. Catabolism - Stage 1 <ul><li>Transferred to capillaries and extracellular spaces deeper in the wall of the intestine </li></ul>
    • 33. Catabolism - Stage 2 <ul><li>Anaerobic respiration: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients catabolized to produce acetyl-CoA </li></ul><ul><li>Transported through the cytoplasm to the mitochondria, where it is used in stage 3 of catabolism </li></ul>
    • 34. Catabolism - Stage 3 <ul><li>Aerobic respiration: </li></ul><ul><li>Involves attachment of an inorganic phosphate group (PO 4 ) to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to a form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) </li></ul>
    • 35. Anabolism <ul><li>Biosynthetic processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cells use ATP to manufacture substances and perform vital functions </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration synthesis - opposite of hydrolysis </li></ul>
    • 36. Summary: Catabolism and Anabolism
    • 37. Control of Metabolic Reactions <ul><li>Metabolism is a multienzyme sequence of events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product of one step is the substrate of the next </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activity depends on molecular shape of enzyme </li></ul><ul><li>Active site - region of the enzyme that binds to the substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Catalysts - speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy </li></ul>
    • 38. Control of Metabolic Reactions <ul><li>Cofactors: nonprotein substances </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: iron, zinc, copper </li></ul><ul><li>Function with enzymes to complete the shape of a binding site </li></ul>
    • 39. Control of Metabolic Reactions <ul><li>Coenzymes: nonprotein organic substances </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamins or derived from vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>May be bound temporarily or permanently to the enzyme </li></ul>
    • 40. Energy for Metabolic Reactions <ul><li>Storage forms of energy: ATP, NADH, and FADH 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Energy released when molecular bonds are broken </li></ul>
    • 41. Carbohydrate Metabolism <ul><li>Glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose broken down to form pyruvate (pyruvic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Pyruvate transported to mitochondria </li></ul>
    • 42. Carbohydrate Metabolism
    • 43. Carbohydrate Metabolism <ul><li>Cellular Respiraton </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs Cycle &amp; Electron Transport Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs in mitochondria </li></ul>
    • 44. Krebs Cycle
    • 45. Electron Transport Chain
    • 46. Summary of Energy Production From One Glucose Molecule
    • 47. Lipid Metabolism <ul><li>Triglycerides hydrolyzed into glycerol and three fatty acid chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol further catabolized to acetyl-CoA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid chains fragmented (beta-oxidation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are then converted into ketones </li></ul></ul>
    • 48. Protein Metabolism <ul><li>Amino acid catabolism occurs in most tissues </li></ul><ul><li>In intestinal mucosa, kidney, brain, liver, and skeletal muscle, amino acid molecules may undergo deamination or transamination . </li></ul>
    • 49. Transamination <ul><li>Amine group (--NH 2 ) is transferred to another carbon chain to form a different amino acid </li></ul><ul><li>Newly constructed amino acids then diffuse into the surrounding cytosol </li></ul>
    • 50. Deamination <ul><li>Amine is removed from the carbon chain and becomes an ammonia molecule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver enzymes convert ammonia to urea (excreted in urine) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The carbon chain is metabolized further to yield ATP </li></ul>

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