Rheology pdf


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Rheology pdf

  1. 1. A seminar on Industrial Aspect of Rheology Presented by Modh Sudipkumar c. PA /2010 /11
  2. 2. IntroductionRheology is Responsible for any formulation, production, appearance, usage, andfinally affect stabilityAffects final cost of productClass I recalls of Fentanyl Reservoir patches from Innovator and genericmanufacturersIn short………If a material is pumped, sprayed, extended, extruded, molded, coated, mixed,chewed, swallowed, rubbed, transported, stored, heated, cooled, aged …RHEOLOGY is important ….!! sudip kumar modh 2
  3. 3. contentsViscometer vs. RheometerTypes of the viscometer used in industryCharacteristicsApplication of viscometer in stability and evaluationRheology: A Rapid Screening Method for Testing StabilityLatest types of viscometers and Rheometers sudip kumar modh 3
  4. 4. Viscometer vs. Rheometer• Viscometer: instrument that measures:viscosity over a limited shear rate range• Rheometer: instrument that measures:• Viscosity over a wide range of shear rates, and…• Viscoelasticity of fluids, semi-solids and solidshttp://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~sanongn1/course.html sudip kumar modh 4
  5. 5. Types of the viscometer used in industry:Capillary viscometerFalling sphere viscometerCup and bob viscometercone and plate viscometerHow will you choose appropriate viscometer?•Newtonian types of fluids shear rate directly proportional to shear stress•Instrument are operated at single shear rate can be used -Capillary viscometer -Falling sphere viscometer but these give erroneous result•Non Newtonian types of fluids shear rate not directly proportional to shear stress•Instrument are operated at variety of shear rate can be used -Cup and bob viscometer -cone and plate viscometer sudip kumar modh 5
  6. 6. Characteristics:Capillary viscometerExp Ostwald viscometerBased on poiseuille’s equationAccording to US pharmacopeia capillary apparatus used for high viscousmethyl cellulose type of solutionFalling sphere viscometerExp hoeppler viscometerCup and bob viscometerExp Couette type McMichael searle type Roto viscometer Brookfield viscometer(rotational type of viscometer)cone and plate viscometerExp ferranti-shirley sudip kumar modh 6
  7. 7. Application of viscometer in stability and evaluation:1) Polaxomer vehiclesUsed in tear solution for treating “dry eye syndrome “For evaluation computer controlled couette viscometer is used2) SuppositoriesRelease and absorption is depend on rectal temperature,Brookfield viscometer is used study characteristic of triglycerides base at varioustemperature3) EmulsionStabilized with triethanolamine stearate at various temperatureBrookfield viscometer is used4) cosmetic sticksFerranti-shirley cone plate viscometer used Physical pharmacy by martin page 581-582 sudip kumar modh 7
  8. 8. 5) Tablet Excipient Microcrystalline cellulose is used as granulating agent Mixture torque rheometer is used to measure torque changes as water is added 6)Lamination * process of lamination various stages a) softening point of the resin -resin starts to soften and flow as elastic material drops of viscosity (~107 poise down to 100 to 5000 poise) b) material is most fluid, and reaction rates start to increase as viscosity starts to build as the resin starts to gel. at gel point tan delta is one parallel plate Rheometer+ is used*Focus on Rheology By Arlon, Materials for Electronics, Inc . sudip kumar modh 8
  9. 9. +parallel plate Rheometer:upper plate is attached to transducer to measure torque resulting fromstrain upon the samplesystem computer compares material stress to input strain anddetermines tan deltaor phase angle along with the storage and loss modulus components sudip kumar modh 9
  10. 10. 7)Suspensions Settling of particles by Brookfield viscometer fitted with helipath attachment Consists of rotating T bar spindle Dial reads resistance at various levels of suspension 8)Ointment Consistency measured by Burrell severs Rheometer with helipath attachment Ointment is loaded into a cylinder and extruded with measured force Amount extruded is measurement of consistency 9)Aerosol Viscosity is measured by Brookfield viscometer 10)Paste capillary extrusion viscometer for the viscosity measurement of fish protein pasteJournal compilation © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. sudip kumar modh 10
  11. 11. capillary extrusion viscometer sudip kumar modh 11
  12. 12. Rheology: A Rapid Screening Method for Testing Stability• To understand rheology of viscoelastic fluids, frequency dependence of their G and G" material functions to be measured shear storage modulus G shear loss modulus G“ sudip kumar modh 12
  13. 13. http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~sanongn1/course.htmlsudip kumar modh 13
  14. 14. An oscillatory (sinusoidal) G’ deformation (stress or strain) is applied to a sample. the material response G” (strain or stress) is measured. The phase angle δ, or phase shift, between the deformation and response is measured. shear storage modulus G shear loss modulus G“ideal solid, elastic Tan delta= 0º high viscosityNewtonian fluid Tan delta= 90º low viscosity http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~sanongn1/course.html sudip kumar modh 14
  15. 15. • The ratio of G"/G, known as tandelta is predictive parameter for studying the storage stability of suspensions• single rheological test can rapidly predict the stability of a drug suspension by monitoring the value of a well-defined parameter tan delta# Tan delta= G"/G Tan delta• *http://www.pharmaceutical-int.com/article/rapid-screening-methods.html• # http://ciks.cbt.nist.gov/~garbocz/SP946/node11.htm sudip kumar modh 15
  16. 16. Latest types of viscometers and Rheometers1)HAAKE RheoStress 6000 (2007)1Universal Rheometervariety of temperature control unitstemperatures ranging from -80 up to 500°C2) Brookfield viscometes2 2 Achieving the Basics in Viscosity Measurement to Comply with 21CFR Part 11 161© 2007/10 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. · By Len Thibodeau Rheometer
  17. 17. Significance of Helipath Stand substances with yield values unsuitable for viscosity or consistency measurements with rotational viscometers rotating spindle, be it cylinder, disc, or paddle, will create channel Produce negligible and meaningless torque The Brookfield Helipath™ Stand is designed to slowly lower or raise rotating T-bar spindle  By always cutting into fresh material, the problem of channelling or separating is eliminated sudip kumar modh 17http://www.brookfieldengineering.com/products/accessories/helipath-stand.asp
  18. 18. 3) Interfacial Shear Rheometer KSV NIMA sudip kumar modh 18
  19. 19. Interfacial Shear RheometerViscoelastic films relationships are nonlinearintermediate between purely viscous and purely elastic responses in industry and inbiologicalsTo define product stability in different industries such as food, petrochemical, cosmetics,and pharmaceuticalsApplication:Prediction of emulsion, froth and foam stabilityDetermination of thin film structureExamination of phase transitionsReal time monitoring of surface reactionsContinuous monitoring of molecule adsorption into interfaces sudip kumar modh 19
  20. 20. 4) STRESSTECH Where flow characteristic of a material determines its processibility, performance, and/or consumer acceptance.Rheological instrumentation for the characterization of polymers-BY STEVEN M. COLO, sudip kumar modh 20
  21. 21. I never did anything worth doing by accident, nor did any ofmy inventions come by accident; they came by work - Thomas Alva EdisonIm a great believer in luck, and I find, the harder I work, themore I have of it. -Thomas Jefferson Thank u……… sudip kumar modh 21