Annual	
  Conference	
  
Denver	
  
April	
  2013	
  
Doug	
  Austrom,	
  Betsy	
  Merck,	
  Pam	
  Posey	
  (Presenters)	...
Desired	
  
Outcomes	
  
for	
  this	
  
Session	
  
Through	
  dialogue	
  and	
  exercises,	
  we	
  have	
  
the	
  opp...
EvoluEon	
  of	
  Sociotechnical	
  Systems	
  
Three	
  Waves	
  
Wave	
  One:	
  1950’s-­‐1970’s	
  
Wave	
  Three:	
  1...
EvoluEon	
  of	
  Sociotechnical	
  Systems	
  
Wave	
  One:	
  1950’s-­‐1970’s	
  
Nature	
  of	
  the	
  Work	
   Design...
EvoluEon	
  of	
  Sociotechnical	
  Systems	
  
Wave	
  Two:	
  1970’s-­‐1990’s	
  
Nature	
  of	
  the	
  Work	
   Design...
EvoluEon	
  of	
  Sociotechnical	
  Systems	
  
Wave	
  Three:	
  1990’s-­‐	
  Present	
  
Nature	
  of	
  the	
  Work	
  ...
HIGH	
  Uncertainty	
   LOWER	
  Uncertainty	
  
Six	
  Stages	
  of	
  the	
  InnovaFon	
  ConFnuum	
  
Pure	
  Research	...
Three	
  Research	
  Sites	
  
•  Caltech	
  Orchid	
  Project:	
  R1,	
  Fundamental	
  research	
  
–  OpEcal	
  RadiaEo...
HIGH	
  Uncertainty	
   LOWER	
  Uncertainty	
  
‘Orchid’	
  Project	
   ‘Uniform	
  Data	
  Set’	
  Project	
   ‘Large	
 ...
Key	
  ConversaFons/DeliberaFons	
  	
  
DefiniDon	
  and	
  Elements	
  
•  Key	
  conversaFons	
  or	
  deliberaFons	
  a...
Examples	
  of	
  Key	
  ConversaFons/DeliberaFons	
  	
  
Orchid	
  
–  What	
  experiment	
  shall	
  we	
  run?	
  
–  ...
Knowledge	
  Work	
  Barriers	
  
Lack	
  of	
  knowledge	
  
•  In	
  the	
  Orchid	
  project,	
  the	
  technical	
  pr...
AcFvity	
  Part	
  1	
  
•  Spend	
  5	
  minutes	
  and	
  think	
  of	
  a	
  past	
  or	
  present	
  issue	
  that	
  ...
AcFvity	
  Part	
  2	
  
•  DirecEons:	
  At	
  your	
  table,	
  work	
  for	
  10	
  minutes	
  on	
  the	
  
same	
  is...
CoordinaFon	
  across	
  the	
  InnovaFon	
  
ConFnuum	
  
R1	
   D4	
  
Drive	
   Problem	
  Solving	
  
Shape	
  	
  and...
!""#$%&'("&)!'*+,"#-)
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!""#$...
Design	
  ImplicaFons	
  –	
  Open	
  Discussion	
  
Virtual	
  Teams/InnovaFon	
  ConFnuum 	
  ODF	
  2013
	
   	
   	
  ...
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Thriving in an Uncertain World: Designing Virtual Teams Across the Innovation Continuum

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Thriving in an Uncertain World: Designing Virtual Teams Across the Innovation Continuum

  1. 1. Annual  Conference   Denver   April  2013   Doug  Austrom,  Betsy  Merck,  Pam  Posey  (Presenters)   and  Be6y  Barre6,  Bert  Painter,  Ram  Tenkasi   Socio-­‐Technical  Systems  Roundtable     Thriving  in  an  Uncertain  World:   Designing  Virtual  Teams  Across  the   InnovaFon  ConFnuum   This  material  is  based  upon  work  supported  by  the  NaEonal  Science  FoundaEon  under  grant  number  NSF  OCI  09-­‐43237.    Any  opinions,  findings  and  conclusions  or   recommendaEons  expressed  in  this  material  are  those  of  the  author(s)  and  do  not  necessarily  reflect  the  views  of  the  NaEonal  Science  FoundaEon.  
  2. 2. Desired   Outcomes   for  this   Session   Through  dialogue  and  exercises,  we  have   the  opportunity  to  …   •  Increase  understanding  of  the  implicaEons   of  virtuality  on  key  conversaEons/ deliberaEons  across  the  innovaEon   conEnuum   •  Explore  the  design  of  appropriate   mechanisms  of  coordinaEon  across  the   R&D/innovaEon  conEnuum     •  PracEce  applying  STS  principles  to  address   variances  in  deliberaEons  and  knowledge   management  barriers  in  virtual  (and  non-­‐ virtual)  innovaEon  work   Virtual  Teams/InnovaEon  ConEnuum  ODF  2013  
  3. 3. EvoluEon  of  Sociotechnical  Systems   Three  Waves   Wave  One:  1950’s-­‐1970’s   Wave  Three:  1990’s-­‐Present   Wave  Two:  1970’s-­‐1990’s   Virtual  Teams/InnovaEon  ConEnuum  ODF  2013  
  4. 4. EvoluEon  of  Sociotechnical  Systems   Wave  One:  1950’s-­‐1970’s   Nature  of  the  Work   Design  Principles*   •  RouEne  work  in  single   organizaEons     •  Work  groups  with  shared   idenEty   •  Single  linear  conversion   process   •  Joint  opEmizaEon   •  CompaEbility   •  Sociotechnical  criterion   and  variance  control   •  Boundary  locaEon   •  InformaEon  flow   •  Design  and  human  values   •  MulEfuncEonal  principle:   mechanism  or  organism   •  Support  congruence   •  TransiEonal  organizaEon   •  Minimum  criEcal   specificaEon   •  IncompleEon   Virtual  Teams/InnovaEon  ConEnuum  ODF  2013   *  Albert  Cherns,  1976  
  5. 5. EvoluEon  of  Sociotechnical  Systems   Wave  Two:  1970’s-­‐1990’s   Nature  of  the  Work   Design  Principles**   •  Non-­‐rouEne  face-­‐to-­‐ face  knowledge  work   in  single  organizaEons   •  Individual  performers   with  specialized   experEse   •  MulEple,  concurrent   nonlinear  conversion   processes   •  Joint  opEmizaEon   •  Self-­‐design  by  the   members  of  the  unit   being  changed   •  Specify  only  those   things  that  must  be   defined  allowing  for   ongoing  adaptaEon   •  MulE-­‐funcEonality  and   redundancy  of   funcEons   •  IteraEve  and  open-­‐ ended  design  process   Virtual  Teams/InnovaEon  ConEnuum  ODF  2013   **  Cal  Pava,  1983  
  6. 6. EvoluEon  of  Sociotechnical  Systems   Wave  Three:  1990’s-­‐  Present   Nature  of  the  Work   Design  Principles   •  Virtual,  non-­‐rouEne  work   •  Work  and  workers   distributed  across   mulEple  locaEons  and/or   organizaEons   •  InformaEon  and   communicaEon   technology  enabled   •  MulEple,  concurrent,   nonlinear,  independent,   and  interdependent   conversion  processes   •  In  an  iVUCA  world   •  Whole  systems   opEmizaEon   •  Align  on  shared  purpose   and  mutually  beneficial   outcomes   •  Promote  dignity,   meaning,  challenge,   mastery,  autonomy,  and       self-­‐determinaEon     •  Foster  learning  and   knowledge  sharing   •  SupporEve  infrastructure   and  coordinaEon  system   •  Minimum  criEcal   specificaEons   •  IteraEve  design  and   mutual  adaptaEon   Virtual  Teams/InnovaEon  ConEnuum  ODF  2013  
  7. 7. HIGH  Uncertainty   LOWER  Uncertainty   Six  Stages  of  the  InnovaFon  ConFnuum   Pure  Research   Work   DON’T  KNOW    WHAT     we  are  looking   for   DON’T  KNOW     HOW     to  carry  out  the   research   Applied   Research  Work     DON’T  KNOW     WHAT   (i.e.  end  state   or  objecEve)   KNOW    HOW     to  carry  out  the   research   Exploratory   Development   Work   KNOW    WHAT     DON’T  KNOW    HOW    to  achieve  it   Advanced   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   DON’T  KNOW     HOW     IN  DETAIL     to  achieve  it   Start-­‐Up      (pilot   plants,    beta   tesEng)   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   KNOW     HOW     CONCEPTUALLY   to  achieve  it     Scale-­‐Up  (volume   &  costs)   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   KNOW     HOW   OPERATIONALLY   to  achieve  it   R 1 R 2 D 1 D 4 D 2 D 3 Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  8. 8. Three  Research  Sites   •  Caltech  Orchid  Project:  R1,  Fundamental  research   –  OpEcal  RadiaEon  Cooling  and  HeaEng  in  Integrated  Devices   –  Tightly-­‐Linked  CollaboraEon  for  Design  of  Experiments  &  Device  FabricaEon  among   Laboratories  using  3  Technology  plaeorms     –  Pasadena,  Switzerland  and  Austria   –  Major  challenge:  creaEve  research  and  design  and  knowledge  generaEon  in  a   complex  virtual  sefng   •  NACC:  D2-­‐D4,  Virtual  R&D  eco-­‐system   –  Comprised  of  29  NIA-­‐funded  Alzheimer's  Disease  Centers  (ADCs)  and  the  NaEonal   Alzheimer's  CoordinaEng  Center  Center  (NACC)     –  Major  challenge:  Create  Uniform  Data  Set  agreeing  upon  and  compiling  data  from   the  29  different  centers  as  the  basis  of  research   •  LVG:  D3-­‐D4,  Large  video  game  developer   –  Core  team  with  distributed  vendors  in  Philippines,  China,  India,  Switzerland,    North   America  and  across  the  parking  lot   –  Major  challenge:  Cost  effecEve  game  development  work  with  high  quality  and   Emeliness  completed  at  a  distance  for  art  producEon,  engineering  and  tesEng   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  9. 9. HIGH  Uncertainty   LOWER  Uncertainty   ‘Orchid’  Project   ‘Uniform  Data  Set’  Project   ‘Large  Video  Game’  Project   Pure  Research   Work   DON’T  KNOW    WHAT     we  are  looking   for   DON’T  KNOW     HOW     to  carry  out  the   research   Applied   Research  Work     DON’T  KNOW     WHAT   (i.e.  end  state   or  objecEve)   KNOW    HOW     to  carry  out  the   research   Exploratory   Development   Work   KNOW    WHAT     DON’T  KNOW    HOW    to  achieve  it   Advanced   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   DON’T  KNOW     HOW     IN  DETAIL     to  achieve  it   Start-­‐Up      (pilot   plants,    beta   tesEng)   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   KNOW     HOW     CONCEPTUALLY   to  achieve  it     Scale-­‐Up  (volume   &  costs)   Development   Work   KNOW     WHAT   KNOW     HOW   OPERATIONALLY   to  achieve  it   R   1   R   2   D   1   D   4   D   2   D   3   Six  Stage  of  the  InnovaFon  ConFnuum   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  10. 10. Key  ConversaFons/DeliberaFons     DefiniDon  and  Elements   •  Key  conversaFons  or  deliberaFons  are  pa6erns  of  exchange  and   communicaEon  in  which  people  engage  with  themselves  or  others   to  reduce  the  equivocality  of  a  problemaEc  issue   •  The  salient  elements  of  a  deliberaDon   include  the  …     •  What  -­‐  or  problemaEc  issues  facing   the  social  enEty  about  which   people  reflect  and  communicate   •  How  -­‐  which  may  be  structured,   semi-­‐structured,  unstructured,  ad   hoc,  in  –person  or  virtual   •  Who  -­‐  both  those  who  are  currently   involved  and  those  who  ideally   should  be  involved  in  the   deliberaEon   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  11. 11. Examples  of  Key  ConversaFons/DeliberaFons     Orchid   –  What  experiment  shall  we  run?   –  How  shall  we  design  the  experiment?   –  How  shall  we  execute  the  experiment?   –  How  do  we  make  sense  of  the  results?   NACC   –  What  data  will  go  in  the  UDS?   –  What  diagnosEc  instruments  shall  we  use?   –  Who  will  have  access  to  the  data?   LVG   –  What  new  features  shall  we  develop?   –  What  contractor  shall  we  use  for  this  work?   –  What  is  the  scope  and  Eme/cost  esEmate  for  this  work?   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  12. 12. Knowledge  Work  Barriers   Lack  of  knowledge   •  In  the  Orchid  project,  the  technical  procedures  in  two  different  laboratories   were  discovered  to  be  incompaEble  and  iniEally  prevented  development  of   inter-­‐dependent  experiments   Failure  to  uFlize  knowledge   •  In  LVG,  corporate  intelligence  about  parEcular  vendor  competencies  was  not   iniEally  uElized  by  an  individual  division  in  their  vendor  selecEon  procedures   Failure  to  share  knowledge   •  In  development  of  the  NACC/UDS  project,  use  of  standardized  data  collecEon   was  seen  by  some  researchers  as  an  imposiEon  over  other  data  more  suited  to   their  own  unique  research  interests   Lack  of  common  frame  of  reference   •  In  LVG,  the  developers  did  not  have  a  common  frame  of  how  to  conduct  tests   of  the  game   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  13. 13. AcFvity  Part  1   •  Spend  5  minutes  and  think  of  a  past  or  present  issue  that  you  are   aware  of,  with  a  team  in  your  organizaEon  that  has  virtual   components.   •  Where  would  you  place  the  project  on  the  innovaEon  conEnuum,  R1-­‐   D4?  Why?   •  What  is/was  the  issue?  What  type  of  knowledge  work  barriers  do  you   suspect  were  at  play?     •  Let’s  share  our  examples  and  compare  the  findings  from  our  project   with  your  examples.   •  Large  group  conversaEon  …   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  14. 14. AcFvity  Part  2   •  DirecEons:  At  your  table,  work  for  10  minutes  on  the   same  issue(s)  you  just  discussed.   –  What  would  you  design  to  eliminate  or  minimize  the   knowledge  barriers?   –  Table  group  reports–  brief  highlights  from  each  table   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  15. 15. CoordinaFon  across  the  InnovaFon   ConFnuum   R1   D4   Drive   Problem  Solving   Shape    and   Reinforce   Converge   Convey   StandardizaEon   Rules  Based   Mutual   Adjustment   Peer-­‐to-­‐Peer   Hierarchical   ExploraEon   PrescripEve   Uncertainty   Mystery Heuristic Algorithm Certainty   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  16. 16. !""#$%&'("&)!'*+,"#-) !""#$%&'("&)*+) ./012032.) !""#$%&'("&)*+) 4501.) !""#$%&'("&)*+) 673805)) 89/905) 02:9./8;1/) !""#$%&'("&)*+) <1673805)) 89/905) 02:9./8;1/) !'=+);>'?@A+=)) B7#CD%$E)) 3F) B92.E) 2G)))))2HI2J) B5KLE) 2H))))))))))2J) • ,%-.)%&/0.1("&23.#%41'("&) • 5%.#'#16+23.#(1'7)1"889&%1'("&) • ,6'#.$)$'-'*'/.2#.0"/%-"#+) • :"#8'7)8..(&;/2/-'-9/)#.3%.<) • ,-..#%&;)1"88%=../2-'/>)?"#1.) • @.?.#.&-)"#;'&%A'("&) • :'1%7%-'-"#2BC.-<"#>)D9%7$.#E)#"7.) • F%'%/"&2E,-#'$$7.#E)#"7.) Most Significant Coordination Mechanisms in Case Study Virtual R&D Projects • G.7%3.#+)/16.$97./) • H#"I.1-)8%7./-"&./) • @.J9%#.8.&-)/0.1%41'("&/) • ,%;&K"L/) • :%&'&1%'7)%&1.&(3./) • !"80.77%&;)B8%//%"&E2;"'7) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) • M9-09-),-'&$'#$%A'("&N0#"-"-+0.O) /1#..&)/6"-/O)3%/9'7)-'#;.-/) • ,>%77/),-'&$'#$%A'("&2-#'%&%&;) • ,-'&$'#$%A'("&)"?)H#"1.//./) • G%';&"/(1)%&/-#98.&-/) • G'-')?"#8'-/) • P##"#K-#'1>%&;)0#"1.$9#./) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) • Q80#"80-9)1"889&%1'("&) • Q&?"#8'7)8..(&;/) • !"&?.#.&1./O)<"#>/6"0/) • ,%-.)3%/%-/) • R.80"#'#+)1"K7"1'("&) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) M) NMO) M) M) NMO) NMO) Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
  17. 17. Design  ImplicaFons  –  Open  Discussion   Virtual  Teams/InnovaFon  ConFnuum  ODF  2013        
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