The NEW STS: Advances In Designing Healthy and Innovative Work Systems,
Organizations and Networks
A workshop sponsored by...
1. History & Lessons Learned
2. Theoretical Frame: Interaction Network
3. Two sides of the same coin: Quality of working l...
3
History – after Durham (‘60-’70)
3
4
Work structuring and humanizing the workplace
Bottom up experiments with job design on department level
Ideological star...
Lack of SustainabilityLessons Learned: Lack of Diffusion
5
Lessons Learned: Lack of Diffusion
• Lack of active support management and focus on short term success
• Isolated: limited...
Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems
Three Waves
Wave One: 1950’s-
1970’s
Wave Three: 1990’s-Present
Wave Two: 1970’s-
1990...
Theoretical Foundations: Lowlands Approach
8
Theoretical Foundations: Lowlands Approach
Prime = understanding, intervening & predicting organizational behavior
Ulbo de...
10
Social systems theory
 Social systems are systems of communication to
interact
 Membership with formal expectations a...
11
Job satisfaction = quality of working life!
Age
30 35 40
Jobsatisfaction
+
-
 70-80% are satisfied
 Irrespective of c...
12
quality
control
customer
family
work stationteamleader
work station
customer
customer planning
intersection
Work as an ...
intersection
internal interaction
partners
external
interaction
partners
F = family
F
 Result of task division
 Ideal si...
Job demand – job control (regulation)
(Karasek)
14
 Real life networks interference (job demand)
 Uncertaincy
 Lack of ...
Job demand need Job control
15
 Internal operational job control
 Task variety
 Authority-decision latitude
 Craftsman...
Jobcontrol
Job demandslow high
learning opportunitiesunder-loaded
work
challenging
work
over-loaded
work
boring
work
stres...
17
 (illegal) Work arrounds
 Buffers and hidden waste
 Focus on self interest
 Safety risks
 Work-life imbalance
 Ea...
11,5
4,5 7
low
high
Job demand
Jobcontrol
Passive
work
Low strain
work
Active work
High strain
work
high
Quality of workin...
Regulationcapacity
lowhigh
m
anaging
director
production
m
anager
departm
ent head
supervisor
forem
an
operator
traditiona...
20
Quality of working and healthy aging
Malta
Denmark
Sweden
Finland
Slovenië
Austria
United Kingdom
Hungary
Belgium
Luxem...
Design and quality of organisation(al)
health
organization
design
division
executing tasks
(PS)
separation
execute – contr...
22
Quality of organization
Businessdemand
uncertaincy
Effective control
(regulation)
Static central
control
Dynamic
local ...
Business demand as starting point
Efficiency Efficiency
Quality
+
Flexibility
+
Flexibility
Flexibility
Innovation
+
Servi...
Price
Bureaucratic
Regime
Product variationlow high
Uncertainty
lowhigh
Price +
Quality
Quality driven
Regime
Price +
Qual...
Interaction
network
culture people
structure systems
A whole system approach:
Organisational regime
government
market tech...
Bureaucratic regime
Principle 1 Simplification
Division of work processes into small taks
26
Principle 2
Separation of thinking and doing
Bureaucratic regime
27
Principle 3
Command and control tree
Bureaucratic regime
28
29
customer
Financial
management
People
management
Information
management
Risk
management
Knowledge
management
Facilitair
...
Functional concentration of activities
& central control illusion
 Every
department is
confronted with
total variety and
...
Principle 4
Control by strict rules and procedures
Sorry,
It’s not on my work instruction
You must a 237/654/9B/654M
form ...
Detailed rules & procedures
Strictly budget driven
Simple jobs
Narrow tasks
Closed supervision
Specialised tasks
Separate ...
Structure Culture
Systems People
Horizontal coordination
and meetings
Quality Circles
On line process control
Quality circ...
Shifting business demands
34
35
Quality
Evidence/Effectbased
Custommade
Costcutting
New laws
Market driven
uncertaincy
Flexibiluty
Responsibily riscman...
Stressed organisation:
Functional concentration of activities & central control illusion
36
Effects……….
Moeizame communicatie
Slow and high cost communication lines……..
37
Effects……….
Complex workflows and a meetings, meetings………….
Expensive overhead
38
Complicated cooperation,
Suboptimalisation
Effects……….
39
Oh, no… they produced it as I designed it………
Effects……….
41
Effects……….
Control illusion and
fingerpointing with hidden
elbow room and work
arounds…….
42
Silo’s: long troughput times
Effects……….
43
Take away responsibilties
and simple jobs
Powerlessness
Alienation
Distrust
Helplessness
Early mental retirement
Effects……...
Businessdemand
Effective control
Static central
control
Dynamic
local control
Stressed
organisation
Productive,
humane
org...
46 46
Businessdemand
Effective control
Static central
control
Dynamic
local control
Stressed
organisation
Productive,
humane
org...
Mmmmmh… complexity… “sooo delicious!?”
48
Focus on customer family, market & technology
combination
49
Reduced organisational complexity:
Conditions for local control
 The variety of the
whole system stays the
same.
 Every ...
Flexible regime
Structure Culture
Small units with a
whole task
Decentralised control
Small central control staff
Cross fu...
Network regime
Structure Culture
Mini companies
Temporarily structures
Networking
Strategic partnering
Systems
Focus on ti...
Customer focussed
Human talent is
seen as business
capital
High involvement
Partnership
Speeding up product
innovation pro...
Culture
Focus on hierarchical
authority
Power based:
Command and
control
Less hierarchical
Reduced power
distance
Transfor...
people
culture
structure
systems
Ontwerpen & ontwikkelen
Guiding principles & leadership
Strategic choices
Organisational ...
Price
Bureaucratic
Regime
Product variationlow high
Uncertainty
lowhigh
Price +
Quality
Quality driven
Regime
Price +
Qual...
Design sequence rules: PCS
From
the whole
to
the parts
+
macro
structure
macro
structure
meso
structure
micro
structure
mi...
IV
Realising
I
(explore/
discovering)
Diagnosing
Common
Awareness
III
Designing
Co-creation
Ownership
II
(Imaging)
Visioni...
Characteristics of change proces
 Every change process is unique
 Mixed interventions
 Design teams
 Large scale confe...
1. What have you learned?
2. What is common with the traditional approach (part 1)
3. What are the differences?
4. Futher ...
Original STS Lowlands Lowlands Approach
Context Efficiency
Repetitive manufacturing
Surplus labor market
Efficiency, quali...
New sts  workshop lowlands part 2 final
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  • Quality of working life is in modern configurations an important issue. In traditional organisations unused potential had lead to lack of involvement. In the flexible and network organisations taks variety and regulation capacity are of great importance to cope with the business demands and to improve quality of working life.
  • Untill now I only have looked from a business point of view. The reality is more complex, because we alsoo have to deal with labourmarket issues, policies. I hope it is clear that the different strategic choices different organisation models requires. The are 4 different configurations, I wil shar with you: 1234 The changing demands and change of configurations requires workplace innovation, in terms of renewal and development. An other important remark is that not all the different business lines have the same time table. For instance… It is a danger to speak as a fad or mode about productinnovation as the reality for instance just begin with phase 3!
  • In stead of a one sided approach workplace innovation need an integral approach of the interpendent domensions as 1234. The different configuration can now be descriped in this four perspectives.
  • These principles have had consequences for both the culture and people. The culture can be recognised in the habit that people are looking to their boss and copying his behaviour. The position in the chrismas tree is important, and not what you are doing. A lot of symbols reinforce this power based culture. The space of an office, number of windows and the cloths you supposed to wear. People have simple jobs with narow tasks and they perform their jobs with close supervision. There is a lot of criticism about the Tayloristic configuration, but we have to realise that this model has brought us an enormous growth of productivity!! So don’t trow it away to easily. Technics like time and motion studies could still be of great value in the back offices of public services with a mass production business line
  • In the quality drive organisation in fact the structure does not change a lot, but to garantee quality the different element of the chain should be in right balance. This is done by meetings and meetings…. People in the workplacesses are involved by quality circles for solving problems. The have learned to analyse and improve the processes. On line process conrol systems are in place to monitor and manage the quality aspects. Also the culture is changed a bit. You may use the frontname of you boss when you speak to eachother. You can also say that the power distance has become smaller. In the job of people we see the integration of the quality control tasks. Employees have regular consulting meetings and are well trained in problemsolving skills.
  • What happens if an organisation as mentioned before has also to cope with flexibility and time pressure? We can predict to regconise the following botlle necks…..
  • The first field of trouble is the slow or difficult communication. This is a symptom of the internal complexity. To get things done you need 5 to 10 people. People from different departments with different perspectives. You all know the joke if ….
  • The complexity is produced by the architecture of our organisations and the choices we once have made in divide the activities in the workflow.
  • Everbody is working very hard to do their job. But the weak point of the chain can be found between the elements. In organisations unther pressure people tend to fall back in their own team or department. And the law of reducing your own missery occur… This law teach us that to survive in case of trouble you have to report at last as 10 reason why that problems isnt yours but the problem of an other department.
  • This slide say enough about the innovationpower….
  • In the end their is always a solution the BOSS who is working 60 – 80 hours per week and already has two suite cases for all the reports
  • A succesfull strategy to reduce the need for cooperation is building in silo’s. this strategy effects in long throughput times. Products or dossiers are more waiting in a que than inproduction…
  • The lack of regulation capacity and small simple jobs has consequences for peoples behaviour. Taking away the responsibilities of employees resulted in …..
  • In the flexible configuration the business line is the base for the organisational building blocks. The building blocks are small units with a whole task in stead of task division. Decentralised conrol is implemented and only a small control staff remained central. Coordination and control take place by cross functional teams. The systems can be characterised by…. These organistions have a culture where everybody is focussed on the whole business line and management en staff support and facilitate the productione processes. The people are multi-skilled, work in self management teams
  • In the network coonfiguration mini companies and external partners work together in temporarily structures. The structure as control mechanismn is less powerfull and culture is more and more important to create a whole system in which people are seen as a business partner. Stake holders are involved in the important decision making processes. Employees have developped broad competences and participate in strategic issues. They are the human capital and act as entrepreneurs.
  • The challenge for innovation the workplace is bridging the gap on 4 pillars people, culture, structure and systems. These 4 pillars are connected together in a metaphor with a robe. We call this an integral approach. A one sided approach will not give the desired results and will give tension on the robe. To get al real innovation of the workplace a transition on all the pillars is need to get results on productivity, involvement and viability. And off course is the length of the gap based on strategic choice which is made on the current and future market demands. Bridging the gap is not only a process of developing organisation concepts, but also a process of change. Rethinking and implementing new organisation concepts, needs also rethinking the strategy of change management.
  • Untill now I only have looked from a business point of view. The reality is more complex, because we alsoo have to deal with labourmarket issues, policies. I hope it is clear that the different strategic choices different organisation models requires. The are 4 different configurations, I wil shar with you: 1234 The changing demands and change of configurations requires workplace innovation, in terms of renewal and development. An other important remark is that not all the different business lines have the same time table. For instance… It is a danger to speak as a fad or mode about productinnovation as the reality for instance just begin with phase 3!
  • New sts workshop lowlands part 2 final

    1. 1. The NEW STS: Advances In Designing Healthy and Innovative Work Systems, Organizations and Networks A workshop sponsored by STS/RT & USI Part Two The STS approach in the Lowlands: Mobilization Human Talent & Productivity 1 Geert van Hootegem Prepared Mind Belgium University of Leuven Pierre van Amelsvoort ST-Groep Netherlands University of Leuven © 2013
    2. 2. 1. History & Lessons Learned 2. Theoretical Frame: Interaction Network 3. Two sides of the same coin: Quality of working life = Mobilization of Human Talent & Quality of organizations 4. Concepts: Organisational regimes & Design Principles 5. HOW: Design rules & Change Process Session Overview 2
    3. 3. 3 History – after Durham (‘60-’70) 3
    4. 4. 4 Work structuring and humanizing the workplace Bottom up experiments with job design on department level Ideological started by department head (pioneers) Supported by academic action research Focus on quality of working life (job satisfaction) Despite success, lack of sustainability! History – after Durham (‘60-’70)
    5. 5. Lack of SustainabilityLessons Learned: Lack of Diffusion 5
    6. 6. Lessons Learned: Lack of Diffusion • Lack of active support management and focus on short term success • Isolated: limited design room • Bottom up is not enough (neglected law of Newton)! • Finite focus on quality of working life • (Hidden) Resistance hierarchical levels and support staff • Ideological clash ‘soft’ <> ‘hard’ • No strategic business need to fundamental change • Limited theoretical back bone: try and error, depend on enthusiastic consultants 6
    7. 7. Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems Three Waves Wave One: 1950’s- 1970’s Wave Three: 1990’s-Present Wave Two: 1970’s- 1990’s
    8. 8. Theoretical Foundations: Lowlands Approach 8
    9. 9. Theoretical Foundations: Lowlands Approach Prime = understanding, intervening & predicting organizational behavior Ulbo de Sitter’s (1930-2010) Interaction network theory W. Ross Ashby’s (1903-1972) Law of requisite variety (only variety beats variety) Niklas Luhmann’s (1927-1998) Social system theory (complexity reduction) De Sitter’s “toward new factories and offices” (1982): -Jump job design to organization design -Ideological clash >> theoretical logic: fruitful dialogue and common language -Enrich ODevelopment theory (finite attention to develop human competence) with ODesign theory: OD2 9
    10. 10. 10 Social systems theory  Social systems are systems of communication to interact  Membership with formal expectations and arrangements  A system is defined by a boundary between itself and its (infinite complex and chaotic) environment  The internal system is selecting only limited amount of external information  The criterion for selection is meaning (sense making)  Social systems are autopoietically closed:  Filtering and processing of external information,  Selective in adapting!  on what is considered meaningful and what is not 10
    11. 11. 11 Job satisfaction = quality of working life! Age 30 35 40 Jobsatisfaction + -  70-80% are satisfied  Irrespective of culture, country, and job characteristics!  Satisfaction is an indicator for acceptance given working conditions  Subjective approach:  All people share the same basic needs?  Acceptance of current situation is not an easy start to change (readiness for change) Discovery conflict expetations and reality Acceptance reality Switch from intrinsic to extrinsic motivation 11
    12. 12. 12 quality control customer family work stationteamleader work station customer customer planning intersection Work as an intersection of job demand and interaction  A dynamic, objective view  Human beings develops needs, motivation and orientation in interaction with his social environment  A balanced interaction network is also a productive network 12
    13. 13. intersection internal interaction partners external interaction partners F = family F  Result of task division  Ideal situation: perfect balance (incl. work-life balance)and no waste  All material, information and means on the right place, quality and time  Match demand and limited means  No disturbance  Only one problem: Ideal situation doesn’t exist: interference Working as an interaction network 13
    14. 14. Job demand – job control (regulation) (Karasek) 14  Real life networks interference (job demand)  Uncertaincy  Lack of (insufficient) material, information , right people and means  Unbalance demand and capacity  Competitive, conflicting demands  Changing demand  Custom made demand  Human errors  Technical disturbance  Interference risk is a result of complexity  Job control to cope with interference:  Productive work  Active, challenging work Job demand Job control 14
    15. 15. Job demand need Job control 15  Internal operational job control  Task variety  Authority-decision latitude  Craftsmanship  Access to flexible means  Information  Meaningful purpose, shared direction  External operational job control  Coordination/deliberations  Support team and community  Appreciative feedback leader  Natural feedback  Influence  Strategic job control  Participation & co-creation: design for reducing interference risk and decrease inference sensibility  Learning and continuous improvement Job demand Job control 15
    16. 16. Jobcontrol Job demandslow high learning opportunitiesunder-loaded work challenging work over-loaded work boring work stress risks highlow Low strain work challenging work High strain work Passive, boring work Quality of working life 16 (Karasek) 16
    17. 17. 17  (illegal) Work arrounds  Buffers and hidden waste  Focus on self interest  Safety risks  Work-life imbalance  Early mental retirement  Bullwhip effect Lack of Job Control 17
    18. 18. 11,5 4,5 7 low high Job demand Jobcontrol Passive work Low strain work Active work High strain work high Quality of working life and absenteeism 18
    19. 19. Regulationcapacity lowhigh m anaging director production m anager departm ent head supervisor forem an operator traditional utilisation of potential unused potential available potential Quality of working life 19
    20. 20. 20 Quality of working and healthy aging Malta Denmark Sweden Finland Slovenië Austria United Kingdom Hungary Belgium Luxembourg Netherlands Germany Ireland Cyprus Estland Romania Greece Italie Czechia Spain Portugal Poland France Lithuania Latvia Slovakia Bulgaria
    21. 21. Design and quality of organisation(al) health organization design division executing tasks (PS) separation execute – control (CS) complex interaction network need for central control & standards high interference risk high interference sensibility Unability to cope with interference at the source 21
    22. 22. 22 Quality of organization Businessdemand uncertaincy Effective control (regulation) Static central control Dynamic local (distributed) control Stressed organisation Organised anarchy Classic bureaucracy High:custom made Low:repetitive production Productive, humane organisation 22
    23. 23. Business demand as starting point Efficiency Efficiency Quality + Flexibility + Flexibility Flexibility Innovation + Service Sustainability + Innovation Quality Quality Quality 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Efficiency Efficienc y Efficiency 2010 War on talent + 23
    24. 24. Price Bureaucratic Regime Product variationlow high Uncertainty lowhigh Price + Quality Quality driven Regime Price + Quality + Flexibility and time Flexible Regime Price + Quality + Flexibility and time + Product / service innovation Network Regime In search of the most effective regime labour market policies sustainability 24
    25. 25. Interaction network culture people structure systems A whole system approach: Organisational regime government market technology competitors employer representatives trade unions strategy 25
    26. 26. Bureaucratic regime Principle 1 Simplification Division of work processes into small taks 26
    27. 27. Principle 2 Separation of thinking and doing Bureaucratic regime 27
    28. 28. Principle 3 Command and control tree Bureaucratic regime 28
    29. 29. 29 customer Financial management People management Information management Risk management Knowledge management Facilitair management Operational management General management Account management Service management HR management Change management Stategic management Bureaucratic regime 29 worksystem
    30. 30. Functional concentration of activities & central control illusion  Every department is confronted with total variety and lack of customer focus  Departmental focus on control utilization of means  Only at central level total overview and illusion of control 30
    31. 31. Principle 4 Control by strict rules and procedures Sorry, It’s not on my work instruction You must a 237/654/9B/654M form sent to department 39 Bureaucratic regime 31
    32. 32. Detailed rules & procedures Strictly budget driven Simple jobs Narrow tasks Closed supervision Specialised tasks Separate think - do Command and control Central decision making Focus on hierarchical authority Power based Top down Structure Culture Systems People Bureaucratic regime 32
    33. 33. Structure Culture Systems People Horizontal coordination and meetings Quality Circles On line process control Quality circles Less hierarchical Reduced power distance Integration quality control Problem solving skills Consulting meetings Quality driven regime 33
    34. 34. Shifting business demands 34
    35. 35. 35 Quality Evidence/Effectbased Custommade Costcutting New laws Market driven uncertaincy Flexibiluty Responsibily riscmanagement Innovation speed International competion technology 35
    36. 36. Stressed organisation: Functional concentration of activities & central control illusion 36
    37. 37. Effects………. Moeizame communicatie Slow and high cost communication lines…….. 37
    38. 38. Effects………. Complex workflows and a meetings, meetings…………. Expensive overhead 38
    39. 39. Complicated cooperation, Suboptimalisation Effects………. 39
    40. 40. Oh, no… they produced it as I designed it……… Effects………. 41
    41. 41. Effects………. Control illusion and fingerpointing with hidden elbow room and work arounds……. 42
    42. 42. Silo’s: long troughput times Effects………. 43
    43. 43. Take away responsibilties and simple jobs Powerlessness Alienation Distrust Helplessness Early mental retirement Effects………. 44
    44. 44. Businessdemand Effective control Static central control Dynamic local control Stressed organisation Productive, humane organisation Organised anarchy Classic bureaucracy highlow Stressed organisation 45  Complex/lack of communication  Untransparent credits and cost  Isolated silo’s and hidden waste  Slow responsiveness and long throughput times  Risk avoiding culture and internal focus  High coordination cost (management)  Disconnection management and employees  Focus on exploitation & Neglect exploration and innovation  Unhealthy high strain work and work-life imbalance 45
    45. 45. 46 46
    46. 46. Businessdemand Effective control Static central control Dynamic local control Stressed organisation Productive, humane organisation Organised anarchy Classic bureaucracy highlow 47 1. Focus on first effectiveness second efficiency: added value 2. Respect diversity and reduction of complexity: a) Focus on custom families (product, market, technology combinations) in stead of task specialization (reduce variety subsystem) b) Reduce number of transfer points (interference risk) 3. Human scale: a) Work teams 8 – 12 b) Working communities 40 c) Strategic units 200 4. Self organisation: Increase local control and support and healthy hierachy: horizontal coordination and reduce number of hierarchical layers (decrease interference sensibility) with specific added value 5. Minimal critical specification based on trust and craftsmanship 6. Aligned systems (planning and control, HR practice, technology) 7. Result only work environment 8. Human talent mobilization 9. Direct democracy: Strategic participation/partnership and co- creation Design principles 47
    47. 47. Mmmmmh… complexity… “sooo delicious!?” 48
    48. 48. Focus on customer family, market & technology combination 49
    49. 49. Reduced organisational complexity: Conditions for local control  The variety of the whole system stays the same.  Every unit is confronted with less variety and has customer focus: emotional connection and human feedback mechnanism  Departmental focus on control customer flow  Local overview and control 50
    50. 50. Flexible regime Structure Culture Small units with a whole task Decentralised control Small central control staff Cross functional teams Systems Just in time Result driven: mutual goal setting Flexible work arrangements Focus on business process Management and staff: support and facilitate Trust based control People Multi skilled Self management Teamwork 51
    51. 51. Network regime Structure Culture Mini companies Temporarily structures Networking Strategic partnering Systems Focus on time to market People Custom oriented people = business partner Stake holder involvement Broad competences Human capital Entrepreneurs Participation in strategic issues 52
    52. 52. Customer focussed Human talent is seen as business capital High involvement Partnership Speeding up product innovation process Mini companies Temporal structures Networking Price Quality Flexibility Product innovation Transformation process is leading Managers and staff dept. have a supporting and facilitating role Multi-skilling Teamwork Self management Just in time Minimal specification Local differentiation Result driven Business line oriented Small units with a whole task and decentralised control Price Quality Flexibility CulturePeopleSystemsStructureBusiness demands 53
    53. 53. Culture Focus on hierarchical authority Power based: Command and control Less hierarchical Reduced power distance Transformation process is leading Managers and staff dept. have a supporting and facilitating role Customer focussed Human talent is seen as business capital People Narrow tasks Simple and routine work Integration of quality control Group meetings Quality awareness Multi-skilling Teamwork Self management High involvement Partnership Systems Detailed rules and procedures Budget driven Quality circles Statistical process control Just in time Minimal specification Local differentiation Result driven Speeding up product innovation process Structure Specialisation Division of labour Horizontal meetings Business line oriented Small units with a whole task and decentralised control Mini companies Temporal structures Networking Business demands Price Price Quality Hierarchy Price Quality Flexibility Price Quality Flexibility Product innovation Bridging the gap: example 54
    54. 54. people culture structure systems Ontwerpen & ontwikkelen Guiding principles & leadership Strategic choices Organisational behaviour viabilityproductivity involvement Managementofchange Conservatingmechanism An integral approach Quality of organisation Quality of working relations Quality of working life 55
    55. 55. Price Bureaucratic Regime Product variationlow high Uncertainty lowhigh Price + Quality Quality driven Regime Price + Quality + Flexibility and time Flexible Regime Price + Quality + Flexibility and time + Product / service innovation Network Regime In search of the most effective regime labour market policies sustainability 56
    56. 56. Design sequence rules: PCS From the whole to the parts + macro structure macro structure meso structure micro structure micro structure meso structure ‘production’structure Controlstructure From the parts to the w hole (Information)systems Mission vision goals strategy guiding principles Organisation design 1 2 3 4 5 57
    57. 57. IV Realising I (explore/ discovering) Diagnosing Common Awareness III Designing Co-creation Ownership II (Imaging) Visioning Shared Direction Dialogue Self organisation Co-creation Education Change as a non-lineair cycle process 58
    58. 58. Characteristics of change proces  Every change process is unique  Mixed interventions  Design teams  Large scale conferences  Support self organization and co- creation  In-company training and education  Open education  Iterative approach  Mix top down and bottom up  Create a common vision, awareness and readiness to change  Strategic design: design team of key positions with consultation whole system  Operational design: (emergent) co- creation of involved stakeholders 5959
    59. 59. 1. What have you learned? 2. What is common with the traditional approach (part 1) 3. What are the differences? 4. Futher questions or remarks Dialogue in small groups 60
    60. 60. Original STS Lowlands Lowlands Approach Context Efficiency Repetitive manufacturing Surplus labor market Efficiency, quality, flexibility, innovation Custom made (knowledge work) Future war on talent/ healthy aging; shortage labor market Objective Humanization of work Business demand: Quality of working life Quality of organisation(al) health Quality of working relations Subject Job design (micro level) Organisation design and designing Concepts Open Systems Joint optimalisation social & technical system Bottom up change Design and change as a strategic competing (meaningful-sense making) factor Division of labor: twin structure concept (production & control structure) Education for self organization, co-creation, top-down and bottom-up Summary 61

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