Organizations as systems Interdependent parts forming a unified whole Implication: System functioning depends on individual element quality plus fit. Organizations as open systems In constant mutual relationship with a changing environment Implication: Essential flexibility comes from combination of the many interdependent parts. Organizations as open sociotechnical systems Technical systems are the tools, steps, methods for creating a service or product. Social systems are the people, all their interactions, and all the management systems, policies, and structures that influence them. Implication: This range of choice can be liberating or overwhelming.
Based on scan of trends and opportunities in the external environment…. Review of organizational purpose/mission Operating Philosophy (what we believe people are capable of and under what circumstances) Leadership ’s initial Vision and Goals Project Scope, Timetable, Budget Project structures and strategy (eg – a steering group? Will the detailed analysis and design be a representative form of participation or full engagement form of participation? Role of specialists and external stakeholders?) Analysis of the Business Environment Why? To understand the requirements for the technical and social systems What? Customer & Stakeholder Requirements, Economics of the business, Other Trends and Opportunities When? As prelude to Technical System Analysis (Material and Information Flow) and Social System Analysis (Organization Systems and QWL) How? Mapping of external influencers, current and desired interactions Customer/stakeholder interviews, report analyses, solicited presentations Analysis of the Technical System Why? To understand current Key Variances, current control mechanisms, cause/effect/frequency/cost What/How? Variance Matrix and Variance Control Table When? As prelude to Social System Analysis (Organization Systems and QWL) Social System Analysis Why? To understand how the organization: sets g oals/targets are set; a dapts to unexpected changes i ntegrates/coordinates activities Develops the l onger term potential of the people and the enterprise To understand what the “intrinsic motivation needs” of individuals are What/How? GAIL Grid and QWL analysis When? After the business and technical systems analysis
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History, Concepts and Practice In North America
Innovation Partners International
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