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How Virtual is Virtual:Designing for Distributed Workin Research and Development              NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ...
Grant                                 —  University of Illinois and STSBack-                                     Roundtab...
Through dialogue and exercises, we have                                      the opportunity to …DesiredOutcomes          ...
Evolution of Socio-Technical Systems!—   STS v1.0    -Routine work in a single organization – e.g., coal mines, factories...
Six Stage Continuum of the R&D Process     R                   R                     D               D                   D...
Three Research Sites—  Caltech- Orchid Project: fundamental research, R1    ¡  Optical Radiation Cooling and Heating in ...
Six Stage Continuum of the R&D Process      R                  R                     D               D                   D...
Key Conversations/Deliberations:Definition and Elements—  Key Conversations are                               —  The sal...
Examples of Key Conversations/Deliberations                    —  Orchid                        ¡    What experiment sha...
Exercise Part 1—  Directions: At your table, take 15 minutes to   discuss the following question:   ¡  What might be pot...
Examples of Knowledge Work Barriers—  Lack of knowledge    ¡  In the Orchid project, the technical procedures in two dif...
Exercise Part 2—  Directions: At your table work for 10 minutes and   revisit the issue related to distributed (team)work...
Coordination across the R&D Continuum      R1                                                                             ...
Most Significant Coordination Mechanisms in Case Study Virtual R&D Projects!""#$%&("&)!*+,"#-)          !=+);>?@A+=))     ...
Sociotechnical Systems Framework for Designing Coordination of Virtual R&D                                            STRA...
Design Implications – Open DiscussionSTSR VOSS TEAM   Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237   16   September 2012
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How Virtual is Virtual: Designing for Distributed Work in Research and Development

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Presentation shared with members at 2012 STS Roundtable Conference in Canterbury.

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Transcript of "How Virtual is Virtual: Designing for Distributed Work in Research and Development"

  1. 1. How Virtual is Virtual:Designing for Distributed Workin Research and Development NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GRANT VOSS: VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONS SOCIO-TECHNICAL SYSTEMS CENTRAL RESEARCH QUESTION: HOW DO VIRTUAL MODES OF COMMUNICATION INFLUENCE THE QUALITY OF DELIBERATIONS (KEY CONVERSATIONS) AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE R&D CONTINUUM/ INNOVATION PROCESS? Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237
  2. 2. Grant —  University of Illinois and STSBack- Roundtableground —  Seven member team: Doug Austrom, Betty Barrett, Betsy Merck, Bert Painter, Pam Posey and Ram Tenkasi —  In final year of 3 year grantSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 2 September 2012
  3. 3. Through dialogue and exercises, we have the opportunity to …DesiredOutcomes 1.  Develop a shared understanding of the implications of virtuality on keyfor this conversations/deliberations across the innovation continuumSession 2.  Consider how ‘fixes’ differ depending on the degree of uncertainty in the R&D task 3.  Explore the value of coordination mechanisms employed differently across the innovation continuum, as ways to overcome the “coordination costs” of global projects and multi-university research 4.  Discuss the renewed relevance of ‘STS’ for organization design in this age of virtual collaboration and global innovationSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 3 September 2012
  4. 4. Evolution of Socio-Technical Systems!—  STS v1.0 -Routine work in a single organization – e.g., coal mines, factories, oil refineries - Work groups with pooled identity -Unitary conversion process -Linear conversion sequence—  STS v2.0 -Non-routine face-to-face knowledge work in single organizations – e.g., white collar office work, professional services firm, NPD and R&D -Individual performers, specialized expertise -Multiple, concurrent conversion processes -Nonlinear conversion flow—  STS v3.0 -Virtual, non-routine work – e.g., R&D consortia, complex supply chains -Individual performers and work groups distributed across multiple locations and/or organizations -ICT enabled -Multiple, concurrent, independent, and interdependent conversion processes -Nonlinear conversion flowsSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 4 September 2012
  5. 5. Six Stage Continuum of the R&D Process R R D D D D 1 2 1 2 3 4 Pure Applied Exploratory Advanced Start-Up Scale-Up Research Research Development Development (pilot plants, (volume & costs) Work Work Work Work beta testing) Development Development Work Work DON’T DON’T KNOW KNOW KNOW KNOW KNOW KNOW WHAT WHAT WHAT WHAT WHAT WHAT we are (i.e. end state looking for or objective)DON’T KNOW KNOW DON’T KNOW KNOW DON’T KNOW KNOW HOW HOW HOW HOW HOW HOWto carry out to carry out IN DETAIL CONCEPTUALLY OPERATIONALLYthe research the research to achieve it to achieve it to achieve it to achieve it HIGH Uncertainty LOWER Uncertainty STSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 5 September 2012
  6. 6. Three Research Sites—  Caltech- Orchid Project: fundamental research, R1 ¡  Optical Radiation Cooling and Heating in Integrated Devices ¡  Tightly-Linked Collaboration for Design of Experiments & Device Fabrication among Laboratories using 3 Technology platforms ¡  Pasadena, Switzerland and Austria ¡  Major challenge: creative research and design and knowledge generation in a complex virtual setting—  NACC: a virtual R&D eco-system, D2-D4 ¡  Comprised of 29 NIA-funded Alzheimers Disease Centers (ADCs) and the National Alzheimers Coordinating Center Center (NACC) ¡  Major challenge: Create Uniform Data Set agreeing upon and compiling data from the 29 different centers as the basis of research—  LVG: a large video game developer, D3-D4 ¡  Core team with distributed vendors in Philippines, China, India, Switzerland, North America and across the parking lot ¡  Major challenge: Cost effective game development work with high quality and timeliness completed at a distance for art production, engineering and testingSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 6 September 2012
  7. 7. Six Stage Continuum of the R&D Process R R D D D D 1 2 1 2 3 4 Pure Applied Exploratory Advanced Start-Up Scale-Up Research Research Development Development (pilot plants, (volume & costs) Work Work Work Work beta testing) Development Development Work WorkDON’T KNOW DON’T KNOW KNOW KNOW WHAT WHAT WHAT KNOW WHAT KNOWwe are looking (i.e. end state WHAT WHAT for or objective)DON’T KNOW KNOW DON’T KNOW KNOW DON’T KNOW KNOW HOW HOW HOW HOW HOW HOW OPERATIONALLY to carry out to carry out IN DETAIL CONCEPTUALLY to achieve it the research the research to achieve it to achieve it to achieve it HIGH Uncertainty LOWER Uncertainty ‘Orchid’ Project ‘Uniform Data Set’ Project ‘Large Video Game’ Project STSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 7 September 2012
  8. 8. Key Conversations/Deliberations:Definition and Elements—  Key Conversations are —  The salient elements of a patterns of exchange and deliberation include the … communication in which people •  Topics or problematic engage with themselves or others issues facing the social to reduce the equivocality of a entity about which people problematic issue reflect and communicate •  Forums in which they occur which may be structured, semi- structured, unstructured or ad hoc •  Participants - both those who are currently involved and those who ideally should be involved in the deliberationSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 September 2012
  9. 9. Examples of Key Conversations/Deliberations —  Orchid ¡  What experiment shall we run? ¡  How shall we design the experiment? ¡  How shall we execute the experiment? ¡  How do we make sense of the results? —  NACC ¡  What data will go in the UDS? ¡  What diagnostic instruments shall we use? ¡  Who will have access to the data? —  LVG ¡  What new features shall we develop? ¡  What contractor shall we use for this work? ¡  What is the scope and time/cost estimate for this work?STSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 9 September 2012
  10. 10. Exercise Part 1—  Directions: At your table, take 15 minutes to discuss the following question: ¡  What might be potential barriers to effective conversations/deliberations? ¡  Large group comments – 5 minutesSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 10 September 2012
  11. 11. Examples of Knowledge Work Barriers—  Lack of knowledge ¡  In the Orchid project, the technical procedures in two different laboratories were discovered to be incompatible and initially prevented development of inter-dependent experiments—  Failure to utilize knowledge ¡  In LVG, corporate intelligence about particular vendor competencies was not initially utilized by an individual division in their vendor selection procedures—  Failure to share knowledge ¡  In development of the NACC/UDS project, use of standardized data collection was seen by some researchers as an imposition over other data more suited to their own unique research interests—  Lack of common frame of reference ¡  In LVG, the developers did not have a common frame of how to conduct tests of the gameSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 11 September 2012
  12. 12. Exercise Part 2—  Directions: At your table work for 10 minutes and revisit the issue related to distributed (team)work that you were asked to consider in Exercise 1 ¡  How, what would you design to minimize the knowledge barriers? ÷  Select one or two barriers to think through ¡  Table group report outs – a brief highlight from each tableSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 12 September 2012
  13. 13. Coordination across the R&D Continuum R1 D4 Shape and Drive Reinforce Problem Solving Converge Convey Mutual Standardization Adjustment Rules Based Peer-to-Peer Hierarchical Exploration Prescriptive Uncertainty Certainty Mystery Heuristic AlgorithmSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 13 September 2012
  14. 14. Most Significant Coordination Mechanisms in Case Study Virtual R&D Projects!""#$%&("&)!*+,"#-) !=+);>?@A+=)) B7#CD%$E)) B92.E) B5KLE) 3F) 2G)))))2HI2J) 2H))))))))))2J) • M9-09-),-&$#$%A("&N0#"-"-+0.O) M) /1#..&)/6"-/O)3%/97)-#;.-/)!""#$%&("&)*+) • ,>%77/),-&$#$%A("&2-#%&%&;) M) NMO) M) • ,-&$#$%A("&)"?)H#"1.//./) M)./012032.) • G%;&"/(1)%&/-#98.&-/) M) • G-)?"#8-/) M) M) • P##"#K-#1>%&;)0#"1.$9#./) M) • G.7%3.#+)/16.$97./) M) M)!""#$%&("&)*+) • H#"I.1-)8%7./-"&./) M) M)4501.) • @.J9%#.8.&-)/0.1%41("&/) M) M) • ,%;&K"L/) M) • :%&&1%7)%&1.&(3./) M) • !"80.77%&;)B8%//%"&E2;"7) M) M) • ,%-.)%&/0.1("&23.#%41("&) M) M)!""#$%&("&)*+) • 5%.##16+23.#(17)1"889&%1("&) M)673805)) • ,6#.$)$-*/.2#.0"/%-"#+)89/905) • :"#87)8..(&;/2/--9/)#.3%.<) M) M) NMO) • ,-..#%&;)1"88%=../2-/>)?"#1.) M)02:9./8;1/) • @.?.#.&-)"#;&%A("&) M) • :1%7%--"#2BC.-<"#>)D9%7$.#E)#"7.) M) M) • F%%/"&2E,-#$$7.#E)#"7.) M) NMO) • Q80#"80-9)1"889&%1("&) M) M)!""#$%&("&)*+) • Q&?"#87)8..(&;/) M) M)<1673805)) • !"&?.#.&1./O)<"#>/6"0/) M) M)89/905) • ,%-.)3%/%-/) M)02:9./8;1/) • R.80"##+)1"K7"1("&) M)
  15. 15. Sociotechnical Systems Framework for Designing Coordination of Virtual R&D STRATEGIES (Mission, Collaboration Agreements) STRUCTURES (Roles, Organization Design) PEOPLE TECHNOLOGY (Skills, Relationships, (CollaborationValues, Communications) Tools, Media) PROCESSES (Standards, Schedules, Plans) STSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 15 September 2012
  16. 16. Design Implications – Open DiscussionSTSR VOSS TEAM Supported by NSF-VOSS Award #0943237 16 September 2012
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