How to Domesticate the Multi-Channel  Communication Monster (long)
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  • http://newsroom.fb.com/content/default.aspx?NewsAreaId=22http://blog.twitter.com/2011/06/200-million-tweets-per-day.html
  • http://newsroom.fb.com/content/default.aspx?NewsAreaId=22http://blog.twitter.com/2011/06/200-million-tweets-per-day.html
  • http://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics
  • http://email.about.com/od/emailtrivia/f/emails_per_day.htmhttp://www.radicati.com/wp/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Email-Statistics-Report-2010-2014-Brochure.pdf
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yahoo!_Groups
  • http://www.syndic8.com/stats.php?Section=feeds#tabtable
  • http://www.pressreference.com/Fa-Gu/Germany.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Television_in_Germany
  • Media metrics statistics about the news websiteshttp://blogs.rnw.nl/medianetwork/currently-about-2700-online-radio-stations-in-germany
  • http://newsroom.fb.com/content/default.aspx?NewsAreaId=22http://blog.twitter.com/2011/06/200-million-tweets-per-day.htmlhttp://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics
  • 1) Add a slide that verbally explain the issue (done)
  • 3) Add a slide that verbally explain the issue (done)
  • 3) Add a slide that verbally explain the issue (done)
  • 4) Add a slide that verbally explain the issue (done)
  • 7) Introduce the web of data with 5 slides (done)8) Introduce 3 dimensions properly! (done)
  • 9) OWL2, RIF, RDFS are missing (add URIs). Please add them here (done) and in the following. RDFS (done)OWL2 (done)RIF (done)
  • 10) Add 3 more slides explaining RDF properly (done)
  • 11) Add 3 more slides explaining OWL properly (done)
  • 12) Add 3 more slides explaining SPARQLproperly (done)
  • 12) Add 2 slides introducing core of microdata (done)
  • 13) Add 2 slides introducing core of microformat (done)
  • 14) Add 2 slides introducing core of RDFa (done)15) Add slides that compare the usage of microdata, micorformats and RDFa (done)
  • 7) Introduce the web of data with 5 slides (done)8) Introduce 3 dimensions properly! (done)
  • 16) Add more details (done – see previous slide)
  • 17) Add more details (done)
  • 18) Add more details (done)
  • 19) Add SIGNIFICANT more details (done)
  • 20) Add more details (done)
  • 21) Add 2 slides with a example user interface based on the ontology (done)
  • Elements 1 to 3 are about the content. They define the actual categories, the agent responsible for them, and the process of interacting with this agent. Elements 4 to 9 are about the dissemination of these items.
  • 22) Introduce the example properly and explain how it forms a weaver element (done)
  • http://www.wirtschaftsblatt.at/home/international/unternehmen/apple-ist-die-teuerste-marke-der-welt-red-bull-auf-rang-80-519184/index.do
  • Elements 1 to 3 are about the content. They define the actual categories, the agent responsible for them, and the process of interacting with this agent. Elements 4 to 9 are about the dissemination of these items.
  • Slide of the hotel with facebook but with just an account

How to Domesticate the Multi-Channel  Communication Monster (long) How to Domesticate the Multi-Channel Communication Monster (long) Presentation Transcript

  • How to Domesticate the Multi-Channel Communication Monster* Carmen Brenner, Anna Fensel, Dieter Fensel, Michael Fried, Christoph Fuchs, Andreea Gagiu, Iker Larizgoitia, Birgit Leiter, Alex Oberhauser, Corneliu-Valentin Stanciu, Ioannis Stavrakantonakis, Andreas Thalhammer, and Ioan Toma©www.sti-innsbruck.at INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at Copyright 2008 STI *long
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 2
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 3
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 4
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 5
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 6
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 7
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 8
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 9
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 10
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 11
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 12
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites - chat HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 13
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier of today has to deal with many different communication channels: - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites - chat - video & photo sharing HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 14
  • The Crazy Hotelier The Hotelier doesn‘t only has to deal with an overwhelming number of communication channels, but also has to pay up to 15% sales commissions to the booking sites! HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 15
  • The Crazy Hotelier -> 80 million overnight stays -> 4 billion € transaction volume -> 101 million € sales commission HOTEL RECEPTIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 16
  • Hotelnavigator http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=rA0wdkPB7gAwww.sti-innsbruck.at 17
  • Major Issues Scalable Multi Channel Communication: • Enable more precise targeting and optimized product positioning • Reduce the amount of work required for filling out and observing the various communication channels • Reach the greatest possible target audience with the smallest possible effortwww.sti-innsbruck.at 18
  • Major Issues Visibility: • Increase the quality of visibility • Increase the degree of visibility • Increase the number of direct bookings by increasing the traffic on the hotel websitewww.sti-innsbruck.at 19
  • Major Issues Credibility: • Increase the believability of sources and messages • Increase the trustworthiness of sources and messageswww.sti-innsbruck.at 20
  • Major Issues Easy Booking: • Offer booking possibilities through the various communication channels • Increase the transparency of offers and pricingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 21
  • Our Solutionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 22
  • Content 1. Multi-channel Publishing / Dissemination 2. Social Media Monitoring 3. Communication 4. Engagement 5. Semantic Engagement 6. The Semantic Communication Engine Innsbruck (SCEI) 7. Application Types 8. Application Field eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 23
  • 1. MULTI-CHANNEL PUBLISHING / DISSEMINATIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 24
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Multi- Channel Publishingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 25
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 26
  • What is Dissemination? • The vital importance of receiving, synthesizing and communicating online information is increasing dramatically in our current digital age. • Dissemination (from the Latin dissēminātus = ―sowing seeds‖, ―scatter wildly in every direction‖) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience. • Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver. • The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels). • Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as the ―delivering and receiving of a message‖, ―the engagement of an individual in a process‖ and ―the transfer of a process or product‖. Image taken from: http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/rsz_1rsz_dissemination2.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 27
  • What is a dissemination channel? • ―In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel, or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.‖ (Wikipedia Channel (communications), 2012) • A channel is a means of exchanging information in the on-line space; a ―place‖ where one can find or leave information, whether it is unanimously referred by a URI or addressed through a service. Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 28
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 29
  • Why Do It? Purpose of Dissemination • Dissemination for Awareness – You wish people to be aware of the work of the project – Useful for those target audiences that do not require a detailed knowledge of the work and is helpful for them to be aware of your activities and results – Will help the ―word of mouth‖ type dissemination and help the organizer build an identity and profile within the community • Dissemination for Understanding – It is aimed at a specific number of groups/audiences that need to be targeted directly – Target audience that benefits from what your project has to offer and have a deeper understanding of the project‘s work • Dissemination for Action – ―Action‖ = change of practice resulting from the adoption of products, materials or approaches offered by the project – Target audience: people that are in the position to ―influence‖ and ―bring about change‖ within their organizations (have skills, knowledge and understanding of your work) Source: http://www.northampton.ac.uk/info/200267/pedagogic-research-and-scholarship/1068/disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 30
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 31
  • How Is It Done? Components of Effective Dissemination Plan • Focus on the needs of the target audience and present in an appropriate manner (using appropriate language and information levels). • Include various dissemination methods, including written information, electronic media, and person-to-person contact. • Include both proactive and reactive dissemination channels • Leverage existing resources, relationships, and networks fully. • Include effective quality control mechanisms. • They include sufficient information so that the reader/user can determine the basic principles underlying specific practices and the settings in which these practices may be used most productively. • They establish links to resources that may be needed to implement the information.www.sti-innsbruck.at 32
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 33
  • Classification of Dissemination Channels Classified by the type of service they provide: • Static Broadcasting • Dynamic Broadcasting • Sharing • Collaboration • Social Networks • Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Online Discussion Groups • Semantic-based Dissemination • Overview of Channels Image taken from: http://www.williamsclass.com/SixthScienceWork/Classification/ClassificationNotes/images/classify%20file%20cabinets.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 34
  • Static Broadcasting • Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages • More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals • Online static dissemination: websites and homepages….www.sti-innsbruck.at 35
  • Static BroadcastingOnline Broadcasting – Static Websites Homepages / Static Websites • Powerful tool for reaching the target audience and promoting the project • Primarily used to provide information about the project and news of its activities and outcomes. • There is the temptation to present the information in order to ―wow‖ the visitor • BUT!: users tend to prefer good content in a simple, clear and easy-to navigate interface (Keep It Simple, Stupid!) • Although created through a collaborative process, Wiki websites can be considered static forms of online broadcasting as the information contained in them remains the same for long periods of time (i.e. the collaboration process is mostly employed for adding new data or editing/correcting existing one). • Wikipedia is an equally important channel that should be mentioned (although articles are created through a collaborative process) Image taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 36
  • Static Broadcasting Homepage Example Static Website Example The same hotel mentioned on Wikitravel’s entry for Innsbruckwww.sti-innsbruck.at 37
  • Static Broadcasting Static Website ExampleEntry in Wikipedia for Hotel Goldener Adler www.sti-innsbruck.at 38
  • Static Broadcasting Static Website Example Entry in Wikipedia for Dieter Fenselwww.sti-innsbruck.at 39
  • Dynamic Broadcasting • Small piece of content that is dependent upon constraints such as time and location. • With Web 2.0 technologies have created dedicated means for publishing streams and interacting with content generated by users. • Blogs: pages where people present their ideas, views and opinions on a particular subject • News: pages where facts or factual information is provided • BUT: Producing high-quality content for a blog on a regularly basis is time-consuming and costly Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 40
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Good practices: • Each new item has its own URL (in order to be bookmarked, shared, returned in search results, etc.) • Should contain a pointer to a more detailed description about the information items described; • Each new item is archived • Each new item can be indexed by search engines • Each new item is types (through the use of the information model) • Each new item is categorized (using folksonomy) • Each post can be directly shared, liked, added to favorites. • News can be searched for, sorted and filtered • Important news items stay at the top to highlight main announcements Source: http://oc.sti2.at/images/c/c7/STI_International_On-line_Communication_Handbook.pdfwww.sti-innsbruck.at 41
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Channels/Tools – An overview • Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second – the level of interactivity): – News Feeds – Newsletters – Email / Email lists – Microblogs – Blogs – Social networks – Chat and instant messaging applicationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 42
  • Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds • RSS (Rich Site Summary) Feeds: – a family of web feed formats used to deliver regularly changing web content. – Many websites and blogs offer users the option of subscribing to their RSS feed. – The content is syndicated automatically – the user does not have to visit each website manually – RSS Readers are available for different platforms: • PC readers: Amphetadesk, FeedReader, NewsGator • Web-based readers: My Yahoo, Bloglines, Google Reader – Includes full or summarized text, plus metadata (publishing dates and authorship) Image taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 43
  • Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <rss version="2.0"> <channel> <title>RSS Title</title> <description>This is an example of an RSS feed</description> <link>http://www.someexamplerssdomain.com/main.html</link> <lastBuildDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2010 00:01:00 +0000 </lastBuildDate> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> <ttl>1800</ttl> <item> <title>Example entry</title> <description>Here is some text containing an interesting description.</description> <link>http://www.wikipedia.org/</link> <guid>unique string per item</guid> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> </item> </channel> </rss>www.sti-innsbruck.at 44
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Newsletters • The newsletter is an instrument used to regularly exchange information among the members of a community • It constitutes the primary means of collecting and spreading the results achieved through network activities. • The main objectives of the Newsletter are: – to report the main activities promoted and undertaken – to widely disseminate information about published papers (position papers, state of the art reviews) of researchers involved in the network. • Website users have the possibility to subscribe to the Newsletter and automatically receive each issue in their mailbox. • Users should have the option of subscribing and unsubscribingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 45
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 46
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Email: means of exchanging digital messages from a sender to one or multiple recipients • (Electronic) Mailing lists: collection of names and (email) addresses used to send material to multiple recipients. – Announcement lists (Newsletters, periodicals, advertising – used primarily as a one-way conduit of information and can be ―posted to‖ by selected people) vs. Discussion lists (any subscriber can post) – Can be self-hosted (e.g. GNU Mailman) or third-party hosted (as part of notifications for Google groups, Yahoo! Groups ) – Requires users to subscribe to the list.www.sti-innsbruck.at 47
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Well established means for dissemination within a predetermined group • Requires members to subscribe to a mailing list • Since email lists are mostly not accessible to a wider audience, they should be ignored for external use and focus should be primarily on external means of communication • Email is a good method of sharing information on a one-to-one basis (e.g. mail this website to a friend) • Despite their obvious strength, in the age of information overload and spam, mailing lists will not perform efficiently if they are not carefully targeted and offer recipients the option to subscribe/ unsubscribe whenever they wish. • Note!: there are legal requirements associated with the possibility to subscribe/unsubscribe and the storage of and access to personal data [European Commission, n.d.]www.sti-innsbruck.at 48
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Broadcast medium similar to blogs • The difference between microblogging and an actual blog is in the size of the content in both actual and aggregate files. • The actual messages are called microposts. • Commercial microblogs exist to promote websites, services, products or collaboration within an organization. • Can contain a wide range of topics. • Low effort to participate.www.sti-innsbruck.at 49
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Twitter – Social networking service and microblogging service – users can send messages of a maximum length of 140 characters, follow other users, and create interest lists. – Widely used means of dissemination – Significant space limitations: 140 characters or less – Twitts are publicly visible by default (senders can restrict the access control) – Users can tweet using the website, external APIs or SMS – The service is free – Users may subscribe to other users tweets – this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers or tweepswww.sti-innsbruck.at 50
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 51
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Tumblr – Tumblr is a microblogging platform and social networking website. – It is owned and operated by Tumblr, Inc. – It allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog, named a "tumblelog". – Users can follow other users blogs, as well as make their blogs private.www.sti-innsbruck.at 52
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 53
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Blogs • Alternatively called web logs or weblogs • A weblog is a hierarchy of text, images, media objects and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser. * • In some situations, it is the creator‘s online journal. • The activity of updating a blog is ―blogging‖ and someone who keeps a blog is a ―blogger.‖ • Items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. • Individual articles on a blog are called ―blog posts,‖ ―posts‖ or ―entries‖. • Blogs are usually (but not always) written by one person and are updated pretty regularly. • Blogs are often (but not always) written on a particular topic. *http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/whatmakesaweblogaweblog.html Images taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 54
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 55
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Using Social Networks • Social network content is dynamic in the sense that it provides information that will expire after a period of time and be important only for that period and moment; • However, as it focuses more on creating communities than on the temporal and geospatial aspect of the information, it will be discussed in detail in Section 4.5.www.sti-innsbruck.at 56
  • Dynamic Broadcasting Chat Applications • one-to-one basis • Instant method of communication • Text-based chat, video chat, one vs. multiple receivers, web-based etc. • Can be applied to a small number of people (it does not scale well for large groups – it is impossible to follow who is discussion when more than one member of the discussion group is writing/typing simultaneously) • It is not useful as a method of dissemination due to its instant and intrusive nature • In order to be used as a dissemination method, the user must add the message sender to the contact listwww.sti-innsbruck.at 57
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 58
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 59
  • Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 60
  • Dynamic Broadcasting … and many morewww.sti-innsbruck.at 61
  • Sharing • There are a large number of Web 2.0 websites that support the sharing of information items such as: bookmarks, images, slides, and videos, etc. • Provided by hosting services (images, videos, slides are stored on a server)www.sti-innsbruck.at 62
  • Sharing • Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) • Examples: – Flickr – as a means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; – Slideshare – channel for storing and exchanging presentations; – YouTube and VideoLectures – sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websites – Social Bookmark sites: e.g. delicious, digg, StumbleUpon – Social News websites: e.g. redditwww.sti-innsbruck.at 63
  • SharingSlide Sharing slideshare • Launched in 2006 • Is a Web 2.0 based slide hosting service • Users can upload files privately or publicly as: PowerPoint, PDF, Keynote or OpenOffice presentations • Slide decks can then be viewed on the site itself, on hand held devices or embedded on other sites • SlideShare also provides users the ability to rate, comment on, and share the uploaded contentwww.sti-innsbruck.at 64
  • Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 65
  • SharingPicture Sharing flickr • Launched in 2004, and acquired by Yahoo! in 2005 • Image and video hosting website, web services suite and online community • It is a popular website for users to share and embed personal photographs • It is a service widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs and social media • features: – accounts, groups and access control – organization (based on tags added on the pictures), – organizr (web application for organizing photos within an account that can be accessed through the Flikr interface), – picnik (default photo editor in a partnership with Picnik online photo-editing application), access control, – interaction and compatibility with other applications (e.g. RSS and Atom feeds) – filtering (lets members specify by default what types of images they generally upload and how "safe" the images are), – licensing, map sources (georgraphic locations), account-undelete option (reverse an account rermination)www.sti-innsbruck.at 66
  • Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 67
  • SharingVideo Sharing YouTube • Video-sharing website where users can upload, view and share videos • Features – Video technology: Playback (re-watch a video), Uploading (up to 15 min), Quality and codecs and 3D videos – Content accessibility - view videos on web pages outside the site – Localization - adaptability to different languages, regional differences and technical requirementswww.sti-innsbruck.at 68
  • SharingVideo Sharing Videolectures • Launched in 2007 • VideoLectures.NET is a free and open access educational video lectures repository. • The lectures are given by distinguished scholars and scientists at the most important and prominent events such as conferences, summer schools, workshops and science promotional events from many scientific fields. • The portal is aimed at promoting science, exchanging ideas and fostering knowledge sharing by providing high quality, didactic contents not only to the scientific community but also to the general public. • All lectures, accompanying documents, information and links are systematically selected and classified through the editorial process whilst taking into account users comments.www.sti-innsbruck.at 69
  • Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 70
  • SharingSocial Bookmarking • Is a method for Internet users to organize, store, manage and search for bookmarks of resources online. • Descriptions may be added to these bookmarks in the form of metadata, so users may understand the content of the resource without first needing to download it for themselves. • The resources themselves arent shared, merely bookmarks that reference them. • Social bookmarking is particularly useful when collecting a set of resources that are to be shared with others. • Anyone can participate in social bookmarking.www.sti-innsbruck.at 71
  • SharingSocial Bookmarking delicious • Founded in 2003 • Is a social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks. • Characterized by a non-hierarchical classification system in which users can tag each of their bookmarks with the desired index terms (which generates a kind of folksonomy) • A combined view of everyones bookmarks with a given tag is available; • The most important links or popular ones can be seen on the home page, "popular" and "recent" pages • All bookmarks are publicly viewable by default - the public aspect is emphasized the site is not focused on storing private bookmark collections • But users have the ability to mark some as private and imported ones are private by defaultwww.sti-innsbruck.at 72
  • Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 73
  • SharingSocial Bookmarking digg • Launched in 2004 • User-driven social content website • After a user submits content, other users read their submission and "Digg" what they like best • Allows users to vote stories up or down (called digging and burying, respectively) • If a story receives enough Diggs, it is promoted to the first pagewww.sti-innsbruck.at 74
  • SharingSocial Bookmarking StumbleUpon • Launched in 2001 • Is a discovery engine that finds and recommends web content to its users • StumbleUpon uses collaborative filtering (an automated process combining human opinions with machine learning of personal preference) to create virtual communities of like-minded Web surfers. • Rating Web sites update a personal profile (a blog-style record of rated sites) and generate peer networks of Web surfers linked by common interest. • These social networks coordinate the distribution of Web content, so that users "stumble upon" pages explicitly recommended by friends and peers. • Giving a site a thumbs up results in the site being placed under the users "favorites".www.sti-innsbruck.at 75
  • SharingSocial Bookmarking reddit • Is a social news website where the registered users submit content, in the form of either a link or a text "self" post. • Other users then vote the submission "up" or "down," which is used to rank the post and determine its position on the sites pages and front page. • In December 2011, Reddit served just over 2 billion page views to almost 35 million visitors * http://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-to-reddits-astounding-success-an-easy-customization-process-you-should-copy-2012-1www.sti-innsbruck.at 76
  • Collaboration Wiki • ―Wiki‖ = Hawaiian word for ―fast‖ of ―quick‖. • Described by the developer of the first wiki software, Ward Cunningham, as the ―simplest online database that could possibly work‖*. • Websites whose users can add, modify or delete content via a web browser using simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. • Are powered by wiki software. • Most of the content is created collaboratively. • Promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended page exists or not. • It seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape • However – once created the information remains static until another user edits or deletes it. *http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki 77www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • Collaboration Example Wiki Biggest online free encyclopediawww.sti-innsbruck.at 78
  • Collaboration Google Docs • Is a free, Web-based office suite and data storage service • It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with other users. • Google Docs combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheets with a presentation program incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems. • Data storage of files up to 1 GB total in size was introduced on January 13, 2010, but has since been increased to 10 GB, documents using Google Docs native formats do not count towards this quota. • Its main features rely on storage, file limits, and supported file formatswww.sti-innsbruck.at 79
  • Collaboration Ether Pad • Launched in 2008 • EtherPad web service allows real-time document collaboration for groups and teams. • Etherpad can be re-branded with your own domain and company name. • Acquired by Google – the servers are downwww.sti-innsbruck.at 80
  • Social Networks • Provide a community aspect, i.e. forms a community that shares information in a multi-directional way • Common features (regardless of platform): – construct a public/semi-public profile; – articulate list of other users that they share a connection with; – view the list of connections within the system • Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile • Social networks typically offer more than one channel of dissemination (thus they will be considered platforms with many available dissemination channels): – Facebook: Pages, Groups, Share options – LinkedIn and Xing are focused on professional use and fit the purpose of organizationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 81
  • Social Network Facebook • Facebook is a social networking service and website; • Launched in February 2004 • It is owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. • As of May 2012 has over 900 million active users* • More than half are using mobile devices* • Users must register before using the services. • Users can create a personal profile, add friends, exchange messages, chat (the company has also launched a separate instant messaging service), receive automatic notifications, take part in games, etc. * http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/15/technology/facebook-needs-to-turn-data-trove-into-investor-gold.html?_r=1www.sti-innsbruck.at 82
  • Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 83
  • Social Network Google+ • Launched in 2011 • Social networking and identity service owned and operated by Google Inc • Integrates social services such as Google Profiles • Introduces new services such as Circles, Hangouts and Sparks • Share photos, videos, links, or anything else that‘s on your mind. • Users can share using the share box on any Google site or +1 buttons across the web.www.sti-innsbruck.at 84
  • Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 85
  • Social Network LinkedIn • Founded in December 2002 • LinkedIn is the world‘s largest professional network • It has over 120 million members • LinkedIn connects users to their trusted contacts • Helps users exchange knowledge, ideas, and opportunities with a broader network of professionals. • It allows users to search, keep in touch and extend their networks of professionalswww.sti-innsbruck.at 86
  • Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 87
  • Social Network Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam policy.www.sti-innsbruck.at 88
  • Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 89
  • Social Network • Market share for December 2011 (according to ComScore): Worldwide Unique Visitors Percentage Facebook.com 792,999,000 55.1 % Twitter.com 167,903,000 11.7 % LinkedIn.com 94,823,000 6.6 % Google+ 66,756,000 4.6 % MySpace 61,037,000 4.2 % Others 255,539,000 17.8 % Total 1,438,877,000 100 % http://techcrunch.com/2011/12/22/googlesplus/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Techcrunch+%28TechCrunch%29www.sti-innsbruck.at 90
  • Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Web applications managing user-generated content • Early forums can be described as a web version of an email list or newsgroup • Internet forums are prevalent in several countries: Japan, China • Are governed by a set of rules • Users have a specific designated role, e.g. moderator, administrator • The unit of communication is the post • Common features – Tripcodes and capcodes - a secret password is added to the users name following a separator character – Private message – Attachment – BBCode and HTML – Emoticon or smiley to convey emotion – Poll – RSS and ATOM feeds – Other forum featureswww.sti-innsbruck.at 91
  • Internet Forums and Discussion Boardswww.sti-innsbruck.at 92
  • Online Discussion Groups • Many-to-many • Threaded conversations • Usually created on a particular topic • Have different access levels • Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, knowledge and information sharing and open discussions • Examples: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups. • Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet Forumswww.sti-innsbruck.at 93
  • Online Discussion Groups Google Groups • Not a common forum software • Includes an archive of Usenet news group postings dating back t o 1981 • Strongly focuses on the concept of mailing list - Can have parallel mailing lists (can use Google groups to archive another mailing list, such as Yahoo Groups) • Need a Google account to access groups or post messages; • What can be shared: there‘s a limit of 25MB including attachments/ group • Joining a group: Invitation or request. Owners can make an opt-out issue by inviting members directly through their email address • Notifications: – No email: read group postings only online – Abridged Email: one summary email of new activity/day – Digest Email: get up to 25 full messages in a single email – Email: send each message to me as it arrives • Noise: the level of noise is dependent on the managers; • Fully integrated with Google products : Google Calendars, Google Docs, Google Siteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 94
  • Online Discussion Groupswww.sti-innsbruck.at 95
  • Online Discussion Groups Yahoo! Groups • Yahoo! Groups is one of the world‘s largest collections of online discussion boards. • Group messages can be read and posted by e-mail or on the Groups webpage like a web forum. • Members can choose whether to receive individual, daily digest or Special Delivery e- mails, or simply read Group posts on the Group‘s web site • Groups can be created with public or member-only access. • Yahoo! Groups service provides additional facilities for each Group web site, such as a homepage, message archive, polls, calendar • announcements, files, photos, database functions, and bookmarkswww.sti-innsbruck.at 96
  • Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups • Create a private space (group) to share – Post updates, questions, photos; – Chat with the group; – Create share docs – Schedule group events • Members can stay in touch using: – Notifications regarding new posts and updates – The group‘s shared email address to connect off Facebookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 97
  • Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups• Pages allow real • Groups provide a closed space for small groups organizations, businesses, celebrities and of people to communicate about shared brands to communicate broadly with people interests. who like them. • Groups can be created by anyone.• Pages may only be created and managed by • Privacy: groups offer three levels of control over official representatives. shared information: open, closed and secret. In• Privacy: information and posts are public and secret and closed groups, posts are only visible generally available to everyone on Facebook. to group members.• Audience: • Audience: – Anyone can like a Page to become connected – Group members must be approved or added by with it and get News Feed updates. other members. – There is no limit to how many people can like a – When a group reaches a certain size, some Page. features are limited (e.g. chat). – Visitor statistics – The most useful groups tend to be the ones you• Communication: create with small groups of people you know. – Page admins can share posts under the Page‘s • Communication: name. – In groups, members receive notifications by default – Page posts appear in the News Feed of people when any member posts in the group. who like the Page. – Group members can participate in chats, upload – Page admins can also create customized apps photos to shared albums, collaborate on group for their Pages and check Page Insights to track docs, and invite all members to group events. the Page‘s growth and activity. Groups: smaller number of people. Pages: large number of followers www.sti-innsbruck.at 98
  • Online Discussion Groups LinkedIn • Discover the most popular discussions. • Take an active part in determining the top discussions by liking and commenting. • Follow the most influential people in your groups by checking the Top Influencers board or clicking their profile image to see all their group activity. • Review new members or search for specific ones. • See both member-generated discussions and news in one setting. • Easily browse previews of the last three comments in a discussion. • Find interesting discussions by seeing who liked a discussion and how many people commented.www.sti-innsbruck.at 99
  • Online Discussion Groups Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam policy.www.sti-innsbruck.at 100
  • Online Discussion Groups Tool Website Description Meetup www.meetup.com Meetup is an online social networking portal that facilitates offline group meetings in various localities around the world [Wiki]. GroupSpaces groupspaces.com GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs, societies, associations and other groups manage their membership and activities, and promote themselves online [Wiki]. Windows Live groups.live.com Windows Live Groups is an online service by Microsoft as part of its Groups Windows Live range of services that enable users to create their social groups for sharing, discussion and coordination [Wiki].www.sti-innsbruck.at 101
  • Online Discussion GroupsCharacteristics Google Groups Yahoo Groups Facebook Groups LinkedIn Xing Groups GroupsForums Yes Yes Yes Yes YesChat Threaded Yes Yes (max 250 No No conversation members)Shared email Yes Yes Yes No NoUpload content (documents, Not part of Yes Yes Via weblinks Yesimages, videos) groups Google DocsMaximum Storage 25 MB posts and 200 MB Unlimited -- 2 MB attachmentsIntegrate external content Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes(RSS feeds)Notifications Customizable: no Email Email, FB Email, http email, abridged, notifications bundled newsletter digest, emailSearch features Google Search / Yahoo search, Not a separate Advanced - Advanced Directory Search separate group function (Facebook search for search classic search), group, clumsy and no member, group suggestion event www.sti-innsbruck.at 102
  • Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • ODG have a limited number of members; • ODG are intended for a smaller number of people to collaborate (Facebook places the number at 250 members); • ODG have a specific purpose – a goal that unites all members, i.e. a discussion topic. • In ODG the number of members and the ideas of the members are known to all participants. • ODG have a creator/owner recognized by all members; • ODG follow a set of rules determined by the administrator, moderator or owner; • In ODG members may have different roles: administrator, moderator, owner, participant, etc.www.sti-innsbruck.at 103
  • Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • Moderators and administrators ensure that the ODG‘s internal code of conduct is followed; • In ODG all members have access to the same shared resources; • ODG members do not have to be connected with the other members (other than the group) to communicate • SN vary in size and heterogeneity; • In SN different members have access to different resources (e.g. some members might have restricted access to a friend‘s photo archive); • In SN members do not know how many participant exist, or who they are;www.sti-innsbruck.at 104
  • Semantic Based Dissemination What is semantic web? • An extension of the current web in which information is given a well defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 105
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Why use semantics? • Problems with current day search engines: – Recall issues – Results are dependent on the vocabulary – Results are single Web pages – Human involvement is necessary for result interpretation – Results of Web searches are not readily accessible by other software tools • Content is not machine-readable: – It is difficult to distinguish between: ―I am a professor of computer science.‖ and ―You may think, I am a professor of computer science. Well, actually. . .‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 106
  • Semantic Based Dissemination The Semantic Web Approach • Represent Web content in a form that is more easily machine-processable. • Use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these representations. • Knowledge will be organized in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. • Automated tools for maintenance and knowledge discovery • Semantic query answering • Query answering over several documents • Defining who may view certain parts of information (even parts of documents) will be possible. • Semantic Web does not rely on text-based manipulation, but rather on machine- processable metadatawww.sti-innsbruck.at 107
  • Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 108
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Rich Snippets • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. • Snippets—the few lines of text that appear under every search result—are designed to give users a sense for what‘s on the page and why it‘s relevant to their query. • If Google understands the content on your pages, we can create rich snippets— detailed information intended to help users with specific queries.www.sti-innsbruck.at 109
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Overview Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. foafwww.sti-innsbruck.at 110
  • Semantic Based Dissemination • A (Semantic Web) vocabulary can be considered as a special form of (usually light- weight) ontology, or sometimes also merely as a collection of URIs with an (usually informally) described meaning*. – URI = uniform resource identifier – Semantic vocabularies include: FOAF, Dublin Core, Good Relations, etc. • Format is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. – The most known examples are RDF and OWL. • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. – OWLIM - a family of semantic repositories, or RDF database management system * http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Ontologywww.sti-innsbruck.at 111
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format • an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. • is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information.www.sti-innsbruck.at 112
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Methods of describing Web content: RDFs 1998 RDF 1999 RDFa 2004 Microformats 2005HTML Meta OWL Elements 2007 SPARQL 2008 OWL 2 2009 RIF 2010 Microdata 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 113
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • HTML or XHTML elements which provide structured metadata about a Web page • Represented using the <meta...> element • Can be used to specify page description, keywords and any other metadata not provided through the other head elements and attributes • Example: <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html" >www.sti-innsbruck.at 114
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Search engine optimization attributes: keywords, description, language, robots – keywords attribute - although popular in the 90s, search engine providers realized that information stored in meta elements (especially the keywords attribute) was often unreliable and misleading, or created to draw users towards spam sites – description attribute - provides concise explanation of a Web pages content – the language attribute - tells search engines what natural language the website is written in – the robots attribute - controls whether or not search engine spiders are allowed to index a page, and whether or not they should follow links from a pagewww.sti-innsbruck.at 115
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Example - metadata contained by www.wikipedia.org: <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="title" content="Wikipedia"> <meta name="description" content="Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit."> <meta name="author" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="copyright" content="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 and GNU Free Documentation License"> <meta name="publisher" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="language" content="Many"> <meta name="robots" content="index, follow"> <!--[if lt IE 7]> <meta http-equiv="imagetoolbar" content="no"> <![endif]--> <meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes">www.sti-innsbruck.at 116
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML for embedding rich metadata within Web documents. • Adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML enabling the embedding of RDF triples; • Integrates best with the W3C meta data stack built on top of RDF • Benefits [Wikipedia RDFa, n.d.]: – Publisher independence: each website can use its own standards; – Data reuse: data is not duplicated - separate XML/HTML sections are not required for the same content; – Self containment: HTML and RDF are separated; – Schema modularity: attributes are reusable; – Evolv-ability: additional fields can be added and XML transforms can extract the semantics of the data from an XHTML file; – Web accessibility: more information is available to assistive technology. • Disadvantage: the uptake of the technology is hampered by the web- master‘s lack of familiarity with this technology stackwww.sti-innsbruck.at 117
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • RDFa Attributes: – about and src – a URI or CURIE specifying the resource the metadata is about – rel and rev – specifying a relationship or reverse-relationship with another resource – href and resource – specifying the partner resource – property – specifying a property for the content of an element – content – optional attribute that overrides the content of the element when using the property attribute – datatype – optional attribute that specifies the datatype of text specified for use with the property attribute – typeof – optional attribute that specifies the RDF type(s) of the subject (the resource that the metadata is about).www.sti-innsbruck.at 118
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Example <div xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ about="http://www.example.com/books/wikinomics"> <span property="dc:title">Wikinomics</span> <span property="dc:creator">Don Tapscott</span> <span property="dc:date">2006-10-01</span> </div>www.sti-innsbruck.at 119
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies • WebOnt developed OWL language • OWL based on earlier languages OIL and DAML+OIL • Characterized by formal semantics and RDF/XML- based serializations for the Semantic Web • Endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 120
  • Semantic Based Dissemination OWL Sublanguages • The W3C-endorsed OWL specification includes the definition of three variants of OWL, with different levels of expressiveness (ordered by increasing expressiveness): – OWL Lite - originally intended to support those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints Each of these sublanguage – OWL DL - was designed to provide the maximum expressiveness is a syntactic extension of possible while retaining computational completeness, decidability, and the availability of practical reasoning algorithms. its simpler predecessor. – OWL Full - designed to preserve some compatibility with RDF Schema • The following set of relations hold. Their inverses do not. – Every legal OWL Lite ontology is a legal OWL DL ontology. – Every legal OWL DL ontology is a legal OWL Full ontology. – Every valid OWL Lite conclusion is a valid OWL DL conclusion. – Every valid OWL DL conclusion is a valid OWL Full conclusion. • Development of OWL Lite tools has thus proven almost as difficult as development of tools for OWL DL, and OWL Lite is not widely used Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 121
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Class Axioms – oneOf (enumerated classes) – disjointWith – sameClassAs applied to class expressions – rdfs:subClassOf applied to class expressions • Boolean Combinations of Class Expressions – unionOf – intersectionOf – complementOf • Arbitrary Cardinality – minCardinality – maxCardinality – cardinality • Filler Information – hasValue Descriptions can include specific value information Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 122
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Example: <owl:Class> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:allValuesFrom> <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Doctor"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Doctor"/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:unionOf> </owl:allValuesFrom> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 123
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Extends OWL 1 • Inherits OWL 1 language features • Makes some patterns easier to write • Does not change expressiveness, semantics and complexity • Provides more efficient processing in implementations • Syntactic sugar: – DisjointUnion - Union of a set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – DisjointClasses - A set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – NegativeObjectPropertyAssertion - Two individuals; a property does not hold between them – NegativeDataPropertyAssertion - An individual; a literal; a property does not hold between them • OWL 2 allows the same identifiers (URIs) to denote individuals, classes, and properties • Interpretation depends on context • A very simple form of meta-modelling Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 124
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • New constructs for properties: – Self restriction: Classes of objects that are related to themselves by a given property – Qualified cardinality restriction: Qualifies the instances to be counted – Object properties – Disjoint properties – Property chain: Properties can be defined as a composition of other properties – keys • An OWL 2 profile (commonly called a fragment or a sublanguage in computational logic) is a trimmed down version of OWL 2 that trades some expressive power for the efficiency of reasoning. • OWL 2 profiles – OWL 2 EL is particularly useful in applications employing ontologies that contain very large numbers of properties and/or classes. – OWL 2 QL is aimed at applications that use very large volumes of instance data, and where query answering is the most important reasoning task – OWL 2 RL is aimed at applications that require scalable reasoning without sacrificing too much expressive power. • OWL 2 profiles are defined by placing restrictions on the structure of OWL 2 ontologies. Source: http://semwebprogramming.org/?p=175www.sti-innsbruck.at 125
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Example property chains in OWL2: Declaration( ObjectProperty( :isEmployedAt ) ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :SC ) SubObjectPropertyOf( ObjectPropertyChain( :isEmployedAt :isPartOf ) :isEmployedAt) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :ICS ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :MU ) Source: http://dior.ics.muni.cz/~makub/owl/www.sti-innsbruck.at 126
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A collection of dialects (rigorously defined rule languages) • Intended to facilitate rule sharing and exchange • RIF framework is a set of rigorous guidelines for constructing RIF dialects in a consistent manner • The RIF framework includes several aspects: – Syntactic framework – Semantic framework – XML framework • RIF can be used to map between vocabularies (one of the proposed use cases) Source: Michael Kifer State University of New York at Stony Brookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 127
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • The standard RIF dialects are: – Core - the fundamental RIF language. It is designed to be the common subset of most rule engines. (It provides "safe" positive datalog with builtins.) – BLD (Basic Logic Dialect) - adds a few things that Core doesnt have: logic functions, equality in the then-part, and named arguments. (This is positive Horn logic, with equality and builtins.) – PRD (Production Rules Dialect) - adds a notion of forward-chaining rules, where a rule fires and then performs some action, such as adding more information to the store or retracting some information. • Although RIF dialects were designed primarily for interchange, each dialect is a standard rule language and can be used even when portability and interchange are not required. • The XML syntax is the only one defined as a standard for interchange. Various presentation syntaxes are used in the specification, but they are not recommended for sending between different systems. Source: http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wiki/RIF_FAQ#What_is_RIF-BLD.3F__.28and_RIF-Core.2C_PRD.2C_FLD.29www.sti-innsbruck.at 128
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A simplified example of RIF-Core rules combined with OWL to capture anatomical knowledge that can be used to help label brain cortex structures in MRI images. Source: http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wiki/Modeling_Brain_Anatomywww.sti-innsbruck.at 129
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microformats • Directly use meta tags of XHTML to embed semantic information in web documents; • Microformats were developed as a competing approach directly using some existing HTML tags to include meta data in HTML documents • As of 2010, microformats allow the encoding and extraction of events, contact information, social relationships and so on • Advantages: – you can publish a single, human readable version of your information in HTML and then make it machine readable with the addition of a few standard class names – No need to learn another language – Easy to add • However: they overload the class tag which causes problems for some parsers as it makes semantic information and styling markup hard to differentiatewww.sti-innsbruck.at 130
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format - Microformats • Example <ul class="vcard"> <li class="fn">Joe Doe</li> <li class="org">The Example Company</li> <li class="tel">604-555-1234</li> <li><a class="url“ href="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a></li> </ul>www.sti-innsbruck.at 131
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Use HTML5 elements to include semantic descriptions into web documents aiming to replace RDFa and Microformats. • Introduce new tag attributes to include semantic data into HTML • Unless you know that your target consumer only accepts RDFa, you are probably best going with microdata. • While many RDFa-consuming services (such as the semantic search engine Sindice) also accept microdata, microdata-consuming services are less likely to accept RDFa. • Advantages: – the variable groupings of data within published area tables may not be the detail required for a particular application (e.g. age group, ethnic group or occupational classification). – the cross-tabulations of variables available in area tables may not be those needed for a study (e.g. counts of individuals by age and ethnic group and occupation).www.sti-innsbruck.at 132
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Examples: – Google may use microdata in its results pages: – Opera from version 11.60 is the only current stable release of a browser that supports microdata: – MicrodataJS is a JavaScript library and jQuery plugin that emulates the DOM API.www.sti-innsbruck.at 133
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example without microdata: <section> Hello, my name is John Doe, I am a graduate research assistant at the University of Dreams. My friends call me Johnny. You can visit my homepage at <a href="http://www.JohnnyD.com">www.JohnnyD.com</a> . I live at 1234 Peach Drive Warner Robins, Georgia. </section>www.sti-innsbruck.at 134
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example using microdata: <section itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Person"> Hello, my name is <span itemprop="name">John Doe</span> , I am a <span itemprop="title">graduate research assistant</span> at the <span itemprop="affiliation">University of Dreams</span>. My friends call me <span itemprop="nickname">Johnny</span> . You can visit my homepage at <a href=http://www.JohnnyD.com itemprop="url">www.JohnnyD.com</a>. <section itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://data- vocabulary.org/Address"> I live at <span itemprop="street-address"> 1234 Peach Drive</span> <span itemprop="locality">Warner Robins</span> , <span itemprop="region">Georgia</span>. </section> </section>www.sti-innsbruck.at 135
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. • RDF provides a common framework for expressing information so it can be exchanged between applications without loss of meaning. • It is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers (called Uniform Resource Identifiers, or URIs) and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values • Thus, RDF can represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values. • It specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without requiring all the data consumers to be changed Source: http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/~trc/public/courses/Fall2008/week15/slide-w15.html#%287%29www.sti-innsbruck.at 136
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • Based on triples <subject, predicate, object> • An RDF triple contains three components: – the subject, which is an RDF URI reference or a blank node – the predicate, which is an RDF URI reference – the object, which is an RDF URI reference, a literal or a blank node – An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject, predicate, object. – The predicate is also known as the property of the triple. • Triple data model: <subject, predicate, object> – Subject: Resource or blank node – Predicate: Property – Object: Resource (or collection of resources), literal or blank node • Example: <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill>www.sti-innsbruck.at 137
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • An RDF graph is a set of RDF triples. • The set of nodes of an RDF graph is the set of subjects and objects of triples in the graph. • Person ages (:age) and favorite friends (:fav) Properties encoded as XML entities: <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/ 22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:example="http://fake.host.edu/e xample-schema#"> <example:Person> <example:name>Smith</example:name> <example:age>21</example:age> <example:fav>Jones</example> </example:Person> </rdf:RDF>www.sti-innsbruck.at 138
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • A recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language • On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation • Query language based on RDQL • Used to retrieve and manipulate data stored in RDF format • Uses SQL-like syntaxwww.sti-innsbruck.at 139
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • Example SPARQL Query: – “Return the full names of all people in the graph” PREFIX vCard: <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#> SELECT ?fullName WHERE {?x vCard:FN ?fullName} – Results: @prefix ex: <http://example.org/#> . @prefix vcard: <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#> . fullName ex:john vcard:FN "John Smith" ; ================= vcard:N [ "John Smith" vcard:Given "John" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; "Mary Smith" ex:hasAge 32 ; ex:marriedTo :mary . ex:mary vcard:FN "Mary Smith" ; vcard:N [ vcard:Given "Mary" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; ex:hasAge 29 .www.sti-innsbruck.at 140
  • Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 141
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data Linked Data Cloudwww.sti-innsbruck.at 142
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data • Materialization of the usage of vocabularies • Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF― • ―Semantic web done right‖ Tim Berners-Lee • Combination of openness with data + open standards • Linked Data Essentials: – Use URIs – Use HTTP URIs – Serve useful information using SPARQL, RDF standards – Mention URIs of related objectswww.sti-innsbruck.at 143
  • Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 144
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.orgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 145
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.org • Example*: – Imagine you have a page about the movie Avatar—a page with a link to a movie trailer, information about the director, and so on. Your HTML code might look something like this: <div> <h1>Avatar</h1> <span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954)</span> <span>Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html">Trailer</a> </div> * http://schema.org/docs/gs.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at 146
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.org • Example with microdata*: <div itemscope itemtype ="http://schema.org/Movie"> <h1 itemprop="name"&g;Avatar</h1> <div itemprop="director" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Person"> Director: <span itemprop="name">James Cameron</span> (born <span itemprop="birthDate">August 16, 1954)</span> </div> <span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a> </div> * http://schema.org/docs/gs.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at 147
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Friend of a Friend • Uses RDF to describe the relationship people have to other ―things‖ around them • FOAF permits intelligent agents to make sense of the thousands of connections people have with each other, their jobs and the items important to their lives; • Because the connections are so vast in number, human interpretation of the information may not be the best way of analyzing them. • FOAF is an example of how the Semantic Web attempts to make use of the relationships within a social context.www.sti-innsbruck.at 148
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Example <foaf:Person> <foaf:name>Dan Brickley</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox_sha1sum> 748934f32135cfcf6f8c06e253c53442721e15e7 </foaf:mbox_sha1sum> </foaf:Person> • Which says "there is a Person called Dan Brickley who has an email address whose sha1 hash is..."www.sti-innsbruck.at 149
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • A lightweight ontology for annotating offerings and other aspects of e-commerce on the Web. • The only OWL DL ontology officially supported by both Google and Yahoo. • It provides a standard vocabulary for expressing things like – that a particular Web site describes an offer to sell cellphones of a certain make and model at a certain price, – that a pianohouse offers maintenance for pianos that weigh less than 150 kg, – or that a car rental company leases out cars of a certain make and model from a particular set of branches across the country. • Also, most if not all commercial and functional details of e-commerce scenarios can be expressed, e.g. eligible countries, payment and delivery options, quantity discounts, opening hours, etc. http://semanticweb.org/wiki/GoodRelationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 150
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • Example: <rdf:RDF xmlns="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/gr#" xml:base="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/gr" xmlns:toy="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/toy#" xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:protege="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/protege#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/toy"/> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1"/> </owl:Ontology> <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:ID="ElectronicsCom"> <gr:legalName rdf:datatype="&xsd;string" >Electronics.com Ltd.</gr:legalName> <rdfs:seeAlso/> <gr:offers rdf:resource="#Offering_1"/> </gr:BusinessEntity> </rdf:RDF>www.sti-innsbruck.at 151
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Early Dublin Core workshops popularized the idea of "core metadata" for simple and generic resource descriptions. • Metadata terms are a set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe resources for the purposes of discovery. • The terms can be used to describe a full range of web resources: video, images, web pages etc. and physical resources such as books and objects like artworks • The Dublin Core standard includes two levels: – Simple Dublin Core comprises 15 elements; – Qualified Dublin Core includes three additional elements;— Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder;— as well as a group of element refinements, also called qualifiers, that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery. Source: http://dublincore.org (tutorials)www.sti-innsbruck.at 152
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Characteristics of DublinCore: – All elements are optional – All elements are repeatable – Elements may be displayed in any order – Extensible – International in scope • The fifteen core elements are usable with or without qualifiers • Qualifiers make elements more specific: – Element Refinements narrow meanings, never extend – Encoding Schemes give context to element values • If your software encounters an unfamiliar qualifier, look it up –or just ignore it! Source: http://dublincore.org (tutorials)www.sti-innsbruck.at 153
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements: ... <head profile="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html/"> <title>Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements</title> <link rel="schema.DC" href="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" /> <link rel="schema.DCTERMS" href="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" /> <meta name="DC.title" lang="en" content="Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements" /> <meta name="DC.creator" content="Andy Powell, UKOLN, University of Bath" /> <meta name="DCTERMS.issued" scheme="DCTERMS.W3CDTF" content="2003-11-01" /> <meta name="DC.identifier" scheme="DCTERMS.URI" content="http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html/" /> <link rel="DCTERMS.replaces" hreflang="en" href="http://dublincore.org/documents/2000/08/15/dcq-html/" /> <meta name="DCTERMS.abstract" content="This document describes how qualified Dublin Core metadata can be encoded in HTML/XHTML &lt;meta&gt; elements" /> <meta name="DC.format" scheme="DCTERMS.IMT" content="text/html" /> <meta name="DC.type" scheme="DCTERMS.DCMIType" content="Text" /> </head> ...www.sti-innsbruck.at 154
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Rich Snippets • Three steps to rich snippets 1. Pick a markup format. Google suggests using microdata, but any of the three formats below are acceptable. • Microdata (recommended) • Microformats • RDFa 2. Mark up your content. Google supports rich snippets for these content types: • Reviews • People • Products • Businesses and organizations • Recipes • Events • Music • Google also recognizes markup for video content and uses it to improve our search results.www.sti-innsbruck.at 155
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – OWLIM • OWLIM is a high-performance OWL repository • Storage and Inference Layer (SAIL) for Sesame RDF database • OWLIM performs OWL DLP reasoning • It is uses the IRRE (Inductive Rule Reasoning Engine) for forward-chaining and ―total materialization‖ • In-memory reasoning and query evaluation • OWLIM provides a reliable persistence, based on RDF N-Triples • OWLIM can manage millions of statements on desktop hardware • Extremely fast upload and query evaluation even for huge ontologies and knowledge bases • OWLIM is developed by Ontotextwww.sti-innsbruck.at 156
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – OWLIM • OWLIM is available as a Storage and Inference Layer (SAIL) for Sesame RDF. • Benefits: – Sesame‘s infrastructure, documentation, user community, etc. – Support for multiple query language (RQL, RDQL, SeRQL) – Support for import and export formats (RDF/XML, N-Triples, N3)www.sti-innsbruck.at 157
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Jena • Apache Jena™ is a Java framework for building Semantic Web applications. • Jena provides a collection of tools and Java libraries to help you to develop semantic web and linked-data apps, tools and servers. • The Jena Framework includes: – an API for reading, processing and writing RDF data in XML, N-triples and Turtle formats; – an ontology API for handling OWL and RDFS ontologies; – a rule-based inference engine for reasoning with RDF and OWL data sources; – stores to allow large numbers of RDF triples to be efficiently stored on disk; – a query engine compliant with the latest SPARQL specification – servers to allow RDF data to be published to other applications using a variety of protocols, including SPARQLwww.sti-innsbruck.at 158
  • Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Jena • Jena stores information as RDF triples in directed graphs, and allows your code to add, remove, manipulate, store and publish that information. • Jena architecture overview:www.sti-innsbruck.at 159
  • Overview of Channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 160
  • Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 161
  • Pitfalls of Dissemination • Online dissemination methods are forms of electronic marketing, BUT there are important differences between electronic spam and conventional marketing techniques. • For instance, common sense dictates that there‘s no reason to send an advertisement to somebody who can‘t use the product being advertised (e.g. presenting advantages of cat food to dog owners). • The method of dissemination must be particularly crafted for the target audience (e.g. a message containing a large amount of technical details should not be sent to a partner that cannot understand such details) • The method of dissemination must be particularly crafted for the channel selected to disseminate: the message should be shared on channels that permit it, otherwise it will be considered spam. • A dissemination channel should not be intrusive: a member should be asked before being subscribed to a specific list, and should have the option to unsubscribe and re-subscribe whenever he wishes sowww.sti-innsbruck.at 162
  • Pitfalls of Dissemination • The user must not be overloaded with information and must have the option of managing the content received (e.g. receive daily/weekly digests instead of numerous messages containing a single message) • Close attention should be paid to the messages that are disseminated: elements that are not of utmost important should be just posted on the website regularly (and provide a single newsletter directing the user to the site). • Posting elements that are not interesting for a user will be considered spam (in essence, spam is a message from someone else that the receiver did not ask for and does not want to have). • The receiver should not be buried under a large number of messages – it will create frustration as the important messages become harder to observe. • When using chat applications as methods of dissemination, certain etiquette elements must be taken into consideration: – Mass messages containing advertising are considered rude – A discrete way of disseminating is using the status updatewww.sti-innsbruck.at 163
  • Multi Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 164
  • Communication Multi- Channel Publishingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 165
  • Measuring impact of dissemination What is impact and feedback? Measuring impact of dissemination Overview of available tools per channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 166
  • What is Impact and Feedback Impact = influence, effect of the dissemination process Feedback = evaluative information derived from the reaction or response to a particular activity part of the disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 167
  • What is Impact and Feedback Impact of dissemination • The impact of dissemination refers to: − the actions that followed the dissemination of the message; − the effect of the message on the behavior of the customers related to an enterprise, the offered products and services; − the influence to the customers and their reaction to the message;www.sti-innsbruck.at 168
  • What is Impact and Feedback Feedback of dissemination • Refers to the response of an audience to a message or activity. • Giving the audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial for maintaining an open communication climate. • ―Feedback refers to a relationship between the behavior of the speaker, the response of the listener and the effect of the response on the further behavior of the speaker. … In a sense, we may say that feedback, in order to be feedback, must be used as feedback.‖ Theodore Clevenger, Jr., and Jack Matthews – “Feedback” – “Communication theory” edited by C.David Mortenser. • Feedback should be measured and analysed.www.sti-innsbruck.at 169
  • What is Impact and Feedback Measuring the feedback of the dissemination activities • Increased understanding of the impact of the dissemination processes. – The generation of reports, regarding the dissemination activities, helps an organisation to understand in deep the impact of their work and products to the audience by knowing what people do not find attractive and useful. • Evaluate current online and social network strategies. – It is always important to evaluate a strategy and specify the lessons learned for future use. • Look forward and plan the next business steps and objectives based on the effectiveness of the current activities. – Modify the current dissemination activities according to the reports in order to be more effective in the future and our efforts more productive.www.sti-innsbruck.at 170
  • What is Impact and Feedback Measuring the feedback of the dissemination activities • To ensure that the message disseminated has been seen by the target audience. – By measuring the impact of the dissemination, we could be aware of the visibility that our message achieved. • To verify whether the message has been understood by the target audience. – The disseminated message may be well distributed and visible, but not understood by the audience in the way that the enterprise would like to. • To quantify the reach of the dissemination. – It is important to be able to produce reports with metrics about the effectiveness of the dissemination. This is realizable only by establishing ways to measure the impact.www.sti-innsbruck.at 171
  • What is Impact and Feedback What should we measure to specify the feedback? • Social Media Exposure – How many people did you reach with your message? • Appeal of your message – How many people listened to the entire message? – If the majority of people stopped listening to your message, when did they stop? Was it due to the content, the implementation of the message or the medium? • Engagement – How many people actually reacted to your message? It is important to find out how many people reacted after the dissemination reached them. Did they forward the message to their social circle?www.sti-innsbruck.at 172
  • What is Impact and Feedback What should we measure to specify the feedback? • Influence – Measure how influential the people who engaged with, and reacted to your message. This reflects the influence of the enterprise. The enterprise should be sure the messages are reaching different kinds of people, including average users and influential users. • Message converted to action – The ultimate goal of the enterprise is to monetize the dissemination of products and services. – Measuring how the disseminated messages were converted to transactional actions. – What was the Return On Investment (ROI) and the Social Return On Investment (SROI)www.sti-innsbruck.at 173
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Why and What to measure? Measuring impact of dissemination Overview of available tools per channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 174
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationWhat syntactical and concrete measuring units to consider? Overview of criteria for measuring • Views and clicks • Unary feedback • Binary feedback • Ratings • Re-publication • Comments: (Sentiment of comments) • Replies • Platform specificwww.sti-innsbruck.at 175
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for static broadcasting • Traffic Rank: – Traffic Rank among all sites – Traffic Rank among its category – Reputation (by checking on websites like alexa.com or ranking.com) • Reach: – Estimated percentage of global internet users who visit – Number of visitors – Number of unique visitors – Number of recurring visitors • Audience – Audience Demographics (age, gender, has children, education, location, etc) • Page views: – Estimated percentage of global page views – Estimated daily unique pageviews per userwww.sti-innsbruck.at 176
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination • Percentage of site viewed • Bounce rate: – Estimated percentage of visits to website that consist of a single page view • Time on site: – Estimated daily time on site (mm:ss) • Search: – Estimated percentage of visits that came from a search engine • Connections: – Sites linking in – Links pointing to this site – Link popularity ranking • Reviews • Click stream • (for Wikis) number of mentions of interest topic (e.g. hotel name)www.sti-innsbruck.at 177
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for dynamic broadcasting Type Tool Unit (number of…) News feeds RSS Subscriptions, Web site visits Newsletters Subscriptions, Web site visits Email Replies Microblogging Twitter Tweets, Followers, Retweets, Mentions Tumblr Notes, Reblog Blogs Comments, Sharing Social Networks Facebook Likes, Comments Google +1, Comments, Share LinkedIn Comment, Like, Flag Chat Skype Replies, Contacts Google Talk Replies, Contacts Facebook Messenger Replies, Contacts Yahoo! Messenger Replies, Contactswww.sti-innsbruck.at 178
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination News feeds (e.g. RSS) • Subscribers • Web site visitors originating from newsfeed Newsletters • Subscribers • Web site visitors originating from newsfeed Email • Replies Blogs • Comments • Sharing per individual postwww.sti-innsbruck.at 179
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationMicroblogging Twitter • Tweets • Followers • Retweets • Mentions Tumblr • Number of Notes • Number of Reblogswww.sti-innsbruck.at 180
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationSocial Networks Facebook • Likes per page, Likes per post • Comments per page, Comments per post Google+ • +1 per post, +1 per page • Comments per page, Comments per post • Sharing LinkedIn • Comments • Likes • Flagwww.sti-innsbruck.at 181
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationChats e.g. Skype, Google Talk, Facebook Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger • Number of Contacts • Replieswww.sti-innsbruck.at 182
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for Sharing Type Tool Unit (number of …) Slides SlideShare Share, comments, follow Images Flickr Comments, faves Videos YouTube Comments, likes, dislikes, share, subscribe to the channel VideoLectures Popularity (star system), reviews, comments Social bookmarking Delicious Stacks, links, comments, favorite, saves Digg diggs StumbleUpon Like, dislike Social News Website Reddit Comment, vote up, vote downwww.sti-innsbruck.at 183
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationSlides Slideshare • Likes per page, Likes per post • Comments per page, Comments per postImages Flickr • Comments • Favoriteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 184
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationVideos YouTube • Comments • Video replies • Likes and Dislikes • Sharing • Subscribe to channel VideoLectures • Popularity (star system) • Reviews • Commentswww.sti-innsbruck.at 185
  • Measuring Impact of DisseminationSocial Bookmarking Delicious Digg • Stacks • Diggs • Links • Comments • Favorites StumblUpon • Saves • Like • Dislike Social News Website (e.g. Reddit) • Comments • Vote up or Vote downwww.sti-innsbruck.at 186
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for Online Discussion Groups • Posts • Replies to posts • Discussions started (threads) • Number of members Measuring units for Forum • Number of discussions (threads) • Number of members • Number of commentswww.sti-innsbruck.at 187
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Resulted user generated content as means of measuring content • Number of times the dissemination channels have been mentioned as sources • Number of times topics presented by the dissemination channels have appeared in unrelated websites or user generated content • Number of responseswww.sti-innsbruck.at 188
  • Measuring Impact of Dissemination Why and What to measure? Measuring Impact of Dissemination Overview of available tools per channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 189
  • Overview of available tools per channel Social Media impact • Use automated tools to collect and report customer feedback metrics – Social media monitoring tools (Radian6, Alterian) to: – Listening platforms: – Crawlers – Web/online information analytics Brand communities • A brand community is a specialized non-geographically bound community, based on a structures set of social relationships among admirers of a brand (Muniz and O‘Guinn, 2001) • Feedback and impact can be measured by employing analytics inside the community itself (surveys, polls, etc.)www.sti-innsbruck.at 190
  • Overview of available tools per channel Static broadcasting: • Use of websites like alexa.com, ranking.com to observe information regarding traffic (rank, reputation, number of visitors, page views, etc. )www.sti-innsbruck.at 191
  • Overview of available tools per channel Dynamic Broadcasting Feeds: • Web statistics • Third-party RSS feed hosts (e.g. FeedBurner) • Other (third party) solutions: – Generating unique URLs for each subscriber – Anonymity vs. exploration of individual user habits – Such third party services are often only interested in collecting data – Uniquely named transparent images • Uniquely named transparent 1x1 graphics can be added to the description field of an RSS feed • Use standard web logs to see the number of times the image is viewed and determine the number of times the feed was accessedwww.sti-innsbruck.at 192
  • Overview of available tools per channel Newsletters: • Number of subscribers (no un-intrusive method of verifying whether the information has been received) Email and mailing lists: • Measuring impact: – Questions: • Who read my emails? • How many backlinks were produced? • BUT: answering this question is difficult! – Read-receipts: • MDN - Message Disposition Notifications (inserted into mail header) • Must be requested prior to sending the email • BUT: o Highly depended on email application used (different implementations, or not supported at all) o Can be turned off by userwww.sti-innsbruck.at 193
  • Overview of available tools per channel • Email tracking: – Web beacons: embedding of a tiny, invisible tracking image into email – Only working for HTML emails (not plain-text messages) – An individual tracking code is referenced when an event occurs • Message is opened or a link is clicked – Events are stored in database and used for statistics as click-through rates or operates – BUT: Images and links can be turned off in email applications, spam-filters (!!)www.sti-innsbruck.at 194
  • Overview of available tools per channel Microblogs (e.g. Twitter) • Twitter account has no built-in statistics tool – Only number of tweets, of people following, and of followers • New: Twitter for Businesses offers detailed statistics (not free service) • Third-party tools: – e.g. Topsy Social Analytics, TwitterCounter, … – Track number of mentions (for hashtags and accounts) – Track retweetswww.sti-innsbruck.at 195
  • Overview of available tools per channel Social networks • Facebook – Facebook Insight for Pages, Apps and Websites – Facebook Insights provide aggregated, non- personally identifiable information to Facebook Page owners and Facebook Platform developers – Statistics for Likes, Reach, and Talking about this – Insight API allows access to these statistics for Platform developerswww.sti-innsbruck.at 196
  • Overview of available tools per channel • Google+ – No built-in statistics tool – Track +1, sharing and comments per post • LinkedIn – Number of connections – New people in your network – Profile stats • Who‘s viewed your profile • Appearances in searchwww.sti-innsbruck.at 197
  • Overview of available tools per channel Chat • Chat should not be used as a main dissemination method due to its very nature (one- to-one conversations) • In particular situations, instant chatting can be employed to disseminate to a small number of people information that concerns only them (e.g. a skype conference disseminating the results of a project management meeting to the development team) • It is a method to address any concerns or ensure engagement.www.sti-innsbruck.at 198
  • Overview of available tools per channel Sharing SlideShare • Free Account: Statistics per presentation - Number of: Views (Embed, on slideshare), Favorites, Downloads, Comments • Pro Account: – Analytics summary – Statistics per presentation – Latest tweets – All views (timeline) – Downloads – LinkedIn Dashboardwww.sti-innsbruck.at 199
  • Overview of available tools per channel SlideShare Pro accounts statistics Analytics summary • Total Views / Favorites / Downloads / Tweets / Likes • Most active presentations • Most search keywords • Locationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 200
  • Overview of available tools per channel Flickr Free account • Photos‘ views, comments • Set of photos‘ views, comments • Popular – Interestingness: ―Where the clickthroughs are coming from; who comments on it and when; who marks it as a favorite; its tags and many more things which are constantly changing. Interestingness changes over time, as more and more fantastic content and stories are added to Flickr.” [2] – Views – Favorites – Commentswww.sti-innsbruck.at 201
  • Overview of available tools per channel Flickr Pro account • Account overview • Individual photos • Daily referrerswww.sti-innsbruck.at 202
  • Overview of available tools per channel YouTube Analyticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 203
  • Overview of available tools per channel • YouTube Demographicswww.sti-innsbruck.at 204
  • Overview of available tools per channel • YouTube Audience retention: – Absolute audience retention: How often each moment of your video is watched. – Relative audience retention: Video‘s ability to retain viewers relative to all YouTube videos of similar length. (limitation: video views>300www.sti-innsbruck.at 205
  • Overview of available tools per channel VideoLectures • Lecture page – Information about: • Views • Lecture popularity (stars) • Social networks counters (Tweets, Likes, Google+, LinkedIn shares, Delicious, Mendeley) • Conference page – Information about: • Most popular lectures (based on views) • Top voted lectures • Author page – Information about: • Views of her/his lectureswww.sti-innsbruck.at 206
  • Overview of available tools per channel Social Bookmarking: • Visibility of links shared – Saves • Visibility of grouped bookmarks shared (playlists for the web) – Views – Followers – Social networks counters (Tweets, Likes) – Commentswww.sti-innsbruck.at 207
  • Overview of available tools per channel Collaboration • The success of collaboration can either be observed instantly (e.g. a finished Google Document) or can be observed over a long period of time by assessing the projects and responses resulting from the collaboration session (e.g. creating software platforms using information presented in a workshop)www.sti-innsbruck.at 208
  • Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – what to measure • Size (number of members) – assess whether the group should be large or small • Interconnectedness and network density • Shared Language – a successful group shares the same language • Communication activity – meaningful and frequent input • Noise level – low access level • Access level • Resource availability – which members and how many members can access the group‘s resources (conversations, shared documents, etc.) • Use third party applications (such as social media monitoring tools)www.sti-innsbruck.at 209
  • Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – built in methods Characteristics Google Groups Yahoo Groups Facebook LinkedIn Xing Groups Groups Groups Show number of Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes members Show number of Yes (and the top Yes No Yes Yes posts posters) “Health” (activity) 5 star rating Internal, owner Like button Internal Internal measuring system (users) can add other on group mechanism mechanisms (e.g. page and “like” buttons on individual pictures); comments Management Features to track activity Polls No Yes Yes Yes Yes Group statistics No No No dashboard Yeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 210
  • Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – built in methods – example interfacewww.sti-innsbruck.at 211
  • Overview of available tools per channel Semantic Based Communication • Increased SEO • Easier reach of information • Same measuring units as above can be employedwww.sti-innsbruck.at 212
  • Dissemination Channels Overview 1. What is dissemination? 2. Why do it? 3. How is it done? 4. Classification of Dissemination Channels 5. Pitfalls of dissemination 6. Measuring impact of dissemination 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 213
  • Summary • Dissemination = To sow and scatter principles, ideas, opinions for growth and propagation, such as seed • Purposes of dissemination: for awareness, understanding, and action. • Classification: static, dynamic, sharing, collaboration, group communication, and semantic-based. 1. Static – fixed content, user cannot reply; e.g. printed press, websites/homepages, newsletters… 2. Dynamic - mobile, variable piece of content, dependent on constraints; e.g. news feeds (RSS), microblogging (Twitter), Email / Email list, Social Network, Blog, CMS (Drupal)… 3. Sharing – disseminating documents and files usually through hosting systems; e.g. YouTube, Flikr… 4. Collaboration – users, add, modify or delete content; e.g. Wikis… 5. Group Communication – threaded conversations, shared workspaces and established online communities; e.g. Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups, Windows Live Groups…. 6. Semantic-based – add machine-processable semantics; e.g. RDFa, microformats, microdatawww.sti-innsbruck.at 214
  • Summary • Pitfalls of dissemination – dissemination should follow a set of rules to ensure the limitation / elimination of spam and noise • Measuring impact of dissemination – Social media – impact analysis on actor level and item level – Brand community – Structured surveyswww.sti-innsbruck.at 215
  • References and Additional Material • Wikipedia Channel (communications). (2012, 05 04). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communication_channel • European Comission (2012, 05 08). Dissemination and exploitation. Retrieved from European Comission: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/valorisation/diss-mechanisms_en.htm • Harmsworth, S., Turpin, S., Rees, A., & Pell, G. (2000). Creating an Effective Dissemination Strategy An Expanded Interactive Workbook for Educational Development. TQEF National Co- ordination Team. • http://www.researchutilization.org/matrix/resources/gcedu/ • Muniz, A.M. Jr. and T.C. O‘Guinn. 2001. ‗Brand Community‘, Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4): 412–32. • Wikipedia RDFa. (2012,05 16). Retrieved from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rdfawww.sti-innsbruck.at 216
  • 2. SOCIAL MEDIA MONITORINGwww.sti-innsbruck.at 217
  • Social Media Monitoring Multi- Channel Social Publishing Media Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 218
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. Why do we need the SMM? 3. Available media channels 4. Core Features of the SMM tools 5. SMM tools available in the market 6. Next Step: Response! 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 219
  • What is Social Media Monitoring? Definition* Social Media Monitoring is the continuous systematic observation and analysis of social media networks and social communities. It supports a quick overview and insight into topics and opinions on the social web. *http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Media#Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 220
  • What is Social Media Monitoring? • SMM tools facilitate the listening of what people say about various topics in the social media sphere (blogs, twitter, facebook, etc.) • Listening: is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker. • Hearing: is an accidental and automatic brain response to sound that requires no effort. Are you listening?www.sti-innsbruck.at 221
  • What is Social Media Monitoring? • Harness the wealth of information available online in the form of user- generated content • These tools offer means for listening to the social media users, analyzing and measuring their activity in relation to a brand or enterprise • Offer access to real customers‘ opinions, complaints and questions, in real time, in a highly scalable waywww.sti-innsbruck.at 222
  • What is Social Media Monitoring? The Social Media Monitoring (SMM) tools are NOT Social Media Dashboard tools. Their goal is NOT to administrate your social media accounts. But, their goal is to ENABLE YOU TO LISTEN to what is being said about certain topics on the web.www.sti-innsbruck.at 223
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. Why do we need the SMM? 3. Available media channels 4. Core Features of the SMM tools 5. SMM tools available in the market 6. Next Step: Response! 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 224
  • Why do we need the SMM? • ―The direct, unfiltered, brutally honest nature of much online discussion is gold dust to big companies that want to spot trends, or find out what customers really think of them.‖ – The Economist, March 2006 • ―As control of a brand‘s marketing messages—and, indeed, its very image—migrates from traditional media to social media, companies need to become increasingly adept at paying attention to how theyre being perceived in the online world.‖ – The Aberdeen Group, February 2008www.sti-innsbruck.at 225
  • Why do we need the SMM? • Provide valuable insight from the side of enterprises regarding which strategy they should employ • Determine the most effective and ineffective offered features of an enterprisewww.sti-innsbruck.at 226
  • Why do we need the SMM? • The speed at which one can investigate a topic of interest, which greatly exceeds that of a traditional survey approach. • Social Media Monitoring is more precise, faster and more economical than traditional expert panel analysis. • Information is conveyed to someone who can absorb, process and formulate a response – it‘s really hearing vs. listening.www.sti-innsbruck.at 227
  • Why do we need the SMM? • Reputation management • Event detection, issue and crisis management • Competitor analysis • Trend and market research plus campaign monitoring • Influencer detection and customer relationship management • Product and innovation management • Manage Word of mouthwww.sti-innsbruck.at 228
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. Why do we need the SMM? 3. Available media channels 4. Core Features of the SMM tools 5. SMM tools available in the market 6. Next Step: Response! 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 229
  • Channels to analyze 1. Social networks, e.g.: • Facebook (Q1 2012): – 526 million daily active users – 3.2 billion Likes and Comments per day – 500K comments per minute – 700K status updates per minute – 80K wall posts per minutewww.sti-innsbruck.at 230
  • Channels to analyze 1. Social networks, e.g.: • Twitter: – 200 million Tweets per day (2011) – 200K Tweets per minute • LinkedIn: 147 million users • Google+: 170 million userswww.sti-innsbruck.at 231
  • Channels to analyze 2. Sharing networks, e.g.: • YouTube: – 4 billion videos are viewed a day – 100 million people take a social action on YouTube every week (likes, shares, comments, etc) • Flickr: >6.500 new photos per minute • Pinterest: – 13 million users – American users spend an average of 97.8 minuteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 232
  • Channels to analyze 3. Email lists • 2172 million Email users • 3375 million Active email accounts • 2.8 million emails per second • 90 trillion emails per yearwww.sti-innsbruck.at 233
  • Channels to analyze 4. Group Communication and Message Boards (e.g. Google Groups, Yahoo! Groups, Facebook Groups, etc.) • Forums: 2K posts per minute • Yahoo! Groups: – 9 million groups – 113 million users – 933 thousand unique visitors dailywww.sti-innsbruck.at 234
  • Channels to analyze 5. News feeds • Total Feeds*: 694,311 • Atom Feeds*: 86,496 • RSS feeds*: 438,102 (63% of the total) *source: http://www.syndic8.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 235
  • Channels to analyze 6. Blogs: • >95 million blogs available online • 22K posts per minute • Tumblr (Q2 2012): – 55.9 Million blogs – 23.3 Billion posts – 20K posts per minute • WordPress (Q2 2012) – 73.724.911 WordPress siteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 236
  • Channels to analyze 7. Traditional mediums: • TV: – 365 TV channels licensed in Germany • Radio: – 822 Radio stations in Germany • Print mediums (newspapers, magazines) – 382 Daily newspapers in Germany – 4180 Weekly magazines in Germanywww.sti-innsbruck.at 237
  • Channels to analyze 8. Online News: • News websites: >25.000 • Online radio stations: >2700 Online radio stations in Germanywww.sti-innsbruck.at 238
  • Available media channels FORUMS/NEWSGROUPS MICROBLOGS VIDEO SHARING SOCIAL NETWORKS WIKIS The Conversation SOCIAL MEDIA NEWSPHOTO SHARING AGGREGATORS BLOGS MAINSTREAM MEDIAwww.sti-innsbruck.at 239
  • Social Media Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 240
  • Available media channels How many people would you need to manage the chaos of social media activity and extract valuable insights for your brand?www.sti-innsbruck.at 241
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. Why do we need the SMM? 3. Available media channels 4. Core Features of the SMM tools 5. SMM tools available in the market 6. Next Step: Response! 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 242
  • Core Features of the SMM tools A Social Media Monitoring tool should support the following core features: • Listening grid • Data analysis • Sentiment analysis • Historical data • Dashboardwww.sti-innsbruck.at 243
  • Listening grid SMMs should be able to gather data from many sources and in different forms (e.g. posts, pictures, videos) and establish a listening grid to capture such data. • The listening grid focuses on three main aspects: 1. The channels that are monitored (e.g. blogs and micro-blogs, social networks, video and image websites, etc.); 2. Which countries and languages the tools provide support for; and 3. The topics relevant to the enterprise. Additionally, the listening grid should send alerts to inform clients (e.g. when post volume increases over a defined threshold or sentiment be- comes very negative).www.sti-innsbruck.at 244
  • Data analysis • Having established a listening grid that captures data and posts around the topics the user is interested in, the next step is to analyze the data and produce actionable reports and insights for the user of the tool. • The analysis is of particular importance as it encompasses the methods used to both filter the gathered data of unwanted information (e.g. spam, duplicates) and to process it in a way that is meaningful for the enterprise. The analysis should provide: – Brand monitoring and reputation management – Consumer segmentation, customer insight and market research – Identify specific conversations to join – Gather information about competitors – Support product and service developmentwww.sti-innsbruck.at 245
  • Sentiment analysis • The effort of finding valuable information in user-generated data is called opinion mining. Sentiments are determined using elements of computational linguistics, text analytics, and machine learning elements, such as latent semantic analysis, support vector machines, Natural Language Processing. • Main purpose is measuring the attitude, opinion, emotional state, or intended emotional communication of a speaker or writer. • A sentiment score can be extremely useful in evaluating a large data set of social brand mentions, as well as allow enterprises to filter content based on positive or negative comments, thus isolating the themes or issues that have determined the developed sentiment.www.sti-innsbruck.at 246
  • Sentiment analysis • The major method of extracting sentiment from user generated content is Natural Language Processing (NLP). Sometimes called text analytics, data mining or computational linguistics, NLP refers to the computerized process of automatically analyzing the meaning of human language. • Pros: The automatic techniques are tireless, fast, consistent (they do not make random errors), and can be improved over time. They offer comparable results to humans in real world scenarios. • Cons: Automated sentiment technology cannot reach the quality of a human annotator.www.sti-innsbruck.at 247
  • Historical data • The user has access only to captured data about topics that he has requested to monitor. Thus, he should proactively monitor topics in order to recognize problems and new opportunities. • Access to previously captured data is required in order to compare the current metrics and reports related to the monitored topic with any previous state of it. It is necessary to understand the improvement of a strategy in the long-run and through the years.www.sti-innsbruck.at 248
  • Historical data • Exploit the historical data of your monitoring process in order to figure out the strong points of your company throughout the years and the points that hinder the further development. • Measure the impact of your various online marketing campaigns, compare them and modify them in a productive way. • Discover actionable insights based on the overall image of the enterprise and act in the appropriate way.www.sti-innsbruck.at 249
  • Dashboard • A user interface that organizes and presents information in a manner that is easy to read and use. • Quickly captures the big picture of your monitored topics or your brand. • Offers users graphical representation of the raw data in the form of charts, listings, and historical graphing of queries and phrases. • Should be customizable to the needs of the client and provide a wide range of visualization tools. • Present information about demographics, trend topics around the monitored subject and insights in an actionable way.www.sti-innsbruck.at 250
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. Why do we need the SMM? 3. Available media channels 4. Core Features of the SMM tools 5. SMM tools available in the market 6. Next Step: Response! 7. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 251
  • SMM tools available in the market Commercial Tools • Alterian SM2 • Brandwatch • Converseon • Cymfony Maestro • evolve24 Mirror • Media Metrics socialMeme • Meltwater Buzz • NM Incite My BuzzMetrics • Radian6 • Sysomos • Visible Technologies Intelligencewww.sti-innsbruck.at 252
  • SMM tools available in the market Alterian SM2 • Storyboard report Implements the Dashboard concept. A lot of effort is taken to encapsulate SM2 data into consumable, easy-to-understand results. This new Storyboard report gives users an infographics-like report that is easily exportable. • Alerting Users can set threshold-based alerts whenever overall volume or sentiment changes by specific numbers or percentages as compared to a previous time period. When an alert is initiated, the user will be emailed of the notification with the pertinent information and a quick link into SM2 with the relevant report details.www.sti-innsbruck.at 253
  • SMM tools available in the market Alterian SM2 • Historical data Extensive Social Media Warehouse with historical data containing over 20 billion social media mentions, blogs, tweets, posts, images and conversations. This data includes in-depth information for each search result, including 36 types of data ranging from the date of publication to the physical location of the content creator. • Sentiment Analysis Provides word parsing, weighting, proximity and Natural Language Processing to enable the most accurate and customizable sentiment analysis.www.sti-innsbruck.at 254
  • SMM tools available in the market Brandwatch • Gathering Data They have built a large, distributed Crawler – a program which, similarly to how Google searches the Web, goes and visit websites from all around the world. But, visits the web in near-real time! • Cleaning Data From adverts and navigation text, spam, dates (you can accurately filter your brand‘s mentions by date range, and do not see mentions dating from one year ago!), duplicates, loose query definition: most of the time, a brand‘s name is too generic to provide relevant results (think Orange or Next). To address this their query definition engine supports advanced query definition syntax, including some special fields which allow for far more accurate query setups. • Analysing Data (Sentiment analysis, query matching) • Presenting Data (Dashboard, API)www.sti-innsbruck.at 255
  • SMM tools available in the market Brandwatch • Crawler • Spam filter • Query • Mention • User database • Change matching storage Interface • Multiple detection • Sentiment • Text storage • API crawlers • Title analysis • Text index • Distributed extraction • Topic • Distributed scalable • Content extraction scalable architecture extraction architecture • Meta-datawww.sti-innsbruck.at extraction 256
  • SMM tools available in the market MediaMetrics socialMeme • Monitoring Monitoring of over 100 million online sources in 48 languages ​as well as TV and radio from a single source. TV and Radio content is transformed automatically into written content which is searched through and analyzed. • Analysis Articles are analyzed to identify mutual influences and quantify effects of opinion leaders. Influential authors, sources and stakeholders are identified. Means to measure the impact of the campaigns. • Dashboard The tool is web-based and provides an overview of the themes landscape via a user interface. You can evaluate your communication in comparison to that of your competitors.www.sti-innsbruck.at 257
  • SMM tools available in the market Radian6 • Radian6 Analysis Regarding the listening, you can choose what channels to monitor, which countries and languages you are interested in to listen to and the most important of all, what would you like to listen to and which are the hot topics for you. • Radian6 Insights Helps you to go beyond the discovery of posts to uncover true social actionable insights in real-time. • Summary Dashboard Monitor the health of your brand on the social web in one convenient, pre-configured application with the Radian6 Summary Dashboard. In one easy-to-read view, learn more about the volume, overall sentiment, key demographics, influencers and more around your brand, product or competition.www.sti-innsbruck.at 258
  • SMM tools available in the market Radian6 • Engagement Console The solution to scaling social media engagement across your organization. This desktop application helps your company listen, engage, and measure your outreach across teams and departments. • Mobile iPhone app Information today moves faster than ever before, and since the social web doesn‘t stop when you‘re away from your desk, you need to remain aware of the conversations around your brand at all times. • API and extensions additional flexibility to the social data pulled from Insights and the Engagement Console through our API and integrations with external applications • >3,000 clients – including over half of the Fortune 100 companieswww.sti-innsbruck.at 259
  • SMM tools available in the market Social Media Monitoring Market The available Social Media Monitoring tools that are available in the market have been reviewed by various organizations and marketing research laboratories. The SMMs come in different shapes and sizes in order to fulfill the requirements of potential consumers of their services. Most of the tools cover the core features that have been presented in the previous slides. Source: Forrester Research Listening platforms Q3 „10www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • SMM tools available in the market Free Tools • Addict-o-matic • Boardreader Pros: • Google Alerts • Cost-efficient alternative • HyperAlerts • Klout Cons: • Netvibes • Limited reports • Social Mention • Limited channel-coverage • Trackur • Limited functionality (e.g. workflow • Twazzup management, dashboard) • WhosTalkin • Yahoo Pipeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 261
  • SMM tools available in the market Disadvantages of free tools • Free tools are free of support service. • There is no guarantee concerning the availability of the service. • Functions are often limited to quantitative/statistical reports. • Complex analysis (e.g. automated sentiment detection) may not be available for languages other than English. • Many are point solutions considering few or only one platform (e.g. Twitter). • Services that claim to search the entire web do not reveal which sources are • really included. • To get a comprehensive overview several free services must be • combined. • Results of free tools have to be saved and archived in user-defined structures and formats. • Workflow-functionality is usually not available.www.sti-innsbruck.at 262
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. What are the Social Media Monitoring tools? 3. Why do we need the SMM tools? 4. Available media channels 5. Core Features of the SMM tools 6. SMM tools available in the market 7. Next Step: Response! 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 263
  • Social Media Monitoring Multi- Social Media Channel Monitoring Publishingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 264
  • Next Step: Response! Response! Engage! • Customers need answers to their questions and you need to defend your brand on the negative comments in the social web sphere. • By being authentic, transparent, and operating with integrity, you will successfully engage your market and a build community of advocates who will spread your message virally in your market. • The engagement concept refers to the ability of the tool to support reaction with the social media posts. Many tools today offer the integrated possibility to reply to posts and follow up to any mention, complaint or question that is needed or has some opportunities.www.sti-innsbruck.at 265
  • Next Step: Response! Example scenario • Consider the case of a hardware company that sells laptops. • A customer has an issue with his laptop and expresses his frustration via the social media. • The hardware company is able to listen to the complaint of this customer in real time as they are using a Social Media Monitoring tool to capture discussions in the social networks that are related to their brand. • The issue of the customer is forwarded to the helpdesk of the company and they contact the customer via the same medium in order to communicate their reply and answer to his problem.www.sti-innsbruck.at 266
  • Next Step: Response! Example scenario 2 • Consider the case of a hotel. • A customer faces a problem with the hygiene of his room and tweets about it. • The Social Media monitoring tool of the hotel captures that tweet. • The social media monitoring administrator would be able to easily check the most urgent issues and assign them to the responsible person with the right deadline as well as, suggest which channel to use for the response.www.sti-innsbruck.at 267
  • Next Step: Response! Prerequisite: Workflow management Workflow refers to the process of assigning, tracking and responding to social media streams, usually in a team environment in order to prevent double responses and missed opportunities. It is crucial for an enterprise tool to promote team productivity through collaboration. Main goals: • Coordinate and track who at our firm is engaged, who said what to whom, who manages what relationships, etc. • Consider how to get the right information to the right team on an ongoing basis – as volume increases ad hoc methods won‘t scale. • Classify and tag posts, adjust sentiment, and route them for follow up and engagement. • Internal exploitation of the external feedback in a productive way. The feedback is routed to the right department regarding the content.www.sti-innsbruck.at 268
  • Next Step: Response! Benefits of response and engagement • Customer satisfaction: ―Satisfaction is simply the foundation, and the minimum requirement, for a continuing relationship with customers.‖ • Word of mouth advertising / advocacy • Awareness - effectiveness of communication • Filtering: consumer rates and categorize the market • Complaint-behavior: highly engaged customers are less likely to complain to other current or potential customers • Marketing intelligence: highly engaged customers can give valuable recommendations for improving the quality of the products offeredwww.sti-innsbruck.at 269
  • Next Step: Response! Limited engagement availability in the tools  Alterian SM2  Brandwatch  Converseon  Cymfony Maestro  evolve24 Mirror  Meltwater Buzz  MediaMetrics socialMeme  NM Incite My BuzzMetrics  Radian6  Sysomos  Visible Technologies Intelligencewww.sti-innsbruck.at 270
  • Social Media Monitoring Overview 1. What is Social Media Monitoring? 2. What are the Social Media Monitoring tools? 3. Why do we need the SMM tools? 4. Available media channels 5. Core Features of the SMM tools 6. SMM tools available in the market 7. Next Step: Response! 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 271
  • Summary Summary • Establish a listening grid that will gather everything said and discussed around your brand and the topics that you are interested in Monitor • Important parameter is the near-real time gathering of data from the social media • Data mining and opinion mining at the gathered data • Sentiment analysis with using NLP in order to classify into categories the gathered Analyze conversations • Visualize the insights generated from the analysis with the dashboard tools • Communicate internally the insights to the appropriate department Results • Respond to the conversations and give the customers what they want • Take care of the customers and make them feel important Engage!www.sti-innsbruck.at 272
  • 3. COMMUNICATIONwww.sti-innsbruck.at 273
  • Communication Communication Multi- Social Channel Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 274
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 275
  • What is communication? • Communication (from the Latin commūnicātiōn- = ―share‖) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.* • Communication may mean**: – The act of transmitting – A giving or exchanging of information, signals, or messages as by talk, gestures, or writing – The information, signals, or message – Close, sympathetic relationship – A means of communicating; specif., a system for sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc. – A system as of routes for moving troops and material – A passage or way for getting from one place to another. – The art of expressing ideas, esp. in speech and writing. – The science of transmitting information, esp. in symbols. *http://dictionary.reference.com/ ** http://answers.yourdictionary.com/language/what-is-communication.htmwww.sti-innsbruck.at 276
  • What is communication? • Communication is a social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. • Types of communication: – Spoken or Verbal communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television. – Non-verbal communication: body language, gestures, voice tone. – Written communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, information written over the Internet. – Visualization communication: such as graphs, charts, maps, or logos. Image Source: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 277
  • What is communication? Directional Streams • Vertical communication: – Descendant: Communication that begins in the top management for an enterprise and flows in the way of the hierarchy base of the organization. – Ascendant vertical communication (opposing type). • Lateral or horizontal communication: – Consists of intergroup communication – Usually not dependent on standards and rules established by the formal organization * http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.ht Image Source: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 278
  • What is communication? Need for effective communication • Issue instructions and enable the business to operate (see vertical communication) • Enable people at the same level to communicate with each other (see horizontal communication) • Communicate with stakeholders and employees. • Provide essential information. • Keep stakeholders informed.www.sti-innsbruck.at 279
  • What is communication? Models of communication: • Conceptual models used to explain the human communication process • The first major model for communication was created by Shannon and Weaver (1949) to represent the functioning of radio and telephone technologies. • Initial model was composed of three primary parts: – Sender - the part of the telephone a person spoke into; – Channel – the telephone itself; – Receiver – part of the phone where one could hear the other person. • ―noise‖ component appeared as the authors recognized the presence of static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation.www.sti-innsbruck.at 280
  • What is communication? Communication process elements*: • Transmitter or communication’s message source: initiates the communication process and sends the message • Message transmission channel: enables the transmission of the message. Connects the transmitter and the receiver. • Message receptor: entity that receives and decodes the message. • Noises: obstructions in the communication process. Noise is internal (occurs during the encoding or decoding phases) or external (occurs on the transmission channel) • Feedback: the answer the receptor gives as a result of the received message. Can be transmitted by the same channel or a different one. * http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.htm Image: http://www.productphotographers.net/wp-content/uploads/images/process.jwww.sti-innsbruck.at 281
  • What is communication?Information Message Signal Received Message Transmitter Receiver Destination Source Signal Noise Source Schematic diagram of a general communication system as proposed by Shannon and Weaver (1949). www.sti-innsbruck.at 282
  • What is communication? However: • The model presented is a minimalist abstraction of the reality it attempts to reproduce. • Most communication systems are more complex. • Most information sources (and destinations) act as both sources and destinations. • Transmitters, receivers, channels, signals, and messages are layered both serially and in parallel: – There are multiple signals transmitted and received , even when they are converged into a common signal stream and a common channel.www.sti-innsbruck.at 283
  • What is communication? Moreover, • The Shannon model is not a model of communication • It is a model of the flow of information through a medium. • It is incomplete and biased • It is applicable to the system it maps (telephone or telegraph), rather than most other media. • It suggests a ―push‖ model in which sources of information can inflict it on destinations.www.sti-innsbruck.at 284
  • What is communication? In the real world of media: • Destinations are self-selecting ―consumers‖ of information who have the ability to: – select the messages they are most interested in – turn off messages that don‘t interest them – focus on one message in preference to other in message rich environments – they can choose to simply not pay attention • Messages are frequently stored for elongated periods of time and/or modified in some ways before they are accessed by the ―destination‖. • Communication is almost never unidirectional and it is often indirect.www.sti-innsbruck.at 285
  • What is communication? • Communication is bidirectional • Agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication. • Destinations provide feedback in the form of a message or a set of messages. • The source of feedback is an information source. • The consumer of feedback is a destination. Individuals are simultaneously engaging in sending and receiving of messages (Barnlund, 2008).www.sti-innsbruck.at 286
  • What is communication? • We communicate to cooperate – regardless of the channel employed. • Communication is – Multi-channel – Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself), i.e. reflexive – in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated).www.sti-innsbruck.at 287
  • What is communication? • Computer mediated communication is compared to other forms of communication media based on the following aspects: – Synchronicity – Persistence or ―recordability‖ – Anonymity – Transience – Multimodal language – Relative lack of governing codes of conduct (McQuail, 2005) • A strong dependence on the environment can be observed.www.sti-innsbruck.at 288
  • What is communication? Our approach: • We disseminate information • Deal with the aggregation of feedback and impact by: – simply going through the dissemination chain in the opposite direction – integrating them under the appropriate knowledge item We not only LISTEN TALK to responsewww.sti-innsbruck.at 289
  • What is communication? Online Communication • It is not bound by physical, temporal and social limitations. • Anonymity and privacy depends on the context of the channel used. • enables large number of audience to transmit and receive information.Image Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at 290
  • What is communication? • Communication must support: – Design of an information item; – Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels; – Observation of communication acts – Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information published • A holistic methodology for supporting communication must support the above subtasks that form a circle or spiral • These activities form a circle that we call the life cycle model of communicationImage Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at 291
  • What is communication? A Lifecycle of Communication Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminate Efficient and effective communication not only creates and disseminates information, but also deals with measurement, analysis and aggregation of feedback and impact, collecting responses in the various channels and integrating them under an appropriate knowledge item.www.sti-innsbruck.at 292
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 293
  • Integration of Publication and Monitoring To make Online Communication efficient and effective, a tool needs to Communication •Active and reactive communication • Integrate publication and monitoring (and support active and reactive communication) • Trace the communication in an easy to use manner Multi- Social Channel Media • Address the issue of multiple Publishing Monitoring channels and multiple agentswww.sti-innsbruck.at 294
  • Integration of Publication and Monitoring Address the Address the Support Trace the Active and Issue of Issue of Communication Multiple Multiple Re-active Communicati Channels Agents onwww.sti-innsbruck.at 295
  • Active vs. re-active communication Active communication If an agent starts a communication – the agent takes the role of the message sender – we talk about active communication. Communication •Active and reactive communication Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 296
  • Active vs. re-active communication • The first step in the Communication Lifecycle will be to design an information item that will be disseminated over suitable channels in the next step. • E.g. the hotelier is engaging with potential costumers by publishing a new offer on his Web site. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminatewww.sti-innsbruck.at 297
  • Active vs. re-active communication Example of ActiveCommunicationperformed by a hotelier on Facebookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 298
  • Active vs. re-active communication Customerresponse to thehotel’s messagewww.sti-innsbruck.at 299
  • Active vs. re-active communication Re-active communication Re-active communication describes communication situations initiated by an external agent – the agent takes the role of the receiver and will re-act on the received message. Communication •Active and reactive communication Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 300
  • Active vs. re-active communication • The Communication Lifecycle starts with the observation of all channels. In the next step impact, feedback and responses are measured, aggregated, and analyzed. • E.g. the hotelier sees a post on his Facebook page and responds to it. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminatewww.sti-innsbruck.at 301
  • Active vs. re-active communication Transmitter: guest at hotel Reactor: hotelierSource: http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g53449-d96753-r130438938-Hampton_Inn_Pittsburgh_Greentree-Pittsburgh_Pennsylvania.html www.sti-innsbruck.at 302
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 303
  • Trace Tracing a conversation through all channels involved is crucial for making Communication communication effective and efficient, •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication and is therefore required for • Communication has a history • The communication history IS the trace Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring • Communication must be remembered otherwise it is meaninglesswww.sti-innsbruck.at 304
  • Trace Trace can be viewed as a set of 5 elements: • Speaker – transmitter, source of the message that initiates the communication process; • Listener – receiver, the destination of the message, witch which a collaboration relation has been established; • Message – the information disseminated; • Channel – the type of channel used to transmit the information (e.g. Facebook, email, Twitter, etc.) • Time and Date – when was the message received;www.sti-innsbruck.at 305
  • Trace • Thus, trace can be viewed as Speaker and WHO Listener WHAT Message HOW Channel WHEN Time and Datewww.sti-innsbruck.at 306
  • Trace No reaction Reaction Reaction Reaction Reaction No reaction … Reaction Reaction No reaction HotelWebsite No reaction Reaction No reaction www.sti-innsbruck.at 307
  • Trace Example: • A hotel disseminates offers using the hotel website. • Five potential clients view the offers. • 2 clients (marked as green) do not react. • The red client sends an email – The hotel replies with a phone call. – The client is satisfied. The communication stagnates. • The purple client posts on Facebook a message – The hotel replies – The communication stagnates. • For the yellow client – Responds with a tweet, the hotelier replies with a private tweet; – The client posts on Tumblr, the hotelier responds; – … – A chat discussion is initiated via Skype – The customer is satisfied. Conversation stagnates. • Note – the communication with either client can be initiated again at any time.www.sti-innsbruck.at 308
  • Trace • Communication with a client can continue until the client decides to stop it (such as, unsubscribes) • The message may or may not be intended for the hotelier (e.g. a client can express his opinion on the hotel on TripAdvisor, and the hotel can reply there) • Thus a trace is a set T = {S, L, M, T, C} – S – the collection of speakers, S ≠ Ø – L – the collection of listeners, L ≠ Ø – M – the message collection , M ≠ Ø – T – the time and date, T ≠ Ø – C – the possible channels, C ≠ Ø Speaker Message Chanel Time Set Set Set Listenerwww.sti-innsbruck.at 309
  • Trace • For yellow it will be: 1: {Hotel, Client, Message1, Time1, Hotel Website} 2: {Client, Hotel, Message2, Time2, Twitter} 3: {Hotel, Client, Message3, Time3, Twitter} … N: {Client, Hotel, MessageN, TimeN, Skype} • Thus: – S = {Hotel}; – L = {Client}; – M = {Message1, Message2, Message3, …, MessageN}; – T = {Time1, Time2, Time3, …, TimeN}; – C = {Hotel Website, Twitter, Tumblr, …, Skype};www.sti-innsbruck.at 310
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 311
  • Multi-Channel Switch (Online) Communication is scattered over multiple, often very different Communication channels. •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch • Agents are challenged to disseminate information over all appropriate channels. Multi- • Activities of all channels the agent is Channel Social Media active in must be monitored. Publishing Monitoring • Impact, Feedback and Responses need to be collected from all channels.www.sti-innsbruck.at 312
  • Multi-channel Switchwww.sti-innsbruck.at 313
  • Multi-channel Switch WHY • Transmitting a message over a channel does not guarantee that the reply will be received on the same channel. • For example, a hotelier might post an offer on Facebook, and receive a response from Twitter. • Transmitters must be able to switch cannels properly and identify the channel where the response will appear. • Due to the abundance of channels, most of the times there are more than one agents transmitting and receiving messages – a workflow must be set up to ensure that all agents are aware of what is discussed and who is speaking. • To do so, the trace mentioned in the previous section must be used.www.sti-innsbruck.at 314
  • Multi-channel SwitchAbundance of Available Channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 315
  • Multi-channel Switch Disseminate • On multiple channels Listen • For a response on the channels selected Monitor and measure • The impact of the dissemination (and the customer response) React • Respond to customerswww.sti-innsbruck.at 316
  • Multi-channel Switch Hote Clien l twww.sti-innsbruck.at 317
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 318
  • Multi-Agent • Communication requires at least 2 agents: a speaker and a listener Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication • However, communication does not •Multi-channel switch occur in a void – thus the initial •Multi-agent model may never occur in real life as there may always be more than one listener or more than one agent. Multi- Social • More agents may be required when Channel Media the communication receives Publishing Monitoring responses from multiple listeners.www.sti-innsbruck.at 319
  • Multi-Agent • Moreover, due to the lack of time constraints on online conversations (they may begin at any time, and be picked up again at irregular intervals), it may be impossible for a single agent to be on call for every response. • Thus, a client may begin a conversation with one agent, and receive a response for a different one. • The trace – explained in the 3rd section, plays an important role of preparing agents and ensuring that the proper response is given.www.sti-innsbruck.at 320
  • Multi-Agent 1-to-1 • The model represented by the two agents can be coded as 1-to-1, one listener and one speaker • The two agents may communicate over a wide variety of channels • Examples of 1-to-1 communication include phone conversations, char and instant messaging, email (when the email is sent specifically to one receiver and the sender knows it will be read only by that person), etc. • The transmitter will always be active, while the respondent is reactive. Transmit message A B Transmit responsewww.sti-innsbruck.at 321
  • Multi-Agent 1-to-n • When broadcasting information, usually there is one agent who disseminates information to n possible respondents. • This model can be mapped out as 1-to-n: 1 speaker to n listeners. • Examples of such communication include news releases (a press conference for instance, involves 1 speaker and many listeners), a blog post, a Facebook post, Tweet, etc. Listener1 Speaker … ListenerNwww.sti-innsbruck.at 322
  • Multi-Agent n-to-1 • There are situations where there are more speakers and only one listener. • The n-to-1 model is not often encountered in real life. • The speakers would have to transmit messages in a turn-based manner. • One example is ascendant communication – employees reporting to employer. • In some situations, the communication is not turn-based – such as the case of a protest (more speakers trying to address a single listener) … Speaker1 SpeakerN Listenerwww.sti-innsbruck.at 323
  • Multi-Agent m-to-n • In real life, there usually are more speakers and more listeners. • An enterprise will use n agents to disseminate information and listen to customer reactions and responses. • Communication is not isolated, thus there will often be more than one listener.www.sti-innsbruck.at 324
  • Multi-Agent Agent1 Posts offer on Hotel Facebook Clients Client Responds on Agent2 Responds on email Client‘s wife reads the emailwww.sti-innsbruck.at 325
  • Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 3. Trace 4. Multi-Channel Switch 5. Multi-Agent 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 326
  • Summary Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-agent Multi- Social Channel Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at 327
  • Summary • Communication (from the Latin commūnicātiōn- = ―share‖) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs. • Types of communication: (1) Spoken or Verbal communication; Non-verbal communication; Written communication; and Visualization communication. • Directional streams: vertical communication (descendant and ascendant) and lateral or horizontal communication.www.sti-innsbruck.at 328
  • Summary • Shannon and Weaver (1949) communication model consists of: sender, channel, receiver, information source, and destination. • The model is incomplete: communication is bidirectional, agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication. • Communication between two actors has three steps:(1) send message; (2) hear own message; and (3) receive non-verbal response. • Communication is – Multi-channel – Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself) – Reflexive – Embedded in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated).www.sti-innsbruck.at 329
  • Summary • Computer mediated communication is compared to other forms of communication media based on the following aspects: Synchronicity; Persistence or ―recordability‖; Anonymity ; Transience; Multimodal language; and Relative lack of governing codes of conduct (McQuail, 2005) • Communication must support: – Design of an information item; – Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels; – Observation of communication acts – Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information published Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Dissemina tewww.sti-innsbruck.at 330
  • Summary • To make Online Communication efficient and effective, a tool needs to – Integrate publication and monitoring (and support active and reactive communication) – Trace the communication in an easy to use manner – Address the issue of multiple channels and multiple agents – If an agent starts a communication – the agent takes the role of the message sender – we talk about active communication. – Re-active communication describes communication situations initiated by an external agent – the agent takes the role of the receiver and will re-act on the received message. • The communication history IS the trace and Communication must be rememberedwww.sti-innsbruck.at 331
  • Summary • The trace is composed by passing through the communication channel for a n number of times (where n ≥ 1, and n is a finite number) • Thus a trace is a set T = {S, L, M, T, C} – S – the collection of speakers, S ≠ Ø – L – the collection of listeners, L ≠ Ø – M – the message collection, M ≠ Ø – T – the time and date, T ≠ Ø – C – the possible channels, C ≠ Øwww.sti-innsbruck.at 332
  • Summary • Transmitters must be able to switch cannels properly and identify the channel where the response will appear. • Due to the abundance of channels, most of the times there are more than one agents transmitting and receiving messages – a workflow must be set up to ensure that all agents are aware of what is discussed and who is speaking. • Communication requires at least 2 agents: a speaker and a listener • However, communication does not occur in a void – thus the initial model may never occur in real life as there may always be more than one listener or more than one agent. • The models are: 1-to-1, 1-to-n, n-to-1, and m-to-n.www.sti-innsbruck.at 333
  • References • Barnlund, D. C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In. C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory (2nd ed., pp47-57). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction. • Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press • S. Mulpuru, H. H. Harteveldt, and D. Roberge: Five Retail eCommerce Trends To Watch In 2011, Forrester Research Report, January 31, 2011 • McQuail, Denis. (2005). Mcquails Mass Communication Theory. 5th ed. London: SAGE Publications. • Warschauer, M. (2001). Online communication. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 207-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.www.sti-innsbruck.at 334
  • 4. ENGAGEMENTwww.sti-innsbruck.at 335
  • Engagement Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 336www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • Engagement Overview 1. Workflow management 2. Crowdsourcing 3. Communication patterns 4. Value-chain generation 5. Engagement 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 337
  • Workflow Management Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 338www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • What is Workflow management? • A workflow consists of a sequence of concatenated (connected) steps*. • Workflow management refers to the process of assigning, tracking and responding to social media streams, usually in a team environment in order to prevent double responses and missed opportunities. It is crucial for an enterprise tool to promote team productivity through collaboration. *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workflowwww.sti-innsbruck.at 339
  • Why do we need Workflow management? • Distribute customer feedback internally based on the content of the incoming/monitored discussions. • Increase the quality of the services and products by communicating the feedback to he responsible employees of the enterprise (i.e. Quality management). • Coordinate and track who at the enterprise is assigned an issue, who said what to whom, who manages what relationships, etc. • Effectively escalate very important issues to a higher support level.www.sti-innsbruck.at 340
  • Why do we need Workflow management? • Consider how to get the right information to the right team on an ongoing basis – as volume increases ad hoc methods won‘t scale. • Classify and tag posts, adjust sentiment, and route them for follow up and engagement. • Ensure all users have reviewed/closed all posts they are assigned. • Measure which issues closed faster and more efficiently in order to reuse the used strategies in the future.www.sti-innsbruck.at 341
  • Why do we need Workflow management? • Exploit the monitoring phase of an enterprise‘s strategy in the most efficient way by assigning the appropriate people to take care of the various issues that are coming through the social media monitoring diode. • Establish a collaborative environment around the reputation management of a brand and leverage the effort of each employee to a step towards the enterprise‘s public visibility and awareness.www.sti-innsbruck.at 342
  • Why do we need Workflow management? • Quality management The workflow management process supports the quality management activities as: – it is used to circulate to the appropriate persons of the enterprise the different issues that the customers realize and modify whatever is needed to improve the quality of the delivered products and services, – it provides insights about what the customer decides that quality is, and – it facilitates the overall administration of the delivered quality.www.sti-innsbruck.at 343
  • Engagement Overview 1.Workflow management 2.Crowdsourcing 3.Communication patterns 4.Value-chain generation 5.Engagement 6.Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 344
  • Crowdsourcing Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 345www.sti-innsbruck.at 345
  • What is Crowdsourcing? • Crowdsourcing represents the act of a company or institution taking a function once performed by employees and outsourcing it to an undefined (and generally large) network of people in the form of an open call. This can take the form of peer-production (when the job is performed collaboratively), but is also often undertaken by sole individuals. The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the wide network of potential laborers. (Howe, 2006)www.sti-innsbruck.at 346
  • What is Crowdsourcing? • Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. • The application of Open Source principles to fields outside of software. Howe (2008, 2009)www.sti-innsbruck.at 347
  • Advantages of Crowdsourcing • Get the work done in a cheap way: Similar to outsourcing, crowdsourcing is used to cut costs. Provides a better value for money. • Scalability: Crowdsourcing is able to scale tasks and distribute workload in a human based way and hopefully without any cost (e.g. reCaptcha) • Numerous ideas from numerous people: A large pool of participants leads to more ideas, which increases the possibility to come along an especially smart one. • Fast: It will take less time to find the right person to do the job. In fact it could be almost immediately. • Awareness: Connects businesses to their audiences and consumers.www.sti-innsbruck.at 348
  • Disadvantages of Crowdsourcing • Quality assurance: There is little guarantee that the delivered product will be of sufficient quality and efficacy. • Misuse may introduce more problems that it tries to solve: An enterprise should be sure that crowdsources tasks without and confidentiality issues. The fact that you post your task on the web for everybody to see is enough to blow any confidentiality away (e.g. R&D). • Business model integration: Getting a few jobs done via Crowdsourcing seems to be beneficial. However, trying to integrate Crowdsourcing in the existing Business model of a company looks quite tough.www.sti-innsbruck.at 349
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing Application Objective Founder Reward ↑ University CollegeOpenStreetMap Geographic content None London, 2004 Carnegie MellonReCaptcha Digitize archives None University, 2008Mechanical Turk Content analysis and Amazon, 2005 Micro-payments (< 1$)(MTurk) artificial intelligence Humangrid GmbH,clickworker Data analysis approx. €10/H 2005 Problem solving andInnoCentive Eli Lilly, 2001 $1000 – $1000000 innovation projects http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_crowdsourcing_projects www.sti-innsbruck.at 350
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing OpenStreetMap • OpenStreetMap (OSM) is an initiative to create and provide free geographic data, such as street maps, to anyone • OpenStreetMap collects and pool geographic data in order to establish a world map under the Creative Commons license. Contributions are voluntary, with no financial reward. • There are no restrictions on who can use the data. Individuals, clubs, societies, charities, academe, government, commercial companies.www.sti-innsbruck.at 351
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing ReCaptcha • ReCAPTCHA improves the process of digitizing books by sending words that cannot be read by computers to the Web in the form of CAPTCHAs* for humans to decipher. More specifically, each word that cannot be read correctly by Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is placed on an image and used as a CAPTCHA. • Each new word that cannot be read correctly by OCR is given to a user in conjunction with another word for which the answer is already known. The user is then asked to read both words. If they solve the one for which the answer is known, the system assumes their answer is correct for the new one. The system then gives the new image to a number of other people to determine, with higher confidence, whether the original answer was correct. * A CAPTCHA is a type of challenge-response test used in computing as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by a personwww.sti-innsbruck.at 352
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing Amazon Mechanical Turk • Amazon‘s Mechanical Turk is a market in which anyone can post tasks to be completed and specify prices paid for completing them. • The inspiration of the system was to have users complete simple tasks that would otherwise be extremely difficult (if not impossible) for computers to perform. • A number of businesses use Mechanical Turk to source thousands of micro-tasks that require human intelligence, for example to identify objects in images, find relevant information, or to do natural language processing. • Mechanical Turk has more than 500,000 people in its workforce. Their median wage is about $1.40 an hour.* *http://www.economist.com/node/21555876www.sti-innsbruck.at 353
  • Crowdsourcing Amazon Mechanical Turk Jeff Bezos, the chief executive of Amazon.com, has created Amazon Mechanical Turk, an online service involving human workersThe Turk, also known as the Mechanical Turk or Automaton Chess Player* *http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Turkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 354
  • Examples of Crowdsourcingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 355
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing Clickworker • Clickworker uses a standard web browser to complete tasks on a piece rate basis. Most of these tasks are part of a larger, more complex, project. Task coordination and oversight is conducted utilizing the technology of clickworker.com, which provides the Internet-based workflow system. • Project examples include the processing of unstructured data, such as text, photographs, and videos. • Clickworker can create, categorize, append, capture, and translate. • The platform has more than 210K clickworkers, which are the independent contractors on the platform. • Using special quality assurance procedures such as statistical process testing, audits and peer review and constantly evaluating all output, they ensure top level results.www.sti-innsbruck.at 356
  • Examples of Crowdsourcingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 357
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing InnoCentive • Leading commercial, government, and nonprofit organizations such as Eli Lilly, Life Technologies, NASA, nature.com, Popular Science, Procter & Gamble, Roche, Rockefeller Foundation, and The Economist partner with InnoCentive to solve problems and innovate faster and more cost effectively than ever before. • Total Registered Solvers: More than 250,000 from nearly 200 countries • Total Solver Reach: 12+ million through our strategic partners • Total Solution Submissions: 27,000+ • Total Awards Given: 1,000+ • Total Award Dollars Posted: $34+ million • Range of awards: $5,000 to $1 million based on the complexity of the problem Statistics: http://www.crowdsourcing.org/site/innocentive/wwwinnocentivecom/1478www.sti-innsbruck.at 358
  • Examples of Crowdsourcing • InnoCentive does not address potential users but experts • It aims to solve complex tasks and problems that need expertise and innovative approaches. • The InnoCentive platform connects individual innovators (solvers) with applicants (seekers) that are generally companies.www.sti-innsbruck.at 359
  • Engagement Overview 1. Workflow management 2. Crowdsourcing 3. Communication patterns 4. Value-chain generation 5. Engagement 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 360
  • Communication patterns Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 361www.sti-innsbruck.at 361
  • Communication patterns In software engineering, a design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. A design pattern is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. So patterns are formalized best practices that you must implement yourself in your application. Based on this definition of Software design patterns we introduce at this point the idea of the communication patterns. Software Communication Design Patterns Patternswww.sti-innsbruck.at 362
  • Communication patterns • The communication patterns could be a way to facilitate the response phase of an enterprise. • A rich set of communication paradigms that address different types of issues by describing workflows of interaction with customers or potential customers. • It should be a dynamic set of patterns in the sense that it is being extended and altered continuously according to the needs of the customers and the nature of the issues that are arising.www.sti-innsbruck.at 363
  • Communication patterns • There should be an hierarchy among the patterns in order to use the most appropriate one and a mechanism to escalate an issue. • The enterprise should be able to realize the effectiveness of each pattern towards specific types of issues and respectively drop the pattern or give it a better position in the hierarchy. • The communication patterns could be analyzed on a 5-dimensional system as the one that is presented in the following slide.www.sti-innsbruck.at 364
  • Communication patternswww.sti-innsbruck.at 365
  • The Who dimension • For any feedback item that is available, someone in the enterprise should be responsible to interact with the customer or the user that gave that feedback or disseminated something related to the brand, products and services of the enterprise. • It is crucial for the enterprise to respond via the appropriate employee to the user. To achieve this the enterprise should have a decent mechanism that could figure out in a semi-automatic way they needs of the user by relying on the content of user‘s feedback.www.sti-innsbruck.at 366
  • The What dimension • The What dimension mostly refers to the process of content adaptation. Content adaptation is the action of transforming content to adapt to the needs of the user. Thus, the responsible person (who is specified from the Who dimension) should be able to adapt the existing content, which is available and related to the user‘s issue. • Furthermore, there are cases that the response should be different than a reply to the user. Various actions should be taken in order to support and help the user.www.sti-innsbruck.at 367
  • The What dimension Example scenario “Hotel” • A customer faces a problem with the hygiene of his room and tweets about that. • The listening procedures of the hotel capture that tweet and the administrator assigns the issue to the responsible person, who is dealing with the customer services. • The responsible employee contacts the customer at his room and asks him if is everything as it should be and in case there is any problem, they could fix it immediately. An alternative could be to contact the customer and propose him an inspection and a second cleaning session within the next minutes/hours to fix the issue that was publicly disseminated.www.sti-innsbruck.at 368
  • The Where dimension • The response of the enterprise to the content of the user, which was spread in the web sphere should be done not only via the appropriate person that could adapt the content in the right way, but it should be realized through the correct medium. • That could be the medium that was used by the user or any other way, which is considered to be more appropriate. • Moreover, there is the possibility to switch between the available mediums (social networks, phone, email, etc.)www.sti-innsbruck.at 369
  • The When dimension • This parameter reflects the appropriate response time of the enterprise in the bi- directional communication with the user. • The enterprise should be ready enough in order to respond and support the users within the most efficient time span, which depends on the type of the input. • An hierarchy model is needed in order to sort the open issues according to the importance of the discussion for the enterprise. This depends on: – Popularity of the user in the action field of the enterprise – The importance of the issue – Existing data regarding the issue and the userwww.sti-innsbruck.at 370
  • The Why dimension • The enterprise should have a set of criteria that could help them decide if a post in the web sphere should be taken in consideration and should be replied or not. • There are some types of posts that the enterprise does not gain any added value by responding. Some of the criteria could be: – Is that person an influencer and active in the area of the enterprise? – Does the post need a reply? (e.g. if it is an online discussion between 2 people, it would be annoying to pop-up in the discussion with the official account of the enterprise.) – Is there any decent answer to the problem or by jumping into the discussion it would be uncomfortable for the enterprise?www.sti-innsbruck.at 371
  • Engagement Overview 1. Workflow management 2. Crowdsourcing 3. Communication patterns 4. Value-chain generation 5. Engagement 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 372
  • Value-Chain generation Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 373www.sti-innsbruck.at 373
  • Value-Chain generation ―A value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry. The business unit is the appropriate level for construction of a value chain, not the divisional level or corporate level. Products pass through all activities of the chain in order, and at each activity the product gains some value. The chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of the independent activities values.‖ Wikipediawww.sti-innsbruck.at 374
  • Value-Chain generation • The value chain generation lays on top of the other layers (i.e. workflow management, crowdsourcing and communication patterns) and reflects the aim of the enterprise to monetize their activities through these layers. • The ultimate target for keeping the customers happy and engaged to the brand is to increase the revenue. Thus, it is important to have a layer on top of the communication that transforms long-term relationships into economic transactions and new opportunities for the enterprise. • For example, for a hotelier this layer could be the book-ability of his services.www.sti-innsbruck.at 375
  • Engagement Overview 1. Workflow management 2. Crowdsourcing 3. Communication patterns 4. Value-chain generation 5. Engagement 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 376
  • Engagement Semantics Engagement: •Value-chain generation •Communication Patterns •Crowdsourcing •Workflow Management Semantics Semantics Communication •Active and reactive communication •Tracing the communication •Multi-channel switch •Multi-Agent Multi- Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring 377www.sti-innsbruck.at 377
  • Engagement • Though the previous sections (1,2,3), it has been extensively discussed the way the online communication has changed and how do people create and disseminate content. • Web 2.0 has radically changed our communication possibilities. • Discussion forums or blogs are spaces where people can communicate and socialize in ways that cannot be replicated by any other offline interactive medium. • The rise of user generated content can take advocacy to another level. • Considerable bargaining power has been shifted from the supplier to the consumer. • Fragmentation and specialization of media and audiences, and the proliferation of community – and user generated content, business are increasingly losing the power to dictate the communications agenda.www.sti-innsbruck.at 378
  • Engagement • Engagement is very much a personal thing, and that means personal to the enterprise, too. • Making sense of online engagement needs to include discussions around employee engagement policies and guidelines, the establishing of process around engagement that make it scalable throughout the enterprise, and, most importantly, and the framing up of what engagement actually means in the context of the enterprise‘s business. • The enterprise should treat each single customer in the appropriate way, which is specified implicitly by the customer.www.sti-innsbruck.at 379
  • Engagement Engagement process = Infinite loop between the listening and responding steps, interweaving publishing and listening Listen  Analyze  Understand  Respondwww.sti-innsbruck.at 380
  • Engagement • The Listen and Analyze steps are covered by the tools that was presented thoroughly in the 2nd section, ―Social Media Monitoring‖. • The rest of the steps are addressed by the layers: ―Workflow management‖, ―Crowdsourcing‖, ―Communication patterns‖ and ―Value-chain generation‖. – Workflow management: Gives the ability to the enterprise to trace and distribute the feedback internally to the responsible persons. – Crowdsourcing: Enables the enterprise to complete tasks that need the human intelligence and do not scale easily. – Communication patterns: Provides a reusable set of communication templates that can be used during the response phase. – Value-chain generation: Reflects the aim of the engagement, which is the increase of the economic transactions (e.g. in the tourism sector, the bookings)www.sti-innsbruck.at 381
  • Engagement A possible stack of Engagement stages* could be the followingStage DescriptionNew Content Not reviewed Default when an on topic post is foundReviewed, Determining Best Response Qualified post, assigned to appropriate employee for possible responseRecommend Follow up To be managed by assigneeCommented, Awaiting Reply To be managed by assigneeCommented Closed To be managed by assigneeReferred To be managed by assigneeResolved, no further action required To be managed by assigneeReviewed, Closed, no response needed To be managed by assignee *Radian6 – Engagement playbookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 382
  • Engagement Benefits of Engagement • Lower switching costs, the geographical widening of the market and the vast choice of content, services and products online have weakened customer loyalty. Engagement addresses this problem. • Customer satisfaction: Satisfaction is simply the foundation, and the minimum requirement, for a continuing relationship with customers. • Word of mouth advertising / advocacy • Awareness - effectiveness of communication • Filtering: Consumer rates and categorize the market • Marketing intelligence: Highly engaged customers can give valuable recommendations for improving the quality of the products offeredwww.sti-innsbruck.at 383
  • Engagement Overview 1. Workflow management 2. Crowdsourcing 3. Communication patterns 4. Value-chain generation 5. Engagement 6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 384
  • Summary In the new era of Engagement between enterprises and customers: • The enterprise should incorporate social channels into the customer communications. • The strategies to be considered should be multichannel (combining social and traditional) and appropriate to the channels that the customers want to communicate in. • It is clear that the CRM and the Social CRM solutions should be integrated with the communication (i.e. listening and response) platform of the enterprise in order to put the customer at the focal point.www.sti-innsbruck.at 385
  • Summary In the new era of Engagement between enterprises and customers: • The effective communication with the customers establishes long-term relationships with them and turns customers into advocates. • The power of the ―word-of-mouth‖ has become important as much as it used to be in the small town ecosystems of the past. • Enterprises invest their resources in the communication with the customers in order to make them feel important and engage them to the products and services they offer.www.sti-innsbruck.at 386
  • 5. SEMANTIC ENGAGEMENTwww.sti-innsbruck.at 387
  • Semantic Engagementwww.sti-innsbruck.at 388
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 389
  • Semantic Analysis What a computer understands from Tweets: bla bla bla... bla... bla bla...www.sti-innsbruck.at 390
  • Semantic Analysis What is Semantic Analysis? • Discovering what we did not know – Deriving new information from data • Extract Relationships between known entities previously unknown – The ‗extracting ore from rock‘ paradigmwww.sti-innsbruck.at 391
  • Semantic Analysis Example: • Somewhere in the Web the text fragment ―Dieter is married to Anna‖ occurs (extracted statement) • Named Entity Recognition tells us that Dieter is a (German) male given name, and Anna is a female given name (enriched with background knowledge) • We can infer that Dieter and Anna are persons and – Dieter is male – Anna is female (derive new facts)www.sti-innsbruck.at 392
  • Semantic as a channel Not to be interpreted by humans, but machines can make something out of it:www.sti-innsbruck.at 393
  • Semantic as a channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 394
  • Semantic as a channel • Publishing Linked Data (data represented in accordance to the Semantic Web paradigms) can take various forms: – serialized graph (e.g. a RDF-XML file) – hidden in markup of the text – access through open graph databases (triple stores) • Publishing Linked Data also involves publishing the used format: – There is a huge amount of different formats – Formats are often used in combination with anotherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 395
  • Semantic Content Modelling Separate format and potential channel.www.sti-innsbruck.at 396
  • Semantic Content Modelling • A Ontology is a – ―formal, – explicit specification – of a shared conceptualisation‖ • (... of a domain) [Gruber, 1993]www.sti-innsbruck.at 397
  • Semantic Content Modelling Branch specific conceptsDistribute content Collect feedback Weaver + statistics Web/Blog Social Web Web 3.0/Mobile/Otherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 398
  • Semantic Match Making Branch specific conceptsDistribute content Collect feedback Matcher + statistics Web/Blog Social Web Web 3.0/Mobile/Otherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 399
  • Semantic Match Making • The number of digital publishing channels has heavily increased in the past decade • Content production has risen tremendously in the past century • Everybody has to put a lot of content into a lot of channels • Manual efforts begin to be futile • Automatic review and adjustment of content and dissemination to channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 400
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 401
  • Semantic Text-Analysis History • Traditional (Rationalist) Natural Language Processing: Main insight: Using rule-based representations of knowledge and grammar (hand- coded) for language study Text Knowledge NLP Base System Analysiswww.sti-innsbruck.at 402
  • Semantic Text-Analysis History • Empirical Natural Language Processing Main insight: Using distributional environment of a word as a tool for language study Text Corpus Knowledge NLP Base System Analysis Learning Systemwww.sti-innsbruck.at 403
  • Semantic Text-Analysis History • Two approaches not incompatible. Several systems use both. • Many empirical systems make use of manually created domain knowledge. • Many empirical systems use representations of rationalist methods replacing hand- coded rules with rules acquired from data.www.sti-innsbruck.at 404
  • Semantic Text-Analysis The essence of semantic text analysis • Make use of knowledge of language (exploiting syntax and structure, different extents) • Use some fundamental text analysis operations • Deal with language understanding challenges • Use of a core subset of theoretical models and algorithmswww.sti-innsbruck.at 405
  • Information Extraction Seven typical tasks: • Topic detection • Named entity recognition • Sentiment detection • Opinion mining • Semantic Ranking • Social annotation • Text summarizationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 406
  • Topic Detection • A topic is a seminal event or activity, along with all directly related events and activities. • A meta-definition of topic is required; independent of topic specifics. • Sources for topics: Open Directory Project (dmoz), Wikipedia,...www.sti-innsbruck.at 407
  • Topic Detection Topics: US elections, campaign, michelle obama, donationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 408
  • Named Entitiy Recognition (NER) • NER involves identification of proper names in texts, and classification into a set of predefined categories of interest. • Three universally accepted categories: person, location and organisation • Often also: measures (percent, money, weight etc), email addresses, recognition of date/time expressions etc. • Domain-specific entities: names of hotels, medical conditions, names of ships, bibliographic references etc.www.sti-innsbruck.at 409
  • Named Entitiy Recognition (NER)www.sti-innsbruck.at 410
  • Sentiment Detection • A sentiment is a thought, view, or attitude, especially one based mainly on emotion rather than reason • Must consider features such as: – Subtlety of sentiment expression e.g. irony – Domain/context dependence – Effect of syntax on semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 411
  • Sentiment Detectionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 412
  • Opinion Mining • Extraction of opinions and their meaning from text. • Very difficult and not yet solved task. • Example: 1. This is a great hotel. 2. A great amount of money was spent for promoting this hotel. 3. One might think this is a great hotel.www.sti-innsbruck.at 413
  • Opinion MiningOpinionBarack Obama:„We don‗t have enough money, yet―www.sti-innsbruck.at 414
  • Semanitc Ranking • Posts, Tweets, articles etc. include a meaning. • Semantic ranking is defined as ranking according to meaning. • This helps to filter out important content in accordance to user defined constraints.www.sti-innsbruck.at 415
  • Semanitc Rankingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 416
  • Social Annotation • Developed for web users to organize and share their favorite web pages online by social annotations • Emergent useful information that has been explored for folksonomy, visualization, semantic web, etc • : delicious, bibsonomy, last.fm, ...www.sti-innsbruck.at 417
  • Social AnnotationBarack Obama AmericaCampaign www.sti-innsbruck.at 418
  • Text Summarization • Take larger selections of text and reduce them to their essentials • Summarizing is finding the main idea of a text. • Summarizing is also finding the supporting details of the main idea. • In other words, summarizing is retelling only the important parts of the story in other words.www.sti-innsbruck.at 419
  • Text Summarization  Obama 2012 raised $43.6 million in April 2012.www.sti-innsbruck.at 420
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 421
  • Example: The Use of Semantic Channels • Google‗s rich snippets:www.sti-innsbruck.at 422
  • Example: The Use of Semantic Channels • SPARQL query [1]: SELECT ?tourismname ?tourism ?tourismgeo FROM <http://linkedgeodata.org> WHERE { ?tourism a lgdo:Tourism . ?tourism geo:geometry ?tourismgeo . ?tourism rdfs:label ?tourismname . Filter(bif:st_intersects (?tourismgeo, bif:st_point (11.404102,47.269212), 1)) . } [1] Prefixes are omitted for reasons of simplicitywww.sti-innsbruck.at 423
  • Published Data Setswww.sti-innsbruck.at 424
  • Evolution of the Web: Web of Data Web of Data Semantic Web Picture from [4] ? Semantic Web Annotations Hypermedia Hypertext ―As We May Think‖, 1945 Picture from [3]www.sti-innsbruck.at 425
  • Motivation: From a Web of Documents to a Web of Data • Web of Documents • Fundamental elements: 1. Names (URIs) 2. Documents (Resources) described by HTML, XML, etc. 3. Interactions via HTTP 4. (Hyper)Links between documents or anchors in these documents Hyperlinks • Shortcomings: – Untyped links – Web search engines fail on complex queries ―Documents‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 426
  • Motivation: From a Web of Documents to a Web of Data • Web of Documents • Web of Data Typed Links Hyperlinks ―Documents‖ ―Things‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 427
  • Motivation: From a Web of Documents to a Web of Data • Characteristics: • Web of Data – Links between arbitrary things (e.g., persons, locations, events, buildings) Typed Links – Structure of data on Web pages is made explicit – Things described on Web pages are named and get URIs – Links between things are made explicit and are typed ―Things‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 428
  • Vision of the Web of Data • The Web today • The Web of Data is envisioned as – Consists of data silos which can be a global database accessed via specialized search egines in an isoltated fashion. – consisting of objects and their descriptions – One site (data silo) has movies, the other reviews, again another actors. – in which objects are linked with each – Many common things are represented other in multiple data sets – with a high degree of object structure – Linking identifiers link these data sets – with explicit semantics for links and content – which is designed for humans and machines Content on this slide by Chris Bizer, Tom Heath and Tim Berners-Leewww.sti-innsbruck.at 429
  • The three dimensions Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. foafwww.sti-innsbruck.at 430
  • The three dimensions • A (Semantic Web) vocabulary can be considered as a special form of (usually light- weight) ontology, or sometimes also merely as a collection of URIs with an (usually informally) described meaning*. URI = uniform resource identifier Semantic vocabularies include: FOAF, Dublin Core, Good Relations, etc. • Format is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. The most known examples are RDF and OWL. • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. OWLIM - a family of semantic repositories, or RDF database management system * http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Ontologywww.sti-innsbruck.at 431
  • Languages • RDF • RDFahttp://www.w3.org/RDF/ http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/ • OWL • RDFS http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/http://www.w3.org/TR/owl-ref/ • SPARQL • OWL2http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-sparql-query/ http://www.w3.org/TR/owl2-overview/ • Microdata • RIF http://www.w3.org/TR/2010/REC-rif-bld-20100622/http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/WD-microdata-20110525/ • Microformatshttp://microformats.org/ www.sti-innsbruck.at 432
  • RDF Basics • RDF is a language that enable to describe making statements on resources – John is father of Bill • Statement (or triple) as a logical formula P(x, y), where the binary predicate P relates the object x to the object y • Triple data model: <subject, predicate, object> – Subject: Resource or blank node – Predicate: Property – Object: Resource (or collection of resources), literal or blank node • Example: <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill> • RDF offers only binary predicates (properties)www.sti-innsbruck.at 433
  • Resources • A resource may be: – Web page (e.g. http://www.w3.org) – A person (e.g. http://www.fensel.com) – A book (e.g. urn:isbn:0-345-33971-1) – Anything denoted with a URI! • A URI is an identifier and not a location on the Web • RDF allows making statements about resources: – http://www.w3.org has the format text/html – http://www.fensel.com has first name Dieter – urn:isbn:0-345-33971-1 has author Tolkienwww.sti-innsbruck.at 434
  • URI, URN, URL • A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters used to identify a name or a resource on the Internet • A URI can be a URL or a URN • A Uniform Resource Name (URN) defines an items identity – the URN urn:isbn:0-395-36341-1 is a URI that specifies the identifier system, i.e. International Standard Book Number (ISBN), as well as the unique reference within that system and allows one to talk about a book, but doesnt suggest where and how to obtain an actual copy of it • A Uniform Resource Locator (URL) provides a method for finding it – the URL http://www.sti-innsbruck.at/ identifies a resource (STIs home page) and implies that a representation of that resource (such as the home pages current HTML code, as encoded characters) is obtainable via HTTP from a network host named www.sti-innsbruck.atwww.sti-innsbruck.at 435
  • RDF-XML • RDF-XML serialization of a university canteen (note the different vocabularies):<rdf:Description rdf:about="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#Location"/> <gr:name>Musik Penzing</gr:name> <foaf:page rdf:resource="http://menu.mensen.at/index/index/locid/8"/> <vcard:adr rdf:resource="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/adr"/> <vcard:tel rdf:resource="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/tel"/> <vcard:geo rdf:resource="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/geo"/></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/adr"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Work"/> <vcard:street-address>Penzinger Straße 7</vcard:street-address> <vcard:postal-code>1140</vcard:postal-code> <vcard:locality> Wien</vcard:locality> <vcard:country>Austria</vcard:country></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/tel"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#Work"/> <rdf:value>+43 1 89 42 146</rdf:value></rdf:Description><rdf:Description rdf:about="http://lom.sti2.at/mensen/8/geo"> <vcard:latitude rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#double">48.1897501</vcard:latitude> <vcard:longitude rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#double">16.3134461</vcard:longitude></rdf:Description>www.sti-innsbruck.at 436
  • RDFS Vocabulary • RDFS Extends the RDF Vocabulary • RDFS vocabulary is defined in the namespace: http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# RDFS Classes RDFS Properties – rdfs:Resource – rdfs:domain – rdfs:Class – rdfs:range – rdfs:Literal – rdfs:subPropertyOf – rdfs:Datatype – rdfs:subClassOf – rdfs:Container – rdfs:member – rdfs:ContainerMembershipProperty – rdfs:seeAlso – rdfs:isDefinedBy – rdfs:comment – rdfs:labelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 437
  • RDFS Principles • Resource – All resources are implicitly instances of rdfs:Resource • Class – Describe sets of resources – Classes are resources themselves - e.g. Webpages, people, document types • Class hierarchy can be defined through rdfs:subClassOf • Every class is a member of rdfs:Class • Property – Subset of RDFS Resources that are properties • Domain: class associated with property: rdfs:domain • Range: type of the property values: rdfs:range • Property hierarchy defined through: rdfs:subPropertyOfwww.sti-innsbruck.at 438
  • RDFS Example ex:Faculty- Staffwww.sti-innsbruck.at 439
  • OWL • Web Ontology Language (OWL) • Used to define complex semantic relations • Defines formal semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 440
  • Design Goals for OWL • Shareable – Ontologies should be publicly available and different data sources should be able to commit to the same ontology for shared meaning. Also, ontologies should be able to extend other ontologies in order to provide additional definitions. • Changing over time – An ontology may change during its lifetime. A data source should specify the version of an ontology to which it commits. • Interoperability – Different ontologies may model the same concepts in different ways. The language should provide primitives for relating different representations, thus allowing data to be converted to different ontologies and enabling a "web of ontologies."www.sti-innsbruck.at 441
  • Design Goals for OWL • Inconsistency detection – Different ontologies or data sources may be contradictory. It should be possible to detect these inconsistencies. • Balancing expressivity and complexity – The language should be able to express a wide variety of knowledge, but should also provide for efficient means to reason with it. Since these two requirements are typically at odds, the goal of the web ontology language is to find a balance that supports the ability to express the most important kinds of knowledge. • Ease of use – The language should provide a low learning barrier and have clear concepts and meaning. The concepts should be independent from syntax.www.sti-innsbruck.at 442
  • Design Goals for OWL • Compatible with existing standards – The language should be compatible with other commonly used Web and industry standards. In particular, this includes XML and related standards (such as XML Schema and RDF), and possibly other modeling standards such as UML. • Internationalization – The language should support the development of multilingual ontologies, and potentially provide different views of ontologies that are appropriate for different cultures.www.sti-innsbruck.at 443
  • Experience with OWL • OWL playing key role in increasing number & range of applications – eScience, eCommerce, geography, engineering, defence, … – E.g., OWL tools used to identify and repair errors in a medical ontology: ―would have led to missed test results if not corrected‖ • Experience of OWL in use has identified restrictions: – on expressivity – on scalability • These restrictions are problematic in some applications • Research has now shown how some restrictions can be overcome • W3C OWL WG has updated OWL accordingly – Result is called OWL 2 • OWL 2 is now a Proposed Recommendationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 444
  • OWL 2 in a Nutshell • Extends OWL with a small but useful set of features – That are needed in applications – For which semantics and reasoning techniques are well understood – That tool builders are willing and able to support • Adds profiles – Language subsets with useful computational properties (EL, RL, QL) • Is fully backwards compatible with OWL: – Every OWL ontology is a valid OWL 2 ontology – Every OWL 2 ontology not using new features is a valid OWL ontology • Already supported by popular OWL tools & infrastructure: – Protégé, HermiT, Pellet, FaCT++, OWL APIwww.sti-innsbruck.at 445
  • Increased expressive power • Qualified cardinality restrictions – e.g., persons having two friends who are republicans • Property chains – e.g., the brother of your parent is your uncle • Local reflexivity restrictions – e.g., narcissists love themselves • Reflexive, irreflexive, and asymmetric properties – e.g., nothing can be a proper part of itself (irreflexive) • Disjoint properties – e.g., you can‘t be both the parent of and child of the same person • Keys – e.g., country + license plate constitute a unique identifier for vehicleswww.sti-innsbruck.at 446
  • Rule Interchanged Format (RIF) • RIF is a set of dialects to enable rule exchange among different rule systems Rule system 1 semantics preserving mapping RIF dialect X semantics preserving mapping Rule system 2www.sti-innsbruck.at 447
  • Rule Interchanged Format (RIF) Goals: • Exchange of Rules – The primary goal of RIF is to facilitate the exchange of rules • Consistency with W3C specifications – A W3C specification that builds on and develops the existing range of specifications that have been developed by the W3C – Existing W3C technologies should fit well with RIF • scale Adoption – Rules interchange becomes more effective the wider is their adoption ("network effect―)www.sti-innsbruck.at 448
  • Rule Interchanged Format (RIF) Requirements • Compliance model – Clear conformance criteria, defining what is or is not a conformant to RIF • Different semantics – RIF must cover rule languages having different semantics • Limited number of dialects – RIF must have a standard core and a limited number of standard dialects based upon that core • OWL data – RIF must cover OWL knowledge bases as data where compatible with RIF semantics [http://www.w3.org/TR/rif-ucr/]www.sti-innsbruck.at 449
  • Rule Interchanged Format (RIF)Requirements • RDF data – RIF must cover RDF triples as data where compatible with RIF semantics • Dialect identification – The semantics of a RIF document must be uniquely determined by the content of the document, without out-of-band data • XML syntax – RIF must have an XML syntax as its primary normative syntax • Merge rule sets – RIF must support the ability to merge rule sets • Identify rule sets – RIF must support the identification of rule sets [http://www.w3.org/TR/rif-ucr/]www.sti-innsbruck.at 450
  • Rule Interchanged Format (RIF) Basic Principle: a Modular Architecture • RIF wants to cover: rules in logic dialects and rules used by production rule systems (e.g. active databases) • Logic rules only add knowledge • Production rules change the facts! • Logic rules + Production Rules? – Define a logic-based core and a separate production-rule core – If there is an intersection, define the common corewww.sti-innsbruck.at 451
  • SPARQL • RESTful interface:http://rdf.sti2.at:8080/openrdf-sesame/repositories/lom4?query%3Dselect%20*%20where%20%7B%3Fs%20%3Fp%20%3Fo%7D • SPARQL protocol and RDF query language (recursive acronym) PREFIX vcard:<http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns#> PREFIX xsd:<http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> PREFIX gr:<http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> PREFIX rdf:<http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> PREFIX rdfs:<http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> PREFIX foaf:<http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> select ?lat where { ?s rdf:type gr:Location. ?s vcard:geo ?loc. ?loc vcard:latitude ?lat. FILTER(?lat > 48) } www.sti-innsbruck.at 452
  • SPARQL Queries PREFIX uni: <http://example.org/uni/> SELECT ?name FROM <http://example.org/personal> WHERE { ?s uni:name ?name. ?s rdf:type uni:lecturer } • PREFIX – Prefix mechanism for abbreviating URIs • SELECT – Identifies the variables to be returned in the query answer – SELECT DISTINCT – SELECT REDUCED • FROM – Name of the graph to be queried – FROM NAMED • WHERE – Query pattern as a list of triple patterns • LIMIT • OFFSET • ORDER BYwww.sti-innsbruck.at 453
  • SPARQL Query keywords • PREFIX: based on namespaces • DISTINCT: The DISTINCT solution modifier eliminates duplicate solutions. Specifically, each solution that binds the same variables to the same RDF terms as another solution is eliminated from the solution set. • REDUCED: While the DISTINCT modifier ensures that duplicate solutions are eliminated from the solution set, REDUCED simply permits them to be eliminated. The cardinality of any set of variable bindings in an REDUCED solution set is at least one and not more than the cardinality of the solution set with no DISTINCT or REDUCED modifier. • LIMIT: The LIMIT clause puts an upper bound on the number of solutions returned. If the number of actual solutions is greater than the limit, then at most the limit number of solutions will be returned.www.sti-innsbruck.at 454
  • SPARQL Query keywords • OFFSET: OFFSET causes the solutions generated to start after the specified number of solutions. An OFFSET of zero has no effect. • ORDER BY: The ORDER BY clause establishes the order of a solution sequence. • Following the ORDER BY clause is a sequence of order comparators, composed of an expression and an optional order modifier (either ASC() or DESC()). Each ordering comparator is either ascending (indicated by the ASC() modifier or by no modifier) or descending (indicated by the DESC() modifier).www.sti-innsbruck.at 455
  • Microdata • Search engines, web crawlers, and browsers can extract and process Microdata from a web page and use it to provide a richer browsing experience for users. • Microdata uses a supporting vocabulary to describe an item and name- value pairs to assign values to its properties • Microdata helps technologies such as search engines and web crawlers better understand what information is contained in a web page, providing better search results. Two important vocabularies: http://www.data-vocabulary.org/ http://schema.org/www.sti-innsbruck.at 456
  • Microdata Microdata Global Attributes • itemscope – Creates the Item and indicates that descendants of this element contain information about it. • itemtype – A valid URL of a vocabulary that describes the item and its properties context. • itemid – Indicates a unique identifier of the item. • itemprop – Indicates that its containing tag holds the value of the specified item property. The properties name and value context are described by the items vocabulary. Properties values usually consist of string values, but can also use URLs using the a element and its href attribute, the img element and its src attribute, or other elements that link to or embed external resources. • itemref – Properties that are not descendants of the element with the itemscope attribute can be associated with the item using this attribute. Provides a list of element itemids with additional properties elsewhere in the document.www.sti-innsbruck.at 457
  • Microdata Example: Microdata in use<div> My name is Bob Smith but people call me Smithy. Here is my home page: <a href="http://www.example.com">www.example.com</a> I live in Albuquerque, NM and work as an engineer at ACME Corp.</div> Enriched with microdata:<div itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Person"> My name is <span itemprop="name">Bob Smith</span> but people call me <span itemprop="nickname">Smithy</span>. Here is my home page: <a href="http://www.example.com" itemprop="url">www.example.com</a> I live in Albuquerque, NM and work as an <span itemprop="title">engineer</span> at <span itemprop="affiliation">ACME Corp</span>.</div> Source: http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=176035 www.sti-innsbruck.at 458
  • Microformats What are Microformats? • An approach to add meaning to HTML elements and to make data structures in HTML pages explicit. • ―Designed for humans first and machines second, microformats are a set of simple, open data formats built upon existing and widely adopted standards. Instead of throwing away what works today, microformats intend to solve simpler problems first by adapting to current behaviours and usage patterns (e.g. XHTML, blogging).‖ [6]www.sti-innsbruck.at 459
  • Microformats What are Microformats? • Are highly correlated with semantic (X)HTML / ―Real world semantics‖ / ―Lowercase Semantic Web‖ [9]. • Real world semantics (or the Lowercase Semantic Web) is based on three notions: – Adding of simple semantics with microformats (small pieces) – Adding semantics to the today‘s Web instead of creating a new one (evolutionary not revolutionary) – Design for humans first and machines second (user centric design) • A way to combine human with machine-readable information. • Provide means to embed structured data in HTML pages. • Build upon existing standards. • Solve a single, specific problem (e.g. representation of geographical information, calendaring information, etc.). • Provide an ―API‖ for your website. • Build on existing (X)HTML and reuse existing elements. • Work in current browsers. • Follow the DRY principle (―Don‘t Repeat Yourself‖). • Compatible with the idea of the Web as a single information space.www.sti-innsbruck.at 460
  • Microformats Microformats Illustratedwww.sti-innsbruck.at 461
  • Microformats Example: Microformats in use<div> <img src="www.example.com/bobsmith.jpg" /> <strong>Bob Smith</strong> Senior editor at ACME Reviews 200 Main St Desertville, AZ 12345</div> Enriched with microformat: <div class="vcard―><img class="photo" src="www.example.com/bobsmith.jpg" /> <strong class="fn">Bob Smith</strong> <span class="title">Senior editor</span> at <span class="org"> ACME Reviews</span><span class="adr"> <span class="street-address">200 Main St</span> <span class="locality">Desertville</span>, <span class="region">AZ</span> <span class="postal-code">12345</span> </span></div> Source: http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=146897 462 www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • RDFa • RDFa is a W3C recommendation. • RDFa is a serialization syntax for embedding an RDF graph into XHTML. • Goals: Bringing the Web of Documents and the Web of Data closer together. • Overcomes some of the drawbacks of microformats • Both for human and machine consumption. • Follows the DRY (―Don‘t Repeat Yourself‖) – principles. • RDFa is domain-independent. In contrast to the domain-dedicated microformats, RDFa can be used for custom data and multiple schemas. • Benefits inherited from RDF: Independence, modularity, evolvability, and reusability. • Easy to transform RDFa into RDF data. • Tools for RDFa publishing and consumption exist.www.sti-innsbruck.at 463
  • RDFa Syntax: How to use RDFa in XHTML • Relevant XHTML attributes: @rel, @rev, @content, @href, and @src (examples and explanations on the following slides) • New RDFa-specific attributes: @about, @property, @resource, @datatype, and @typeof (examples and explanations on the following slides)www.sti-innsbruck.at 464
  • RDFa Syntax: How to use RDFa in XHTML • @rel: a whitespace separated list of CURIEs (Compact URIs), used for expressing relationships between two resources (predicates‘); • All content on this site is licensed under <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/"> a Creative Commons License </a>.www.sti-innsbruck.at 465
  • RDFa Example: RDFa in use<div>My name is Bob Smith but people call me Smithy. Here is my home page:<a href="http://www.example.com">www.example.com</a>.I live in Albuquerque, NM and work as an engineer at ACME Corp.</div> Enriched with RDFa:<div xmlns:v="http://rdf.data-vocabulary.org/#" typeof="v:Person"> My name is <span property="v:name">Bob Smith</span>, but people call me <span property="v:nickname">Smithy</span>. Here is my homepage: <a href="http://www.example.com" rel="v:url">www.example.com</a>. I live in Albuquerque, NM and work as an <span property="v:title">engineer</span> at <span property="v:affiliation">ACME Corp</span>.</div> Source: http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=146898 466 www.sti-innsbruck.at 466
  • Microformats, RDFa, Microdata • Microformats  you like class attributes, don‘t you? • RDFa  HTML is not your triplestore • Microdata  fixed vocabularieswww.sti-innsbruck.at 467
  • Microformats, RDFa, Microdata • All three of them are intended for machines to interpret content, i.e. search engines • Major search engines support Microformat in combination with the Schema.org vocabulary. • If your choice is not supported by Google, Bing, and Yahoo your choice is useless. www.sti-innsbruck.at 468
  • Semantic Channels: Vocabularies Vocabularies: • A (Semantic Web) vocabulary can be considered a special form of (usually light- weight) ontology, or sometimes also merely as a collection of URIs with an (usually informally) described meaning. • Recap ―what ontologies are‖: ―An ontology is a formal specification of a shared conceptualization‖ • Tom Gruber (http://www-ksl.stanford.edu/kst/what-is-an-ontology.html)www.sti-innsbruck.at 469
  • Published Data Setswww.sti-innsbruck.at 470
  • Semantic Channels: Vocabularies ... and a lot morewww.sti-innsbruck.at 471
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesSIOC • Vocabulary to describe content in social channels • Enables... – semantic links between online communities – to fully describe the content and structure of community sites – the integration of online community information – browsing of connected Semantic Web items – to add a social aspect to the Semantic Webwww.sti-innsbruck.at 472
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesSIOC A SIOC document, unlike a traditional Web page, can be combined with other SIOC and RDF documents to create a unified database of information.www.sti-innsbruck.at 473
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesFriend of a Friend (FOAF) • Vocabulary to link people and information using the Web. • Enables... – to describe Agents, Documents, Groups, Organizations, Projects and their relationships. – a distributed social network that can be crawled.www.sti-innsbruck.at 474
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesFriend of a Friend (FOAF) • Friend of a Friend is a project that aims at providing simple ways to describe people and relations among them • FOAF adopts RDF and RDFS • Full specification available on: http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/ • Tools based on FOAF: – FOAF search (http://foaf.qdos.com/) – FOAF builder (http://foafbuilder.qdos.com/) – FOAF-a-matic (http://www.ldodds.com/foaf/foaf-a-matic) – FOAF.vix (http://foaf-visualizer.org/)www.sti-innsbruck.at 475
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesFOAF Schema [http://www.foaf-project.org/]www.sti-innsbruck.at 476
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesFOAF RDF Example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/"> <foaf:Person rdf:ID=―DieterFensel"> <foaf:name>Dieter Fensel</foaf:name> <foaf:title>Univ.-Prof. Dr.</foaf:title> <foaf:givenname>Dieter</foaf:givenname> <foaf:family_name>Fensel</foaf:family_name> <foaf:mbox_sha1sum>773a221a09f1887a24853c9de06c3480e714278a</foaf:mbox_ sha1sum> <foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http://www.fensel.com "/> <foaf:depiction rdf:resource="http://www.deri.at/fileadmin/images/photos/dieter_fensel.jpg"/> <foaf:phone rdf:resource="tel:+43-512-507-6488"/> <foaf:workplaceHomepage rdf:resource="http://www.sti-innsbruck.at"/> <foaf:workInfoHomepage rdf:resource="http://www.sti- innsbruck.at/about/team/details/?uid=40"/> </foaf:Person> </rdf:RDF>www.sti-innsbruck.at 477
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesSchema.org • A microdata vocabulary. • Schema.org is a collection of schemas, i.e., html tags, that webmasters can use to markup their pages in ways recognized by major search providers. • Search engines including Bing, Google, Yahoo! and Yandex rely on this markup to improve the display of search results, making it easier for people to find the right web pages.www.sti-innsbruck.at 478
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesSchema.org • In-page structured data for search • Do not ask ―so, how do we describe hotels?‖, but ―how can we improve markup on existing pages that describe hotels?‖ (or Cars, Software, ...) • Simplify publisher/webmaster experience • Record agreements between search engines • Central use case: augmented search resultswww.sti-innsbruck.at 479
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesSchema.org Hotel example:<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Hotel"> <span itemprop="name">Name of Hotel</span> <div itemprop="aggregateRating" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/AggregateRating"> <span itemprop="ratingValue">4</span> stars - based on <span itemprop="reviewCount">321</span> reviews </div> <div itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/PostalAddress"> <span itemprop="streetAddress">123 Fake Street</span> <span itemprop="addressLocality">Seattle </span>, <span itemprop="addressRegion">Washington </span> <span itemprop="postalCode">98146 </span> </div> <span itemprop="telephone">(206) 123-4321</span> <a href="http://mapsurl.com/23452345" itemprop="maps">URL of Map</a> Price Range: <span itemprop="priceRange">$$</span></div> Overview: http://schema.org/Hotelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 480
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesGoodRelations • GoodRelations is a standardized vocabulary (also known as "schema", "data dictionary", or "ontology") for product, price, store, and company data that can ... 1. be embedded into existing static and dynamic Web pages and that 2. can be processed by other computers. This increases the visibility of your products and services in the latest generation of search engines, recommender systems, and other novel applications.www.sti-innsbruck.at 481
  • Semantic Channels: VocabulariesGoodRelations Design Principles: ―Keep simple things simple and make Lightweight Heavyweight complex things possible‖ Web of Data Web of Data • Cater for LOD and OWL DL worlds LOD OWL DL RDF + a little bit • Academically sound • Industry-strength engineering • Practically relevant http://purl.org/goodrelationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 482
  • Semantic-based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 483 483
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 484
  • How to make on-line communication efficient Typical knowledge-engineering approach to this problem: • separate content from presentation [1] • Reusable content models can be applied to different channels (channel models). [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_presentation_and_contentwww.sti-innsbruck.at 485
  • Semantic as End User Enabler • Solve these obstacles by mechanizing important aspects of these tasks, and therefore offer a scalable, cost-sensitive, and effective online dissemination solution. • Introduce a layer on top of the various internet based communication channels that is domain specific and not channel specific. Information model defines the type of information items in the domain Channel model describes the various channels, the interaction pattern, and their target groups Weaver mappings of information items to channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 486
  • WeaverInformation Model Branch specific concepts Collect feedback Distribute content + Weaver statistics Channel Model Web/Blog Web 3.0/Mobile/Other Social Web www.sti-innsbruck.at 487
  • Information model for organizations/projectswww.sti-innsbruck.at 488
  • Information model for organizations/projectswww.sti-innsbruck.at 489
  • Information model in actionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 490
  • Information model for tourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 491
  • Using the information model for tourism The hotel‘s perspective:www.sti-innsbruck.at 492
  • Using the information model for tourism The customer‘s perspective:www.sti-innsbruck.at 493
  • Channel model The channel model describes the different channels, their interaction patterns and the target groups. • Channels can be – online or offline – for broadcasting or sharing – for group communication or collaboration – of static or dynamic information • The number of different channels is growing constantly • The target groups are very different from channel to channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 494
  • Offline and Online Channels • Walk-in customer • Telephone • Email • Fax • Hotel website • Review sites • Booking sites • Social network sites • Blogs • Fora & destination sites • Chat • Video & photo sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 495
  • Weaver The weaver is responsible for mapping of information items to the appropriate channels. • Separation of content and communication channels • Reuse of the same content for various dissemination means • Explicit alignment of information items and channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 496
  • WeaverThe details of the Weaver • Elements 1 to 3 are about the content. They define the actual categories, the agent responsible for them, and the process of interacting with this agent. • Elements 4 to 9 are about the dissemination of these items.www.sti-innsbruck.at 497
  • Weaver componentThe details of the Weaver 1. Information item It defines an information category that should be disseminated through various channels. 2. Editor The editor defines the agent that is responsible for providing the content of an information item. 3. Interaction protocol This defines the interaction protocol governing how an editor collects the content. 4. Information type An instance of a concept, a set of instances of a concept (i.e., an extensional definition of the concept), or a concept description (i.e., an intentional definition of a concept). 5. Processing rule These rules govern how the content is processed to fit a channel. Often only a subset of the overall information item fits a certain channel.www.sti-innsbruck.at 498
  • WeaverThe details of the Weaver 6. Channel The media that is used to disseminate the information. 7. Scheduling information Information on how often and in which intervals the dissemination will be performed which includes temporal constrains over multi-channel disseminations. 8. Executor It determines which agent or process is performing the update of a channel. Such an agent can be a human or a software solution. 9. Executor interaction protocol It governs the interaction protocol defining how an executer receives its content.www.sti-innsbruck.at 499
  • WeaverExample: Weaver Storyline • The organization STI International has regular general assemblies • A general assembly is described by the president • The description refers to the general assembly as an event • The description of a general assembly must refer to a future event • The information is published on the content management system Drupalwww.sti-innsbruck.at 500
  • WeaverExample: Weaver Storyline This process forms a part of the weaver component: • Item: sti2:general_assembly • Editor: President • Type: Concept Description • Channel: homepage/event/past--‐event • Schedule Constraint: date > current date • Executor: Drupal • Executor Interaction Protocol: nonewww.sti-innsbruck.at 501
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 502
  • Semantic Match Making Branch specific conceptsDistribute content Collect feedback Matcher + statistics Web/Blog Social Web Web 3.0/Mobile/Otherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 503
  • Semantic Match Making In a nutshell: • Form concept groups through abstraction • Use artificial intelligence to match new objects to one of the groupswww.sti-innsbruck.at 504
  • Semantic Match Making • Scientific aspects: – Channels and content are matched automatically – Texts are shortened/enlarged to an amount which fits the Blogpost/Tweet – Pictures/Videos/Slides are attached where neededwww.sti-innsbruck.at 505
  • A Semantic Publish/Subscribe System for Selective Dissemination of the RSS Documents • System bases on the Semantic Web RDF and OWL standards and RDF • Site Summaries (RSS) in order to introduce an efficient publish/subscribe mechanism that includes an event matching algorithm based on graph matching. • Our approach, in contrast, matches information items rather than events to channels rather than users. • Instead of graph matching, we use predefined weavers for channel selectionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 506
  • A Semantic Publish/Subscribe System for Selective Dissemination of the RSS Documents Source: J. Ma, G. Xu, J. L. Wang, and T. Huang: A semantic publish/subscribe system for selective dissemination of the RSS documents. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing (GCC06), pp. 432-439, 2006.www.sti-innsbruck.at 507
  • Semantic Email Addressing: Sending Email to People, Not Strings • SEA: Semantic E-Mail Addressing • Main idea: send emails to concepts that dynamically change over time • People describe their interests via foaf. • Senders send emails to interest groups. Source: Michael Kassoff, Charles Petrie, Lee-Ming Zen and Michael Genesereth. Semantic Email Addressing: The Semantic Web Killer App? IEEE Internet Computing 13(1): 48-55 (2009)www.sti-innsbruck.at 508
  • Semantic Email Addressing: Sending Email to People, Not Strings Source: Michael Kassoff, Charles Petrie, Lee-Ming Zen and Michael Genesereth. Semantic Email Addressing: The Semantic Web Killer App? IEEE Internet Computing 13(1): 48-55 (2009)www.sti-innsbruck.at 509
  • Outline1. Overview2. Semantic Analysis (= Natural Language Processing)3. Semantics as a channel (= Semantic vocabularies)4. Semantic Content Modelling (=Ontologies)5. Semantic Match Making (= Automatic distribution)6. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 510
  • Summary The four semantic pillars: 1. Semantic text analysis 2. Semantic channels 3. Semantic content modelling 4. Semantic match makingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 511
  • Semantic Text Analysis • Enables computers to interpret natural language • A lot of different tasks (Topic detection, Named entity recognition, Sentiment detection, Opinion mining, etc.) • Key task in analyzing content and automatically taking decisions about it.www.sti-innsbruck.at 512
  • Semantic Channels • Distinguish between – languages (such as SPARQL, RDF, OWL, RDFa, Microformats, etc.) – and vocabularies (such as GoodRelations, Schema.org, FOAF, SIOC, etc.) • Dissemination in the right channels gains potential (see Google‘s rich snippets)www.sti-innsbruck.at 513
  • Semantic Content Modelling • Content modelling has to be shaped to individual domains or even Web layouts. • Content modelling only has to be done once. • Content is reusable. • A weaver brings channels and content togetherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 514
  • Semantic Match Making • Channels and content are matched automatically • Texts are shortened/enlarged to an amount which fits the Blogpost/Tweet • Pictures/Videos/Slides are attached where needed Branch specific concepts Distribute content Collect feedback Matcher + statistics Web/Blog Social Web Web 3.0/Mobile/Otherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 515
  • 6. SEMANTIC COMMUNICATION ENGINE INNSBRUCK (SCEI), PRONOUNCED SKYwww.sti-innsbruck.at 516
  • SCEIwww.sti-innsbruck.at 517
  • SCEI Overview 1. Motivation 2. Reference Architecture 3. Reference Implementation 4. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 518
  • Motivation • Online communication is manyfold • Online communication can be complexwww.sti-innsbruck.at 519
  • Motivation Online channels are becoming more and more • Dynamic • Fragmented • Technology prone • Numerouswww.sti-innsbruck.at 520
  • MotivationCombine all the different ways to make information available the „traditional“ way e.g. web pages, email the social way various social platforms (facebook, twitter, etc.) the semantic way readable for machines as wellwww.sti-innsbruck.at 521
  • Motivation • Encapsulate the complexity of online communication on a semantic layer. This semantic layer and the underlying engine will enable end-users to efficiently and effectively manage their online communication ecosystem. • Semantics as enabler for online communication: – Natural language processing – Semantics as dissemination channel – Domain specific ontologies for information dissemination – Semantic matchmakingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 522
  • Motivation Semantics as enabler for online communication: • Natural language processing • Semantics as dissemination channel • Domain specific ontologies for information dissemination • Semantic matchmakingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 523
  • SCEI Overview 1. Motivation 2. Reference Architecture 3. Reference Implementation 4. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 524
  • Reference Architecture • A reference architecture for scalable on-line communication, based on machine processable semantics, that supports processes such as yield, brand, and reputation management. • SCEI is entitled to support the following process: 1. Content creation 2. Selection of publication channels 3. Content adaptation 4. Publication 5. Feedback collection 6. Content detection 7. Impact analysiswww.sti-innsbruck.at 525
  • Reference Architecture Objectives: • Uniform online communication model for information dissemination • Transparent multi-channel communication • Monitoring the visibility and impact of dissemination • Channel distribution optimization • Automatic adaptation to heterogeneous communication channels • Feedback analysis • Tools for managing communication cycle - workflow and communication patterns support • Support for scalable yield, brand, and reputation managementwww.sti-innsbruck.at 526
  • Reference Architecture Content creator Domain and task specific interface … Domain and task specific interface Workflow Engine/ Communication patternsWorkflow Semanticdesigner Repository Content Management System Publication Media Engagement Impact Monitoring Analysis SCEITarget users www.sti-innsbruck.at 527
  • Reference Architecture Modules: • Domain and task specific interface • Workflow engine/Communication patterns • Content Management System • Publication • Media Monitoring • Engagement • Impact analysiswww.sti-innsbruck.at 528
  • Reference Architecture • Domain and Task specific interface • Support for domain experts (e.g. hoteliers) to specify the content in a terminology that is familiar to them. – Information dissemination abstraction based on the concrete domain, independent of the channel. Holiday Theater - Concepts Seminar package weekend SCEI Channels …www.sti-innsbruck.at 529
  • Reference Architecture Workflow engine • Assign, track and respond to feedback from the users. • Define steps/protocol to be activated when certain events related to the published information occur. – e.g. a bad comment on a post in facebook is written. • Integrated in the SCEI architecture, workflow designers can define this workflows. • Dependent on the feedback and impact modules. • Abstraction on domain specific events needed.www.sti-innsbruck.at 530
  • Reference Architecture Content Management System: • Provide the infrastructure to store and create content. • Functionality can be provided by a standard CMS system.www.sti-innsbruck.at 531
  • Reference Architecture Publication: • Provide support for the information publication in the dissemination channels – Selection/Recommendation of channel based on information type or content. – Content adaptation based on channel characteristics. – Technical adapters to the different underlying channels. – Scheduling of publication based on user requirements.www.sti-innsbruck.at 532
  • Reference Architecture Engagement: • Provide support for the activities necessary to carry out the engagement process – Dissemination channel monitoring. – Feedback collection from the different dissemination channels. – Workflow activation based on impact measurements.www.sti-innsbruck.at 533
  • Reference Architecture Impact Analysis: • Provide appropriate statistical analysis on feedback • Calculate impact indicators on the disseminated contentwww.sti-innsbruck.at 534
  • SCEI Overview 1. Motivation 2. Reference Architecture 3. Reference Implementation 4. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 535
  • Reference Implementation …www.sti-innsbruck.at 536
  • Reference Implementation CMS: Drupal • Version 7.x • Semantic technology already present – RDFa, microdata, SPARQL endpoint • Flexible architecture • Open sourcewww.sti-innsbruck.at 537
  • Reference Implementation CMS: Drupal Plug-ins enable additional functionality. 1. RDF export plug-in – Connection to OWLIM 2. plug-in – Current focus: publication – Work in progress: feedback, statistics, impact analysis, engagementwww.sti-innsbruck.at 538
  • Reference Implementation Semantic Repository: • OWLIM is a scalable semantic repository which allows – Management, integration, and analysis of heterogeneous data – Combined with light-weight reasoning capabilities • is used to: – The inference is based on logical rule-entailment. – Full RDFS and limited OWL Lite and Horst are supported. – Custom semantics defined via rules and axiomatic triples.www.sti-innsbruck.at 539
  • Reference Implementation Dacodi: • Tool for data and content distribution • Developed as stand-alone web app • Accessible through an API • Currently supports 6 platforms Facebook, Twitter, TwitPic, LinkedIn, Flickr, YouTube • Supported media types: Text, links, images, videoswww.sti-innsbruck.at 540
  • Reference Implementationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 541
  • Reference Implementation Abstraction on • Common functionality of channels • Common characteristics of information items Architecture based on adapters • One adapter per channel • Multiple channels per platform Facebook: text, image, video, eventwww.sti-innsbruck.at 542
  • Reference Implementationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 543
  • Reference Implementationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 544
  • Reference Implementation Current prototype (alpha) • Focus was on publication • Development focus currently on feedback and statistics • Also in development: semantic mapping of items* to channels (*concepts) • Next steps: reaction to feedback  Engagementwww.sti-innsbruck.at 545
  • Reference Implementation • One platform may has multiple channels • e.g. facebook supports images, videos, text, events, etc.www.sti-innsbruck.at 546
  • Reference Implementation • Creation and assignment of arbitrary workflows to content types. • Workflows are made up of workflow states – Draft, Review, Published... • Transitions can be created between states – Specific roles can be applied to the transitions for permissions • Actions on the transitions are defined using the Trigger Module – Set of predefined actions (e.g. send email to, publish content…) – Actions can be extended.www.sti-innsbruck.at 547
  • SCEI Overview 1. Motivation 2. Reference Architecture 3. Reference Implementation 4. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at 548
  • Summary • SCEI defines a comprehensive architecture to facilitate online communication ecosystems with support for domain specific characteristics. • Use of Semantic technologies to boost the capabilities of online communication. • dacodi platform as reference implementation – Incremental development – Current focus on the Publication module – Future work: • Impact analysis • Engagement • Workflow enginewww.sti-innsbruck.at 549
  • 7. APPLICATION TYPESwww.sti-innsbruck.at 550
  • Application Typeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 551
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 552 552
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 553 553
  • Advertisement Definition • Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage or persuade an audience to continue or take some new action. • Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertisingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 554
  • Advertisment Example • Conventional advertising media include wall paintings, billboards, street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema and television adverts, etc. • New and additional advertisement channels are used, e.g. on the Web, social media, mobile advertisement – Sharma, C., Herzog, J., Melfi, V. ―Mobile Advertising: Supercharge Your Brand in the Exploding Wireless Market‖, Wiley, 2008.www.sti-innsbruck.at 555
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 556 556
  • Customer Relationship management Definition • CRM is a widely implemented model for managing a company‘s interactions with customers, clients, and sales prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes — principally sales activities, but also those for marketing, customer service, and technical support. – Shaw, Robert, Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9www.sti-innsbruck.at 557
  • Cutomer Relationship management Example • Overall, technically, includes channel management, such as managing phone, SMS, sending customers birthday cards, etc. • Social CRM: The era of the "social customer― refers to the use of social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Yelp, customer reviews in Amazon, etc.) by customers in ways that allow other potential customers to glimpse real world experience of current customers with the sellers products and services, thus make purchase decisions informed by other parties sometimes outside of the control of the seller or sellers network. – Greenberg, Paul (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 7.www.sti-innsbruck.at 558
  • Cutomer Relationship management Use of Engagement Tools • Many CRM vendors offer Web-based tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS), which are accessed via a secure Internet connection and displayed in a Web browser. – These applications are sold as subscriptions (customers do not need to invest in purchasing and maintaining IT hardware). • Setting up a right strategy: timely and direct interaction with customers via the proper way and extent (channel, timing, content) is needed • Holistic customer relationship strategy that is highly customized, up to the level of individual customers is needed • Choosing the right software: currently the landscape is littered with instances of low adoption rates – In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $1 billion had been spent on CRM software that was not being usedwww.sti-innsbruck.at 559
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 560 560
  • Yield management Definition • Yield or revenue management ―is an economic discipline appropriate to many service industries in which market segment pricing is combined with statistical analysis to expand the market for the service and increase the revenue per unit of available capacity‖ – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yield_management, and Revenue_management • The goal of yield management is a short-term increase of income – a valid target for a business entitywww.sti-innsbruck.at 561
  • Yield management Example • Hotels are confronted with a multitude of online booking channels. • Hotels should provide their available rooms and their rates to most if not all of them to prevent not meeting their potential customers. • In many channels, visibility is achieved through low prices. – However, often channels also require constraints on the price offers in other channels. • Some channels generate costs without guarantying actual income.www.sti-innsbruck.at 562
  • Yield management Use of Engagement 3.0 Tools • Many solutions to yield management are based on complex statistical methods and complex domain assumptions on how variation of the price can influence the amount of bookings of a service • However, a multi-directional multi-channel approach also must rely on Swarm intelligence. Observing in real time the reaction of customers and competitors will be the key to achieving on-line marketing. Adopting your offer and your price dynamically in response to the behavior of your (on-line visible) environment will become a key for economic success http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swarm_intelligence • Yield management could be realized utilizing reputation and usage values collected from different channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 563
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 564 564
  • Brand management Definition • Brand – ―a name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller‘s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers‖ – American Marketing Association, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand • Brand management –―the art of creating and maintaining a brand‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 565
  • Brand management Example • Brand ―Tirol‖: “Wer Tirol hört, denkt an Berge. Berge, in denen man im Sommer wandern und im Winter Ski fahren kann. Und das wird auch in Zukunft so bleiben. Aber Tirol bietet mehr als nur Berge. ...” - www.tirolwerbung.at • Brand ―Red Bull‖: most expensive Austrian brand, valued at 9,984 billion dollars and world-wide ranked as no. 80 (2012, BrandZ agency study)www.sti-innsbruck.at 566
  • Brand management Use of Engagement 3.0 Tools • Modeling communication, communication channels and target groups bears inherently the advantage of uniformly accessing the provided data and thereby allowing beyond state of the art processing of the data • Human computation could increase the process where automated algorithms lack of efficiency, for example the translation of communicated content to other languages • Potential of crowd sourcing, word-of-mouthwww.sti-innsbruck.at 567
  • Application Types CustomerAdvertisement Yield Brand Reputation Relationship management management management management Semanticswww.sti-innsbruck.at 568 568
  • Reputation management Definition • Reputation – ―the beliefs or opinions that are generally held about someone or something” • Reputation management – monitoring and pro-actively influencing and thereby shape an entities reputation • Online reputation management (or monitoring) is the practice of monitoring the Internet reputation of a person, brand or business, with the goal of suppressing negative mentions entirely, or pushing them lower on search engine results pages to decrease their visibility. – New York Timeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 569
  • Reputation management Example • Reputation of a company can be viewed as one of its most important assets such as its capital – this dimension interferes with revenue management EU parlament • Maintenance and increase the appreciation an organization or a topic or a certain approach gains in the public on long-term are neededwww.sti-innsbruck.at 570
  • Reputation management Use of Engagement 3.0 Tools • Introducing a domain specific, channel independent model that explicitly separates content from channel, then intelligently interweave the content with the channels again & use that for campaigning. • Estimating the reputation and impact on all of the channels (e.g. by statistical analysis of online content) – For example, more than 90% of all Internet users are already reading product reviews and more than 50% indicate that they base their purchasing decisions mostly upon them. • The abstraction layer allows multi channel communication in a holistic approach. • Providing means to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of public campaigns is needed.www.sti-innsbruck.at 571
  • Conclusions • There exist many application fields for engagement: – Advertising – Yield management – Customer Relationship management – Brand management – Reputation management • There are numerous challenges in new technology (e.g. transition to many new numerous channels) and part of them are technical, while part is managerial and creative => cooperation across interdisciplinary activity fields is required • There is also a large potential for beneficial adoption of Engagement 3.0 techniques and toolswww.sti-innsbruck.at 572
  • Conclusionswww.sti-innsbruck.at 573
  • 8. APPLICATION FIELD ETOURISMwww.sti-innsbruck.at 574
  • Application Field eTourism Overview 1. Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol 2. Multi-channel communication (MCC) 3. MCC and yield management (YM) 4. MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as- you-go 5. The value proposition in eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 575
  • Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol • Number of accomodations in Austria (http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/tourism/accommodation/accommodation_capacity/034896.html) – Commercial 20.000 – Private 50.000 • Number of bedplaces winter/summer: 1 Mio. (http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/tourism/accommodation/accommodation_capacity/034896.html) • Intensity of tourism supply (beds per 1.000 inhabitants) (http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/tourism/accommodation/accommodation_capacity/060644.html) – Total winter 119 (447 in Tyrol) – Total summer 124 (467 in Tyrol)www.sti-innsbruck.at 576
  • Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol • Total overnight stays 126 Mio (42,7 Mio in Tyrol) (http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/tourism/accommodation/arrivals_overnight_stays/029044.html) • Travel intensity per inhabitant (number of overnight stays divided by the resident population): Total 16 (63 in Tyrol) (http://www.statistik.at/web_en/statistics/tourism/accommodation/arrivals_overnight_stays/028972.html) • Direct employment in tourism: Total 307.000 (http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/tourismus/tourismus-satellitenkonto/erwerbstaetige/019852.html) • Direct spendings of foreign and resident visitors: 30.586.000.000 € (http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/tourismus/tourismus-satellitenkonto/wertschoepfung/019849.html) • Direct percentage of overall GDP through tourism: 7.4% (http://www.statistik.at/web_de/statistiken/tourismus/tourismus-satellitenkonto/wertschoepfung/019848.html)www.sti-innsbruck.at 577
  • Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol source: http://www.tnooz.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/four-pillars-FULLjpg.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 578
  • Application Field eTourism Overview 1. Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol 2. Multi-channel communication (MCC) 3. MCC and yield management (YM) 4. MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as- you-go 5. The value proposition in eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 579
  • Obstacles of Multichannel CommunicationExponential growth of Online Communication Channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 580
  • Obstacles of Multichannel CommunicationExponential growth of Online Communication Channels Communication is becoming bi-directionalwww.sti-innsbruck.at 581
  • Obstacles of Multichannel CommunicationExponential growth of Online Communication Channels Communication is becoming bi-directional Contents of communication are becoming more and more granularwww.sti-innsbruck.at 582
  • Efficient and Effective Online Communication • Solve these obstacles by mechanizing important aspects of these tasks, and therefore offer a scalable, cost-sensitive, and effective online dissemination solution. • Introduce a layer on top of the various internet based communication channels that is domain specific and not channel specific. Information model defines the type of information items in the domain Channel model describes the various channels, the interaction pattern, and their target groups Weaver mappings of information items to channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 583
  • The three pillars of Online CommunicationInformation Model Branch specific concepts Collect feedback Distribute content + Weaver statistics Channel Model Web/Blog Web 3.0/Mobile/Other Social Web www.sti-innsbruck.at 584
  • Information model The information model defines the type of information items in the touristic domain. The domain ontology has following features: • Ability to map as many business entities as possible • Meaningful information for LOD exposure • Compatible with Good Relations and schema.org for SEOwww.sti-innsbruck.at 585
  • Tourism Ontologywww.sti-innsbruck.at 586
  • Example hotel information item acco:Hotel gr:name: Hotel Rotes Wildschwein gr:description: Romantik Wellness Hotel in the Tyrolean Mountains schema:geo: 47 16 0" North, 11 24 0" East acco:size: 56 (rooms) acco:occupancy: 98 (persons) acco:occupancyAdults: 95 (adults) acco:occupancyInfants: 3 (infants) acco:petsAllowed: yeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 587
  • Channel model The channel model describes the different channels, their interaction patterns and the target groups. • Channels can be – online or offline – for broadcasting or sharing – for group communication or collaboration – of static or dynamic information • The number of different channels is growing constantly • The target groups are very different from channel to channelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 588
  • Offline and Online Channels • Walk-in customer • Telephone • Email • Fax • Hotel website • Review sites • Booking sites • Social network sites • Blogs • Fora & destination sites • Chat • Video & photo sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 589
  • Channels • Hotel website – Direct booking (crucial for a successful hotelier) – Content management system – Full control and ownership of data – Integration of social networks via like buttons, widgets, etc. • Email newsletters – Still a major means of marketing – Especially in tourism – Mostly for existing customers and not customer aquisitionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 590
  • Channels • Booking and Review Sites – Customers book over these channels – Customers can express positive as well as negative views – Quick reactions are important – Examples • Holidaycheck • Profi Hotelempfehlungen • tripadvisor • Real Holiday Reports • hotelkritiken.de • Schiffsbewertungen • zoover • travel-and-guide.de • trivago • Travel Intelligence • ciao.de • Traveluation • Votello • TripsByTips • TrustYou • UnserSchiff.de • Hostelworld.com • Yelp • Caribbean Style • ab-in-den-urlaub.de • Check my stay • Booking.com • Cosmotourist • Expedia.de • Cruise Critic • hotel.de • Global Hotel Review • tiscover.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 591
  • Channels • Social Networks – Highly dependent on the target marketing area – Varying target groups for different businesses – Examples • Facebook • Twitter • Google Plus • 200+ social networks worldwide • Blogs – Emerging topics like tumblr – Often businesses enrich their classical online presence with an additional blogwww.sti-innsbruck.at 592
  • Example: Hotel Edelweiß • Website with Facebook Widget • Facebook page with special offers and detailed information on the hotelwww.sti-innsbruck.at 593
  • Weaver The weaver is responsible for mapping of information items to the appropriate channels. • Separation of content and communication channels • Reuse of the same content for various dissemination means • Explicit alignment of information items and channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 594
  • Weaver component 1. Information item It defines an information category that should be disseminated through various channels. 2. Editor The editor defines the agent that is responsible for providing the content of an information item. 3. Interaction protocol This defines the interaction protocol governing how an editor collects the content. 4. Information type An instance of a concept, a set of instances of a concept (i.e., an extensional definition of the concept), or a concept description (i.e., an intentional definition of a concept). 5. Processing rule These rules govern how the content is processed to fit a channel. Often only a subset of the overall information item fits a certain channel.www.sti-innsbruck.at 595
  • Weaver 6. Channel The media that is used to disseminate the information. 7. Scheduling information Information on how often and in which intervals the dissemination will be performed which includes temporal constrains over multi- channel disseminations. 8. Executor It determines which agent or process is performing the update of a channel. Such an agent can be a human or a software solution. 9. Executor interaction protocol It governs the interaction protocol defining how an executer receives its content.www.sti-innsbruck.at 596
  • Weaver Example Holiday Package • Target group: families • Content: text and pictures Item: holiday_package Editor: Hotelier Type: Concept Description Channel: homepage/packages Schedule Constraint: date > current date Executor: Drupal (CMS) Executor Interaction Protocol: nonewww.sti-innsbruck.at 597
  • Weaver Example Holiday Theater -Concepts Seminar package weekend WeaverChannels www.sti-innsbruck.at 598
  • More Weaver Examples Theater Weekend • Target group: senior couples • Content: text, pictures, video Conference • Target group: business audience • Content: text and pictureswww.sti-innsbruck.at 599
  • Weaver Example Holiday Theater -Concepts Seminar package weekend WeaverChannels www.sti-innsbruck.at 600
  • Weaver Example Holiday Theater -Concepts Seminar package weekend WeaverChannels www.sti-innsbruck.at 601
  • Hotel Rotes Wildschwein Homepage http://www.rotes-wildschwein.atwww.sti-innsbruck.at 602
  • Hotel Rotes Wildschwein Facebook page http://www.facebook.com/pages/Rotes- Wildschwein/321731534545050www.sti-innsbruck.at 603
  • Hotel Rotes Wildschwein Twitter https://twitter.com/#!/HotelRedBoarwww.sti-innsbruck.at 604
  • Application Field eTourism Overview 1. Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol 2. Multi-channel communication (MCC) 3. MCC and yield management (YM) 4. MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as- you-go 5. The value proposition in eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 605
  • Multi-channel booking problem • Hotels are facing the multi-channel booking problem • More than 100 different booking channels available • Daily maintenance of right balance of rooms availability across more than 100 channels does not scale • Average time for hoteliers required to maintain a profile of a medium size hotel at one portal takes between 5 to 15 minutes a day • An effort of maintaining hotel‘s profile on 100 portals would require then at least 20 hours of workwww.sti-innsbruck.at 606
  • Multi-channel booking solution • The multi-channel solution for hotel-industry internet distribution seekda! connect seekda! IBEwww.sti-innsbruck.at 607
  • seekda connect • Automatic support for online booking on multiple channels • One single entry point providing direct connections to different booking platforms • Simple, Web-based user interface for management of bookingswww.sti-innsbruck.at 608
  • • Over 4000 accommodation facilities are using sekkdawww.sti-innsbruck.at 609
  • Direct bookability for hotels • Booking quickly and directly via hotel Web sites • Seekda producs for direct bookability: – Dynamic Shop – Dynamic Shop Mobile • Benfits: – Hotels do not give part of theier profit to booking chanells – Guests spend less time in booking using the instant booking engine solution of seekdawww.sti-innsbruck.at 610
  • Dynamic Shop integrated in the Hotel websitewww.sti-innsbruck.at 611
  • Direct bookability for hotels • Does the customer find the hotel web site? • Does the customer trust the web site? • Are his/her requests proberly answered? • Is his/her feedback taken serious and form a positive review of the hotel?www.sti-innsbruck.at 612
  • Multi Channel Communication and Yield Management • Multi-channel communication tools can improve revenues and benefits within the hospitality industry by: – Increasing the on-line visible presence of hotels – Make hotels offers visible to a broader audience via multiple channels – Attract potential guests to hotel websites and thus increase direct bookability – effective and targeted on-line marketingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 613
  • + = holistic multi channel communication and yield management for the hotelierwww.sti-innsbruck.at 614
  • Hotelnavigator http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=rA0wdkPB7gAwww.sti-innsbruck.at 615
  • Application Field eTourism Overview 1. Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol 2. Multi-channel communication (MCC) 3. MCC and yield management (YM) 4. MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as-you-go 5. The value proposition in eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 616
  • MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as-you-go • Multi-channel communication • seekda booking engine • Linked Open Data (LOD) (http://linkeddata.org/) • On the fly service integration as you pay • Everything integrated into a comprehensive mapwww.sti-innsbruck.at 617
  • Multi-channel communication - walk-in customer - telephone - email - fax - hotel website - review sites - booking sites - social network sites - blogs - fora & destination sites - chat - video & photo sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 618
  • Multi-channel communication SCEI Branch specific conceptsDistribute content Collect feedback Weaver + statistics Web/Blog Social Web Web 3.0/Mobile/Otherwww.sti-innsbruck.at 619
  • Multi-channel communication • Scalable on-line communication tool based on machine processable semantics, that supports processes such as yield, brand, and reputation management. • SCEI is entitled to support the following process: 1. Content creation 2. Selection of publication channels 3. Content adaptation 4. Publication 5. Feedback collection 6. Content detection 7. Impact analysiswww.sti-innsbruck.at 620
  • SCEI Reference architecture Content creator Domain and task specific interface … Domain and task specific interface Workflow Engine/ Communication patternsWorkflow Semanticdesigner Repository Content Management System Publication Media Engagement Impact Monitoring Analysis SCEITarget users www.sti-innsbruck.at 621
  • seekda booking enginewww.sti-innsbruck.at 622
  • seekda booking engine - direct bookability for hotels • Booking quickly and directly via hotel Web sites • Seekda producs for direct bookability: – Dynamic Shop – Dynamic Shop Mobile • Benfits: – Hotels do not give part of their profit to booking chanells – You do not loose the guest having him booking other hotelswww.sti-innsbruck.at 623
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) • Web of Documents • Web of Data Typed Links Hyperlinks ―Documents‖ ―Things‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 624
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) LOD Principles: 1. Use URIs as names for things. 2. Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names. 3. When someone looks up a URI, provide useful RDF information. 4. Include RDF statements that link to other URIs so that they can discover related things.www.sti-innsbruck.at 625
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) Facts: • 295 data sets • Over 31 billion triples • Over 504 billion RDF links between data sources Figure from http://www4.wiwiss.fu-berlin.de/lodcloud/state/, September 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 626
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) • Use LOD to integrate and lookup data about – places and routes – time-tables for public transport – hiking trails – ski slopes – points-of-interestwww.sti-innsbruck.at 627
  • Linked Open Data (LOD) - data sets • Open Streetmap • Google Places • Databases of government – TIRIS – DVT • Tourism & Ticketing association • IVB (busses and trams) • OEBB (trains) • Ärztekammer • Supermarket chains: listing of products • Hofer and similar: weekly offers • Innsbruck Airport (travel times, airline • ASFINAG: Traffic/Congestion data schedules) • Herold (yellow pages) • ZAMG (Weather) • City archive • University of Innsbruck (Curricula, student statistics, study possibilities) • Museums/Zoo • IKB (electricity, water consumption) • News sources like TT (Tyrols major daily newspaper) • Entertainment facilities (Stadtcafe, Cinema...) • Statistik Austria • Special offers (Groupon)www.sti-innsbruck.at 628
  • On the fly service intergation as you pay • Data and services from destination sites integrated for recommendation and booking of – Hotels – Restaurants – Cultural and entertainment events – Sightseeing – Shopswww.sti-innsbruck.at 629
  • On the fly service intergation as you pay • Solutions for ad-hoc service integration for touristic destination sites • Two integration approaches: – via Web scrapping as a quick integration solution – via APIs and backend integration for a long term, durable solutionwww.sti-innsbruck.at 630
  • On the fly service intergation as you pay • Web scraping integration – Create wrappers for current web sites and extract data automatically – Many Web scraping tools available on the market 631www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • On the fly service intergation as you pay • APIs and backend integration – Contractual based integration of data, functionalities and services for mutual benefits – More fine grain integration not only at the level of Web but deeper, at the level of backend systems – Requires usually enterprise application integration solutions (e.g. Web services)www.sti-innsbruck.at 632
  • Everything integrated • Integration into a comprehensive map of multi-channel communication, seekda booking engine, Linked Open Data and on the fly service integration as you pay to generate added value for businesses as well as customers • Combination of multi channel communication and yield management – dacodi – seekda booking solutions • enriched with Linked (Open) Data – Machine understandable interlinked data – Bike and hiking trails, sight information, etc. • and on the fly service integration as you pay – Solutions for ad-hoc service integration for touristic destination sites – Bike rental, ski passes, etc. – Services are quickly integrated through scrapping and later through API and back•end integrationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 633
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Mapwww.sti-innsbruck.at 634
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI SCEIwww.sti-innsbruck.at 635
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine SCEIwww.sti-innsbruck.at 636
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine • LOD to integrate and lookup data about hiking trails, ski slopes, etc. SCEI LODwww.sti-innsbruck.at 637
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Map • Increase on-line visibility for hotel and destination via multi- channel communication - SCEI • Hotels, ski passes, etc. directly bookable – seekda engine • LOD to integrate and lookup data about hiking trails, ski slopes, etc. • On the fly service integration as you pay SCEI LODwww.sti-innsbruck.at 638
  • Everything integrated: Tourist Map Austria • Based on Open Street Map • Fullscreen map with GPS for orientation – Optimized for tablets and smartphones • Data control – Hoteliers, Townships, Assotiations, etc. can easily maintain their own data – Integration of public transport (missing in Google maps) – Direct booking possible • Social – Integration of Facebook, Twitter, etc. – Crowd sourcing of reviews, tips, etc. – Plan common activities on-site SCEIwww.sti-innsbruck.at 639
  • Everything integrated + SCEI + LOD = independence for the hotelier and added value for the customerwww.sti-innsbruck.at 640
  • Application Field eTourism Overview 1. Facts and Figures on Tourism in Austria and Tyrol 2. Multi-channel communication (MCC) 3. MCC and yield management (YM) 4. MCC, YM, LOD, and service integration on-the-fly as- you-go 5. The value proposition in eTourismwww.sti-innsbruck.at 641
  • The value proposition in eTourism 2 Bio € Business Volume/Year in Tyrol10% Marketing/ 15% Booking 40% 5% Profit 30% TaxesCommunication Fees Accommodation Costs www.sti-innsbruck.at 642
  • The value proposition in eTourism The Problem: Marketing Accommodation Booking Profit Taxes Costs Feeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 643
  • The value proposition in eTourism The Goal: Marketing Accommodation Booking Profit Taxes Costs Feeswww.sti-innsbruck.at 644
  • 3 main fields of activity • Multi Channel Communication (MCC) • MCC and Yield Management • Next Generation Destination Sites Prevent Black holes in the touristic value proposition!www.sti-innsbruck.at 645