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    • 1. Multi-channel Publishing / Dissemination Carmen Brenner, Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter, Ioannis Stavrakantonakis© INNSBRUCK Copyright 2008 STI
    • 2. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 2
    • 3. Introduction • The Last 200 years have strongly revolutionized international transport and communication . • Fax, Phone and most of all the Internet have radically changed our communication possibilities. • More and more communication has been freed from geographical barriers that formerly limited their speed and expansion. • But new means also generate new challenges: – the number of channels has grown exponentially, – communication has changed from unilateral mode to an increasingly fully bilateral communication, – the contents of communication becomes more and more 3
    • 4. Introduction • Times where a Business unit communicates through only one or two channels with his customers have passed. (Potential) customers: – Search Information on your website – Send an email request – Get advised by a chat-agent – Visit your Business in person – Call your call center – Read your newsletter – Write to you on facebook – Retweet your comment on twitter – … • And the multi-channel monster is still growing! 4
    • 5. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 5
    • 6. What is Dissemination? • The vital importance of receiving, synthesizing and communicating online information is increasing dramatically in our current digital age. • Dissemination (from the Latin dissēminātus = ―sowing seeds‖, ―scatter wildly in every direction‖) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience. • Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver. • The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels). • Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as the ―delivering and receiving of a message‖, ―the engagement of an individual in a process‖ and ―the transfer of a process or product‖. Image taken from: 6
    • 7. What is a dissemination channel? • ―In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel, or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.‖ (Wikipedia Channel (communications), 2012) • A channel is a means of exchanging information in the on-line space; a ―place‖ where one can find or leave information, whether it is unanimously referred by a URI or addressed through a service. Image taken from: 7
    • 8. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 8
    • 9. Why Do It? Purpose of Dissemination • Dissemination for Awareness – You wish people to be aware of the work of the project – Useful for those target audiences that do not require a detailed knowledge of the work and is helpful for them to be aware of your activities and results – Will help the ―word of mouth‖ type dissemination and help the organizer build an identity and profile within the community • Dissemination for Understanding – It is aimed at a specific number of groups/audiences that need to be targeted directly – Target audience that benefits from what your project has to offer and have a deeper understanding of the project‘s work • Dissemination for Action – ―Action‖ = change of practice resulting from the adoption of products, materials or approaches offered by the project – Target audience: people that are in the position to ―influence‖ and ―bring about change‖ within their organizations (have skills, knowledge and understanding of your work) Source: 9
    • 10. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 10
    • 11. How Is It Done? Components of Effective Dissemination Plan • Focus on the needs of the target audience and present in an appropriate manner (using appropriate language and information levels). • Include various dissemination methods, including written information, electronic media, and person-to-person contact. • Include both proactive and reactive dissemination channels • Leverage existing resources, relationships, and networks fully. • Include effective quality control mechanisms. • They include sufficient information so that the reader/user can determine the basic principles underlying specific practices and the settings in which these practices may be used most productively. • They establish links to resources that may be needed to implement the 11
    • 12. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 12
    • 13. Classification of Dissemination Channels Classified by the type of service they provide: • Static Broadcasting • Dynamic Broadcasting • Sharing • Collaboration • Social Networks • Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Online Discussion Groups • Semantic-based Dissemination • Overview of Channels Image taken from: 13
    • 14. Static Broadcasting • Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages • More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals • Online static dissemination: websites and homepages… 14
    • 15. Static BroadcastingOnline Broadcasting – Static Websites Homepages / Static Websites • Powerful tool for reaching the target audience and promoting the project • Primarily used to provide information about the project and news of its activities and outcomes. • There is the temptation to present the information in order to ―wow‖ the visitor • BUT!: users tend to prefer good content in a simple, clear and easy-to navigate interface (Keep It Simple, Stupid!) • Although created through a collaborative process, Wiki websites can be considered static forms of online broadcasting as the information contained in them remains the same for long periods of time (i.e. the collaboration process is mostly employed for adding new data or editing/correcting existing one). • Wikipedia is an equally important channel that should be mentioned (although articles are created through a collaborative process) Image taken from: 15
    • 16. Static Broadcasting Homepage Example Static Website Example The same hotel mentioned on Wikitravel’s entry for 16
    • 17. Static Broadcasting Static Website ExampleEntry in Wikipedia for Hotel Goldener Adler 17
    • 18. Static Broadcasting Static Website Example Entry in Wikipedia for Dieter 18
    • 19. Dynamic Broadcasting • Small piece of content that is dependent upon constraints such as time and location. • With Web 2.0 technologies have created dedicated means for publishing streams and interacting with content generated by users. • Blogs: pages where people present their ideas, views and opinions on a particular subject • News: pages where facts or factual information is provided • BUT: Producing high-quality content for a blog on a regularly basis is time-consuming and costly Image taken from: 19
    • 20. Dynamic Broadcasting Good practices: • Each new item has its own URL (in order to be bookmarked, shared, returned in search results, etc.) • Should contain a pointer to a more detailed description about the information items described; • Each new item is archived • Each new item can be indexed by search engines • Each new item is types (through the use of the information model) • Each new item is categorized (using folksonomy) • Each post can be directly shared, liked, added to favorites. • News can be searched for, sorted and filtered • Important news items stay at the top to highlight main announcements Source: 20
    • 21. Dynamic Broadcasting Channels/Tools – An overview • Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second – the level of interactivity): – News Feeds – Newsletters – Email / Email lists – Microblogs – Blogs – Social networks – Chat and instant messaging 21
    • 22. Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds • RSS (Rich Site Summary) Feeds: – a family of web feed formats used to deliver regularly changing web content. – Many websites and blogs offer users the option of subscribing to their RSS feed. – The content is syndicated automatically – the user does not have to visit each website manually – RSS Readers are available for different platforms: • PC readers: Amphetadesk, FeedReader, NewsGator • Web-based readers: My Yahoo, Bloglines, Google Reader – Includes full or summarized text, plus metadata (publishing dates and authorship) Image taken from: 22
    • 23. Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <rss version="2.0"> <channel> <title>RSS Title</title> <description>This is an example of an RSS feed</description> <link></link> <lastBuildDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2010 00:01:00 +0000 </lastBuildDate> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> <ttl>1800</ttl> <item> <title>Example entry</title> <description>Here is some text containing an interesting description.</description> <link></link> <guid>unique string per item</guid> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> </item> </channel> </rss> 23
    • 24. Dynamic Broadcasting Newsletters • The newsletter is an instrument used to regularly exchange information among the members of a community • It constitutes the primary means of collecting and spreading the results achieved through network activities. • The main objectives of the Newsletter are: – to report the main activities promoted and undertaken – to widely disseminate information about published papers (position papers, state of the art reviews) of researchers involved in the network. • Website users have the possibility to subscribe to the Newsletter and automatically receive each issue in their mailbox. • Users should have the option of subscribing and 24
    • 25. Dynamic 25
    • 26. Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Email: means of exchanging digital messages from a sender to one or multiple recipients • (Electronic) Mailing lists: collection of names and (email) addresses used to send material to multiple recipients. – Announcement lists (Newsletters, periodicals, advertising – used primarily as a one-way conduit of information and can be ―posted to‖ by selected people) vs. Discussion lists (any subscriber can post) – Can be self-hosted (e.g. GNU Mailman) or third-party hosted (as part of notifications for Google groups, Yahoo! Groups ) – Requires users to subscribe to the 26
    • 27. Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Well established means for dissemination within a predetermined group • Requires members to subscribe to a mailing list • Since email lists are mostly not accessible to a wider audience, they should be ignored for external use and focus should be primarily on external means of communication • Email is a good method of sharing information on a one-to-one basis (e.g. mail this website to a friend) • Despite their obvious strength, in the age of information overload and spam, mailing lists will not perform efficiently if they are not carefully targeted and offer recipients the option to subscribe/ unsubscribe whenever they wish. • Note!: there are legal requirements associated with the possibility to subscribe/unsubscribe and the storage of and access to personal data [European Commission, n.d.] 27
    • 28. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Broadcast medium similar to blogs • The difference between microblogging and an actual blog is in the size of the content in both actual and aggregate files. • The actual messages are called microposts. • Commercial microblogs exist to promote websites, services, products or collaboration within an organization. • Can contain a wide range of topics. • Low effort to 28
    • 29. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Twitter – Social networking service and microblogging service – users can send messages of a maximum length of 140 characters, follow other users, and create interest lists. – Widely used means of dissemination – Significant space limitations: 140 characters or less – Twitts are publicly visible by default (senders can restrict the access control) – Users can tweet using the website, external APIs or SMS – The service is free – Users may subscribe to other users tweets – this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers or 29
    • 30. Dynamic 30
    • 31. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Tumblr – Tumblr is a microblogging platform and social networking website. – It is owned and operated by Tumblr, Inc. – It allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog, named a "tumblelog". – Users can follow other users blogs, as well as make their blogs 31
    • 32. Dynamic 32
    • 33. Dynamic Broadcasting Blogs • Alternatively called web logs or weblogs • A weblog is a hierarchy of text, images, media objects and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser. * • In some situations, it is the creator‘s online journal. • The activity of updating a blog is ―blogging‖ and someone who keeps a blog is a ―blogger.‖ • Items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. • Individual articles on a blog are called ―blog posts,‖ ―posts‖ or ―entries‖. • Blogs are usually (but not always) written by one person and are updated pretty regularly. • Blogs are often (but not always) written on a particular topic. * Images taken from: 33
    • 34. Dynamic 34
    • 35. Dynamic Broadcasting Using Social Networks • Social network content is dynamic in the sense that it provides information that will expire after a period of time and be important only for that period and moment; • However, as it focuses more on creating communities than on the temporal and geospatial aspect of the information, it will be discussed in detail in Section 35
    • 36. Dynamic Broadcasting Chat Applications • one-to-one basis • Instant method of communication • Text-based chat, video chat, one vs. multiple receivers, web-based etc. • Can be applied to a small number of people (it does not scale well for large groups – it is impossible to follow who is discussion when more than one member of the discussion group is writing/typing simultaneously) • It is not useful as a method of dissemination due to its instant and intrusive nature • In order to be used as a dissemination method, the user must add the message sender to the contact 36
    • 37. Dynamic 37
    • 38. Dynamic 38
    • 39. Dynamic 39
    • 40. Dynamic Broadcasting … and many 40
    • 41. Sharing • There are a large number of Web 2.0 websites that support the sharing of information items such as: bookmarks, images, slides, and videos, etc. • Provided by hosting services (images, videos, slides are stored on a server) 41
    • 42. Sharing • Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) • Examples: – Flickr – as a means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; – Slideshare – channel for storing and exchanging presentations; – YouTube and VideoLectures – sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websites – Social Bookmark sites: e.g. delicious, digg, StumbleUpon – Social News websites: e.g. 42
    • 43. SharingSlide Sharing slideshare • Launched in 2006 • Is a Web 2.0 based slide hosting service • Users can upload files privately or publicly as: PowerPoint, PDF, Keynote or OpenOffice presentations • Slide decks can then be viewed on the site itself, on hand held devices or embedded on other sites • SlideShare also provides users the ability to rate, comment on, and share the uploaded 43
    • 44. 44
    • 45. SharingPicture Sharing flickr • Launched in 2004, and acquired by Yahoo! in 2005 • Image and video hosting website, web services suite and online community • It is a popular website for users to share and embed personal photographs • It is a service widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs and social media • features: – accounts, groups and access control – organization (based on tags added on the pictures), – organizr (web application for organizing photos within an account that can be accessed through the Flikr interface), – picnik (default photo editor in a partnership with Picnik online photo-editing application), access control, – interaction and compatibility with other applications (e.g. RSS and Atom feeds) – filtering (lets members specify by default what types of images they generally upload and how "safe" the images are), – licensing, map sources (georgraphic locations), account-undelete option (reverse an account rermination) 45
    • 46. 46
    • 47. SharingVideo Sharing YouTube • Video-sharing website where users can upload, view and share videos • Features – Video technology: Playback (re-watch a video), Uploading (up to 15 min), Quality and codecs and 3D videos – Content accessibility - view videos on web pages outside the site – Localization - adaptability to different languages, regional differences and technical 47
    • 48. SharingVideo Sharing Videolectures • Launched in 2007 • VideoLectures.NET is a free and open access educational video lectures repository. • The lectures are given by distinguished scholars and scientists at the most important and prominent events such as conferences, summer schools, workshops and science promotional events from many scientific fields. • The portal is aimed at promoting science, exchanging ideas and fostering knowledge sharing by providing high quality, didactic contents not only to the scientific community but also to the general public. • All lectures, accompanying documents, information and links are systematically selected and classified through the editorial process whilst taking into account users 48
    • 49. 49
    • 50. SharingSocial Bookmarking • Is a method for Internet users to organize, store, manage and search for bookmarks of resources online. • Descriptions may be added to these bookmarks in the form of metadata, so users may understand the content of the resource without first needing to download it for themselves. • The resources themselves arent shared, merely bookmarks that reference them. • Social bookmarking is particularly useful when collecting a set of resources that are to be shared with others. • Anyone can participate in social 50
    • 51. SharingSocial Bookmarking delicious • Founded in 2003 • Is a social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks. • Characterized by a non-hierarchical classification system in which users can tag each of their bookmarks with the desired index terms (which generates a kind of folksonomy) • A combined view of everyones bookmarks with a given tag is available; • The most important links or popular ones can be seen on the home page, "popular" and "recent" pages • All bookmarks are publicly viewable by default - the public aspect is emphasized the site is not focused on storing private bookmark collections • But users have the ability to mark some as private and imported ones are private by 51
    • 52. 52
    • 53. SharingSocial Bookmarking digg • Launched in 2004 • User-driven social content website • After a user submits content, other users read their submission and "Digg" what they like best • Allows users to vote stories up or down (called digging and burying, respectively) • If a story receives enough Diggs, it is promoted to the first 53
    • 54. SharingSocial Bookmarking StumbleUpon • Launched in 2001 • Is a discovery engine that finds and recommends web content to its users • StumbleUpon uses collaborative filtering (an automated process combining human opinions with machine learning of personal preference) to create virtual communities of like-minded Web surfers. • Rating Web sites update a personal profile (a blog-style record of rated sites) and generate peer networks of Web surfers linked by common interest. • These social networks coordinate the distribution of Web content, so that users "stumble upon" pages explicitly recommended by friends and peers. • Giving a site a thumbs up results in the site being placed under the users "favorites" 54
    • 55. SharingSocial Bookmarking reddit • Is a social news website where the registered users submit content, in the form of either a link or a text "self" post. • Other users then vote the submission "up" or "down," which is used to rank the post and determine its position on the sites pages and front page. • In December 2011, Reddit served just over 2 billion page views to almost 35 million visitors * 55
    • 56. Collaboration Wiki • ―Wiki‖ = Hawaiian word for ―fast‖ of ―quick‖. • Described by the developer of the first wiki software, Ward Cunningham, as the ―simplest online database that could possibly work‖*. • Websites whose users can add, modify or delete content via a web browser using simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. • Are powered by wiki software. • Most of the content is created collaboratively. • Promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended page exists or not. • It seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape • However – once created the information remains static until another user edits or deletes it. *
    • 57. Collaboration Example Wiki Biggest online free 57
    • 58. Collaboration Google Docs • Is a free, Web-based office suite and data storage service • It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with other users. • Google Docs combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheets with a presentation program incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems. • Data storage of files up to 1 GB total in size was introduced on January 13, 2010, but has since been increased to 10 GB, documents using Google Docs native formats do not count towards this quota. • Its main features rely on storage, file limits, and supported file 58
    • 59. Collaboration Ether Pad • Launched in 2008 • EtherPad web service allows real-time document collaboration for groups and teams. • Etherpad can be re-branded with your own domain and company name. • Acquired by Google – the servers are 59
    • 60. Social Networks • Provide a community aspect, i.e. forms a community that shares information in a multi-directional way • Common features (regardless of platform): – construct a public/semi-public profile; – articulate list of other users that they share a connection with; – view the list of connections within the system • Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile • Social networks typically offer more than one channel of dissemination (thus they will be considered platforms with many available dissemination channels): – Facebook: Pages, Groups, Share options – LinkedIn and Xing are focused on professional use and fit the purpose of 60
    • 61. Social Network Facebook • Facebook is a social networking service and website; • Launched in February 2004 • It is owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. • As of May 2012 has over 900 million active users* • More than half are using mobile devices* • Users must register before using the services. • Users can create a personal profile, add friends, exchange messages, chat (the company has also launched a separate instant messaging service), receive automatic notifications, take part in games, etc. * 61
    • 62. Social 62
    • 63. Social Network Google+ • Launched in 2011 • Social networking and identity service owned and operated by Google Inc • Integrates social services such as Google Profiles • Introduces new services such as Circles, Hangouts and Sparks • Share photos, videos, links, or anything else that‘s on your mind. • Users can share using the share box on any Google site or +1 buttons across the 63
    • 64. Social 64
    • 65. Social Network LinkedIn • Founded in December 2002 • LinkedIn is the world‘s largest professional network • It has over 120 million members • LinkedIn connects users to their trusted contacts • Helps users exchange knowledge, ideas, and opportunities with a broader network of professionals. • It allows users to search, keep in touch and extend their networks of 65
    • 66. Social 66
    • 67. Social Network Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam 67
    • 68. Social 68
    • 69. Social Network • Market share for December 2011 (according to ComScore): Worldwide Unique Visitors Percentage 792,999,000 55.1 % 167,903,000 11.7 % 94,823,000 6.6 % Google+ 66,756,000 4.6 % MySpace 61,037,000 4.2 % Others 255,539,000 17.8 % Total 1,438,877,000 100 % 69
    • 70. Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Web applications managing user-generated content • Early forums can be described as a web version of an email list or newsgroup • Internet forums are prevalent in several countries: Japan, China • Are governed by a set of rules • Users have a specific designated role, e.g. moderator, administrator • The unit of communication is the post • Common features – Tripcodes and capcodes - a secret password is added to the users name following a separator character – Private message – Attachment – BBCode and HTML – Emoticon or smiley to convey emotion – Poll – RSS and ATOM feeds – Other forum 70
    • 71. Internet Forums and Discussion 71
    • 72. Online Discussion Groups • Many-to-many • Threaded conversations • Usually created on a particular topic • Have different access levels • Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, knowledge and information sharing and open discussions • Examples: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups. • Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet 72
    • 73. Online Discussion Groups Google Groups • Not a common forum software • Includes an archive of Usenet news group postings dating back t o 1981 • Strongly focuses on the concept of mailing list - Can have parallel mailing lists (can use Google groups to archive another mailing list, such as Yahoo Groups) • Need a Google account to access groups or post messages; • What can be shared: there‘s a limit of 25MB including attachments/ group • Joining a group: Invitation or request. Owners can make an opt-out issue by inviting members directly through their email address • Notifications: – No email: read group postings only online – Abridged Email: one summary email of new activity/day – Digest Email: get up to 25 full messages in a single email – Email: send each message to me as it arrives • Noise: the level of noise is dependent on the managers; • Fully integrated with Google products : Google Calendars, Google Docs, Google 73
    • 74. Online Discussion 74
    • 75. Online Discussion Groups Yahoo! Groups • Yahoo! Groups is one of the world‘s largest collections of online discussion boards. • Group messages can be read and posted by e-mail or on the Groups webpage like a web forum. • Members can choose whether to receive individual, daily digest or Special Delivery e- mails, or simply read Group posts on the Group‘s web site • Groups can be created with public or member-only access. • Yahoo! Groups service provides additional facilities for each Group web site, such as a homepage, message archive, polls, calendar • announcements, files, photos, database functions, and 75
    • 76. Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups • Create a private space (group) to share – Post updates, questions, photos; – Chat with the group; – Create share docs – Schedule group events • Members can stay in touch using: – Notifications regarding new posts and updates – The group‘s shared email address to connect off 76
    • 77. Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups• Pages allow real organizations, businesses, • Groups provide a closed space for small groups celebrities and brands to communicate of people to communicate about shared broadly with people who like them. interests.• Pages may only be created and managed by • Groups can be created by anyone. official representatives. • Privacy: groups offer three levels of control over• Privacy: information and posts are public and shared information: open, closed and secret. In generally available to everyone on Facebook. secret and closed groups, posts are only visible• Audience: to group members. – Anyone can like a Page to become connected • Audience: with it and get News Feed updates. – Group members must be approved or added by – There is no limit to how many people can like a other members. Page. – When a group reaches a certain size, some – Visitor statistics features are limited (e.g. chat).• Communication: – The most useful groups tend to be the ones you create with small groups of people you know. – Page admins can share posts under the Page‘s name. • Communication: – Page posts appear in the News Feed of people – In groups, members receive notifications by default who like the Page. when any member posts in the group. – Page admins can also create customized apps – Group members can participate in chats, upload for their Pages and check Page Insights to track photos to shared albums, collaborate on group the Page‘s growth and activity. docs, and invite all members to group events. Groups: smaller number of people. Pages: large number of followers 77
    • 78. Online Discussion Groups LinkedIn • Discover the most popular discussions. • Take an active part in determining the top discussions by liking and commenting. • Follow the most influential people in your groups by checking the Top Influencers board or clicking their profile image to see all their group activity. • Review new members or search for specific ones. • See both member-generated discussions and news in one setting. • Easily browse previews of the last three comments in a discussion. • Find interesting discussions by seeing who liked a discussion and how many people 78
    • 79. Online Discussion Groups Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam 79
    • 80. Online Discussion Groups Tool Website Description Meetup Meetup is an online social networking portal that facilitates offline group meetings in various localities around the world [Wiki]. GroupSpaces GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs, societies, associations and other groups manage their membership and activities, and promote themselves online [Wiki]. Windows Live Windows Live Groups is an online service by Microsoft as part of its Groups Windows Live range of services that enable users to create their social groups for sharing, discussion and coordination [Wiki] 80
    • 81. Online Discussion GroupsCharacteristics Google Groups Yahoo Groups Facebook Groups LinkedIn Xing Groups GroupsForums Yes Yes Yes Yes YesChat Threaded Yes Yes (max 250 No No conversation members)Shared email Yes Yes Yes No NoUpload content (documents, Not part of Yes Yes Via weblinks Yesimages, videos) groups Google DocsMaximum Storage 25 MB posts and 200 MB Unlimited -- 2 MB attachmentsIntegrate external content Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes(RSS feeds)Notifications Customizable: no Email Email, FB Email, http email, abridged, notifications bundled newsletter digest, emailSearch features Google Search / Yahoo search, Not a separate Advanced - Advanced Directory Search separate group function (Facebook search for search classic search), group, clumsy and no member, group suggestion event 81
    • 82. Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • ODG have a limited number of members; • ODG are intended for a smaller number of people to collaborate (Facebook places the number at 250 members); • ODG have a specific purpose – a goal that unites all members, i.e. a discussion topic. • In ODG the number of members and the ideas of the members are known to all participants. • ODG have a creator/owner recognized by all members; • ODG follow a set of rules determined by the administrator, moderator or owner; • In ODG members may have different roles: administrator, moderator, owner, participant, 82
    • 83. Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • Moderators and administrators ensure that the ODG‘s internal code of conduct is followed; • In ODG all members have access to the same shared resources; • ODG members do not have to be connected with the other members (other than the group) to communicate • SN vary in size and heterogeneity; • In SN different members have access to different resources (e.g. some members might have restricted access to a friend‘s photo archive); • In SN members do not know how many participant exist, or who they are; 83
    • 84. Semantic Based Dissemination What is semantic web? • An extension of the current web in which information is given a well defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in 84
    • 85. Semantic Based Dissemination Why use semantics? • Problems with current day search engines: – Recall issues – Results are dependent on the vocabulary – Results are single Web pages – Human involvement is necessary for result interpretation – Results of Web searches are not readily accessible by other software tools • Content is not machine-readable: – It is difficult to distinguish between: ―I am a professor of computer science.‖ and ―You may think, I am a professor of computer science. Well, actually. . .‖ 85
    • 86. Semantic Based Dissemination The Semantic Web Approach • Represent Web content in a form that is more easily machine-processable. • Use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these representations. • Knowledge will be organized in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. • Automated tools for maintenance and knowledge discovery • Semantic query answering • Query answering over several documents • Defining who may view certain parts of information (even parts of documents) will be possible. • Semantic Web does not rely on text-based manipulation, but rather on machine- processable 86
    • 87. Semantic Based 87
    • 88. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Rich Snippets • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. • Snippets—the few lines of text that appear under every search result—are designed to give users a sense for what‘s on the page and why it‘s relevant to their query. • If Google understands the content on your pages, we can create rich snippets— detailed information intended to help users with specific 88
    • 89. Semantic Based Dissemination Overview Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. 89
    • 90. Semantic Based Dissemination • A (Semantic Web) vocabulary can be considered as a special form of (usually light- weight) ontology, or sometimes also merely as a collection of URIs with an (usually informally) described meaning*. – URI = uniform resource identifier – Semantic vocabularies include: FOAF, Dublin Core, Good Relations, etc. • Format is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. – The most known examples are RDF and OWL. • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. – OWLIM - a family of semantic repositories, or RDF database management system * 90
    • 91. Semantic Based Dissemination Format • an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. • is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable 91
    • 92. Semantic Based Dissemination Methods of describing Web content: RDFs 1998 RDF 1999 RDFa 2004 Microformats 2005HTML Meta OWL Elements 2007 SPARQL 2008 OWL 2 2009 RIF 2010 Microdata 92
    • 93. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • HTML or XHTML elements which provide structured metadata about a Web page • Represented using the <meta...> element • Can be used to specify page description, keywords and any other metadata not provided through the other head elements and attributes • Example: <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html" > 93
    • 94. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Search engine optimization attributes: keywords, description, language, robots – keywords attribute - although popular in the 90s, search engine providers realized that information stored in meta elements (especially the keywords attribute) was often unreliable and misleading, or created to draw users towards spam sites – description attribute - provides concise explanation of a Web pages content – the language attribute - tells search engines what natural language the website is written in – the robots attribute - controls whether or not search engine spiders are allowed to index a page, and whether or not they should follow links from a 94
    • 95. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Example - metadata contained by <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="title" content="Wikipedia"> <meta name="description" content="Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit."> <meta name="author" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="copyright" content="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 and GNU Free Documentation License"> <meta name="publisher" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="language" content="Many"> <meta name="robots" content="index, follow"> <!--[if lt IE 7]> <meta http-equiv="imagetoolbar" content="no"> <![endif]--> <meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes"> 95
    • 96. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML for embedding rich metadata within Web documents. • Adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML enabling the embedding of RDF triples; • Integrates best with the W3C meta data stack built on top of RDF • Benefits [Wikipedia RDFa, n.d.]: – Publisher independence: each website can use its own standards; – Data reuse: data is not duplicated - separate XML/HTML sections are not required for the same content; – Self containment: HTML and RDF are separated; – Schema modularity: attributes are reusable; – Evolv-ability: additional fields can be added and XML transforms can extract the semantics of the data from an XHTML file; – Web accessibility: more information is available to assistive technology. • Disadvantage: the uptake of the technology is hampered by the web- master‘s lack of familiarity with this technology 96
    • 97. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • RDFa Attributes: – about and src – a URI or CURIE specifying the resource the metadata is about – rel and rev – specifying a relationship or reverse-relationship with another resource – href and resource – specifying the partner resource – property – specifying a property for the content of an element – content – optional attribute that overrides the content of the element when using the property attribute – datatype – optional attribute that specifies the datatype of text specified for use with the property attribute – typeof – optional attribute that specifies the RDF type(s) of the subject (the resource that the metadata is about) 97
    • 98. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Example <div xmlns:dc= about=""> <span property="dc:title">Wikinomics</span> <span property="dc:creator">Don Tapscott</span> <span property="dc:date">2006-10-01</span> </div> 98
    • 99. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies • WebOnt developed OWL language • OWL based on earlier languages OIL and DAML+OIL • Characterized by formal semantics and RDF/XML- based serializations for the Semantic Web • Endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 99
    • 100. Semantic Based Dissemination OWL Sublanguages • The W3C-endorsed OWL specification includes the definition of three variants of OWL, with different levels of expressiveness (ordered by increasing expressiveness): – OWL Lite - originally intended to support those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints Each of these sublanguage – OWL DL - was designed to provide the maximum expressiveness is a syntactic extension of possible while retaining computational completeness, decidability, and the availability of practical reasoning algorithms. its simpler predecessor. – OWL Full - designed to preserve some compatibility with RDF Schema • The following set of relations hold. Their inverses do not. – Every legal OWL Lite ontology is a legal OWL DL ontology. – Every legal OWL DL ontology is a legal OWL Full ontology. – Every valid OWL Lite conclusion is a valid OWL DL conclusion. – Every valid OWL DL conclusion is a valid OWL Full conclusion. • Development of OWL Lite tools has thus proven almost as difficult as development of tools for OWL DL, and OWL Lite is not widely used Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 100
    • 101. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Class Axioms – oneOf (enumerated classes) – disjointWith – sameClassAs applied to class expressions – rdfs:subClassOf applied to class expressions • Boolean Combinations of Class Expressions – unionOf – intersectionOf – complementOf • Arbitrary Cardinality – minCardinality – maxCardinality – cardinality • Filler Information – hasValue Descriptions can include specific value information Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 101
    • 102. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Example: <owl:Class> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:allValuesFrom> <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Doctor"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Doctor"/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:unionOf> </owl:allValuesFrom> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 102
    • 103. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Extends OWL 1 • Inherits OWL 1 language features • Makes some patterns easier to write • Does not change expressiveness, semantics and complexity • Provides more efficient processing in implementations • Syntactic sugar: – DisjointUnion - Union of a set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – DisjointClasses - A set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – NegativeObjectPropertyAssertion - Two individuals; a property does not hold between them – NegativeDataPropertyAssertion - An individual; a literal; a property does not hold between them • OWL 2 allows the same identifiers (URIs) to denote individuals, classes, and properties • Interpretation depends on context • A very simple form of meta-modelling Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 103
    • 104. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • New constructs for properties: – Self restriction: Classes of objects that are related to themselves by a given property – Qualified cardinality restriction: Qualifies the instances to be counted – Object properties – Disjoint properties – Property chain: Properties can be defined as a composition of other properties – keys • An OWL 2 profile (commonly called a fragment or a sublanguage in computational logic) is a trimmed down version of OWL 2 that trades some expressive power for the efficiency of reasoning. • OWL 2 profiles – OWL 2 EL is particularly useful in applications employing ontologies that contain very large numbers of properties and/or classes. – OWL 2 QL is aimed at applications that use very large volumes of instance data, and where query answering is the most important reasoning task – OWL 2 RL is aimed at applications that require scalable reasoning without sacrificing too much expressive power. • OWL 2 profiles are defined by placing restrictions on the structure of OWL 2 ontologies. Source: 104
    • 105. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Example property chains in OWL2: Declaration( ObjectProperty( :isEmployedAt ) ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :SC ) SubObjectPropertyOf( ObjectPropertyChain( :isEmployedAt :isPartOf ) :isEmployedAt) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :ICS ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :MU ) Source: 105
    • 106. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A collection of dialects (rigorously defined rule languages) • Intended to facilitate rule sharing and exchange • RIF framework is a set of rigorous guidelines for constructing RIF dialects in a consistent manner • The RIF framework includes several aspects: – Syntactic framework – Semantic framework – XML framework • RIF can be used to map between vocabularies (one of the proposed use cases) Source: Michael Kifer State University of New York at Stony 106
    • 107. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • The standard RIF dialects are: – Core - the fundamental RIF language. It is designed to be the common subset of most rule engines. (It provides "safe" positive datalog with builtins.) – BLD (Basic Logic Dialect) - adds a few things that Core doesnt have: logic functions, equality in the then-part, and named arguments. (This is positive Horn logic, with equality and builtins.) – PRD (Production Rules Dialect) - adds a notion of forward-chaining rules, where a rule fires and then performs some action, such as adding more information to the store or retracting some information. • Although RIF dialects were designed primarily for interchange, each dialect is a standard rule language and can be used even when portability and interchange are not required. • The XML syntax is the only one defined as a standard for interchange. Various presentation syntaxes are used in the specification, but they are not recommended for sending between different systems. Source: 107
    • 108. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A simplified example of RIF-Core rules combined with OWL to capture anatomical knowledge that can be used to help label brain cortex structures in MRI images. Source: 108
    • 109. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microformats • Directly use meta tags of XHTML to embed semantic information in web documents; • Microformats were developed as a competing approach directly using some existing HTML tags to include meta data in HTML documents • As of 2010, microformats allow the encoding and extraction of events, contact information, social relationships and so on • Advantages: – you can publish a single, human readable version of your information in HTML and then make it machine readable with the addition of a few standard class names – No need to learn another language – Easy to add • However: they overload the class tag which causes problems for some parsers as it makes semantic information and styling markup hard to 109
    • 110. Semantic Based Dissemination Format - Microformats • Example <ul class="vcard"> <li class="fn">Joe Doe</li> <li class="org">The Example Company</li> <li class="tel">604-555-1234</li> <li><a class="url“ href=""></a></li> </ul> 110
    • 111. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Use HTML5 elements to include semantic descriptions into web documents aiming to replace RDFa and Microformats. • Introduce new tag attributes to include semantic data into HTML • Unless you know that your target consumer only accepts RDFa, you are probably best going with microdata. • While many RDFa-consuming services (such as the semantic search engine Sindice) also accept microdata, microdata-consuming services are less likely to accept RDFa. • Advantages: – the variable groupings of data within published area tables may not be the detail required for a particular application (e.g. age group, ethnic group or occupational classification). – the cross-tabulations of variables available in area tables may not be those needed for a study (e.g. counts of individuals by age and ethnic group and occupation) 111
    • 112. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Examples: – Google may use microdata in its results pages: – Opera from version 11.60 is the only current stable release of a browser that supports microdata: – MicrodataJS is a JavaScript library and jQuery plugin that emulates the DOM 112
    • 113. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example without microdata: <section> Hello, my name is John Doe, I am a graduate research assistant at the University of Dreams. My friends call me Johnny. You can visit my homepage at <a href=""></a> . I live at 1234 Peach Drive Warner Robins, Georgia. </section> 113
    • 114. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example using microdata: <section itemscope itemtype=""> Hello, my name is <span itemprop="name">John Doe</span> , I am a <span itemprop="title">graduate research assistant</span> at the <span itemprop="affiliation">University of Dreams</span>. My friends call me <span itemprop="nickname">Johnny</span> . You can visit my homepage at <a href= itemprop="url"></a>. <section itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://data-"> I live at <span itemprop="street-address"> 1234 Peach Drive</span> <span itemprop="locality">Warner Robins</span> , <span itemprop="region">Georgia</span>. </section> </section> 114
    • 115. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. • RDF provides a common framework for expressing information so it can be exchanged between applications without loss of meaning. • It is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers (called Uniform Resource Identifiers, or URIs) and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values • Thus, RDF can represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values. • It specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without requiring all the data consumers to be changed Source: 115
    • 116. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • Based on triples <subject, predicate, object> • An RDF triple contains three components: – the subject, which is an RDF URI reference or a blank node – the predicate, which is an RDF URI reference – the object, which is an RDF URI reference, a literal or a blank node – An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject, predicate, object. – The predicate is also known as the property of the triple. • Triple data model: <subject, predicate, object> – Subject: Resource or blank node – Predicate: Property – Object: Resource (or collection of resources), literal or blank node • Example: <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill> 116
    • 117. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • An RDF graph is a set of RDF triples. • The set of nodes of an RDF graph is the set of subjects and objects of triples in the graph. • Person ages (:age) and favorite friends (:fav) Properties encoded as XML entities: <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf=" 22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:example=" xample-schema#"> <example:Person> <example:name>Smith</example:name> <example:age>21</example:age> <example:fav>Jones</example> </example:Person> </rdf:RDF> 117
    • 118. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • A recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language • On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation • Query language based on RDQL • Used to retrieve and manipulate data stored in RDF format • Uses SQL-like 118
    • 119. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • Example SPARQL Query: – “Return the full names of all people in the graph” PREFIX vCard: <> SELECT ?fullName WHERE {?x vCard:FN ?fullName} – Results: @prefix ex: <> . @prefix vcard: <> . fullName ex:john vcard:FN "John Smith" ; ================= vcard:N [ "John Smith" vcard:Given "John" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; "Mary Smith" ex:hasAge 32 ; ex:marriedTo :mary . ex:mary vcard:FN "Mary Smith" ; vcard:N [ vcard:Given "Mary" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; ex:hasAge 29 119
    • 120. Semantic Based 120
    • 121. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data Linked Data 121
    • 122. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data • Materialization of the usage of vocabularies • Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF― • ―Semantic web done right‖ Tim Berners-Lee • Combination of openness with data + open standards • Linked Data Essentials: – Use URIs – Use HTTP URIs – Serve useful information using SPARQL, RDF standards – Mention URIs of related 122
    • 123. Semantic Based 123
    • 124. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – 124
    • 125. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – • Example*: – Imagine you have a page about the movie Avatar—a page with a link to a movie trailer, information about the director, and so on. Your HTML code might look something like this: <div> <h1>Avatar</h1> <span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954)</span> <span>Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html">Trailer</a> </div> * 125
    • 126. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – • Example with microdata*: <div itemscope itemtype =""> <h1 itemprop="name"&g;Avatar</h1> <div itemprop="director" itemscope itemtype=""> Director: <span itemprop="name">James Cameron</span> (born <span itemprop="birthDate">August 16, 1954)</span> </div> <span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a> </div> * 126
    • 127. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Friend of a Friend • Uses RDF to describe the relationship people have to other ―things‖ around them • FOAF permits intelligent agents to make sense of the thousands of connections people have with each other, their jobs and the items important to their lives; • Because the connections are so vast in number, human interpretation of the information may not be the best way of analyzing them. • FOAF is an example of how the Semantic Web attempts to make use of the relationships within a social 127
    • 128. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Example <foaf:Person> <foaf:name>Dan Brickley</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox_sha1sum> 748934f32135cfcf6f8c06e253c53442721e15e7 </foaf:mbox_sha1sum> </foaf:Person> • Which says "there is a Person called Dan Brickley who has an email address whose sha1 hash is..." 128
    • 129. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • A lightweight ontology for annotating offerings and other aspects of e-commerce on the Web. • The only OWL DL ontology officially supported by both Google and Yahoo. • It provides a standard vocabulary for expressing things like – that a particular Web site describes an offer to sell cellphones of a certain make and model at a certain price, – that a pianohouse offers maintenance for pianos that weigh less than 150 kg, – or that a car rental company leases out cars of a certain make and model from a particular set of branches across the country. • Also, most if not all commercial and functional details of e-commerce scenarios can be expressed, e.g. eligible countries, payment and delivery options, quantity discounts, opening hours, etc. 129
    • 130. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • Example: <rdf:RDF xmlns="" xml:base="" xmlns:toy="" xmlns:gr="" xmlns:xsd="" xmlns:dc="" xmlns:protege="" xmlns:rdfs="" xmlns:rdf="" xmlns:owl=""> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""> <owl:imports rdf:resource=""/> <owl:imports rdf:resource=""/> </owl:Ontology> <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:ID="ElectronicsCom"> <gr:legalName rdf:datatype="&xsd;string" > Ltd.</gr:legalName> <rdfs:seeAlso/> <gr:offers rdf:resource="#Offering_1"/> </gr:BusinessEntity> </rdf:RDF> 130
    • 131. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Early Dublin Core workshops popularized the idea of "core metadata" for simple and generic resource descriptions. • Metadata terms are a set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe resources for the purposes of discovery. • The terms can be used to describe a full range of web resources: video, images, web pages etc. and physical resources such as books and objects like artworks • The Dublin Core standard includes two levels: – Simple Dublin Core comprises 15 elements; – Qualified Dublin Core includes three additional elements;— Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder;— as well as a group of element refinements, also called qualifiers, that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery. Source: (tutorials) 131
    • 132. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Characteristics of DublinCore: – All elements are optional – All elements are repeatable – Elements may be displayed in any order – Extensible – International in scope • The fifteen core elements are usable with or without qualifiers • Qualifiers make elements more specific: – Element Refinements narrow meanings, never extend – Encoding Schemes give context to element values • If your software encounters an unfamiliar qualifier, look it up –or just ignore it! Source: (tutorials) 132
    • 133. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements: ... <head profile=""> <title>Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements</title> <link rel="schema.DC" href="" /> <link rel="schema.DCTERMS" href="" /> <meta name="DC.title" lang="en" content="Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements" /> <meta name="DC.creator" content="Andy Powell, UKOLN, University of Bath" /> <meta name="DCTERMS.issued" scheme="DCTERMS.W3CDTF" content="2003-11-01" /> <meta name="DC.identifier" scheme="DCTERMS.URI" content="" /> <link rel="DCTERMS.replaces" hreflang="en" href="" /> <meta name="DCTERMS.abstract" content="This document describes how qualified Dublin Core metadata can be encoded in HTML/XHTML &lt;meta&gt; elements" /> <meta name="DC.format" scheme="DCTERMS.IMT" content="text/html" /> <meta name="DC.type" scheme="DCTERMS.DCMIType" content="Text" /> </head> 133
    • 134. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Rich Snippets • Three steps to rich snippets 1. Pick a markup format. Google suggests using microdata, but any of the three formats below are acceptable. • Microdata (recommended) • Microformats • RDFa 2. Mark up your content. Google supports rich snippets for these content types: • Reviews • People • Products • Businesses and organizations • Recipes • Events • Music • Google also recognizes markup for video content and uses it to improve our search 134
    • 135. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – OWLIM • OWLIM is a high-performance OWL repository • Storage and Inference Layer (SAIL) for Sesame RDF database • OWLIM performs OWL DLP reasoning • It is uses the IRRE (Inductive Rule Reasoning Engine) for forward-chaining and ―total materialization‖ • In-memory reasoning and query evaluation • OWLIM provides a reliable persistence, based on RDF N-Triples • OWLIM can manage millions of statements on desktop hardware • Extremely fast upload and query evaluation even for huge ontologies and knowledge bases • OWLIM is developed by 135
    • 136. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – OWLIM • OWLIM is available as a Storage and Inference Layer (SAIL) for Sesame RDF. • Benefits: – Sesame‘s infrastructure, documentation, user community, etc. – Support for multiple query language (RQL, RDQL, SeRQL) – Support for import and export formats (RDF/XML, N-Triples, N3) 136
    • 137. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Jena • Apache Jena™ is a Java framework for building Semantic Web applications. • Jena provides a collection of tools and Java libraries to help you to develop semantic web and linked-data apps, tools and servers. • The Jena Framework includes: – an API for reading, processing and writing RDF data in XML, N-triples and Turtle formats; – an ontology API for handling OWL and RDFS ontologies; – a rule-based inference engine for reasoning with RDF and OWL data sources; – stores to allow large numbers of RDF triples to be efficiently stored on disk; – a query engine compliant with the latest SPARQL specification – servers to allow RDF data to be published to other applications using a variety of protocols, including 137
    • 138. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Jena • Jena stores information as RDF triples in directed graphs, and allows your code to add, remove, manipulate, store and publish that information. • Jena architecture 138
    • 139. Overview of 139
    • 140. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 140
    • 141. Pitfalls of Dissemination • Online dissemination methods are forms of electronic marketing, BUT there are important differences between electronic spam and conventional marketing techniques. • For instance, common sense dictates that there‘s no reason to send an advertisement to somebody who can‘t use the product being advertised (e.g. presenting advantages of cat food to dog owners). • The method of dissemination must be particularly crafted for the target audience (e.g. a message containing a large amount of technical details should not be sent to a partner that cannot understand such details) • The method of dissemination must be particularly crafted for the channel selected to disseminate: the message should be shared on channels that permit it, otherwise it will be considered spam. • A dissemination channel should not be intrusive: a member should be asked before being subscribed to a specific list, and should have the option to unsubscribe and re-subscribe whenever he wishes 141
    • 142. Pitfalls of Dissemination • The user must not be overloaded with information and must have the option of managing the content received (e.g. receive daily/weekly digests instead of numerous messages containing a single message) • Close attention should be paid to the messages that are disseminated: elements that are not of utmost important should be just posted on the website regularly (and provide a single newsletter directing the user to the site). • Posting elements that are not interesting for a user will be considered spam (in essence, spam is a message from someone else that the receiver did not ask for and does not want to have). • The receiver should not be buried under a large number of messages – it will create frustration as the important messages become harder to observe. • When using chat applications as methods of dissemination, certain etiquette elements must be taken into consideration: – Mass messages containing advertising are considered rude – A discrete way of disseminating is using the status 142
    • 143. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 143
    • 144. Communication Multi- Channel 144
    • 145. Measuring impact of dissemination What is impact and feedback? Measuring impact of dissemination Overview of available tools per 145
    • 146. What is Impact and Feedback Impact = influence, effect of the dissemination process Feedback = evaluative information derived from the reaction or response to a particular activity part of the 146
    • 147. What is Impact and Feedback Impact of dissemination • The impact of dissemination refers to: − the actions that followed the dissemination of the message; − the effect of the message on the behavior of the customers related to an enterprise, the offered products and services; − the influence to the customers and their reaction to the message; 147
    • 148. What is Impact and Feedback Feedback of dissemination • Refers to the response of an audience to a message or activity. • Giving the audience a chance to provide feedback is crucial for maintaining an open communication climate. • ―Feedback refers to a relationship between the behavior of the speaker, the response of the listener and the effect of the response on the further behavior of the speaker. … In a sense, we may say that feedback, in order to be feedback, must be used as feedback.‖ Theodore Clevenger, Jr., and Jack Matthews – “Feedback” – “Communication theory” edited by C.David Mortenser. • Feedback should be measured and 148
    • 149. What is Impact and Feedback Measuring the feedback of the dissemination activities • Increased understanding of the impact of the dissemination processes. – The generation of reports, regarding the dissemination activities, helps an organisation to understand in deep the impact of their work and products to the audience by knowing what people do not find attractive and useful. • Evaluate current online and social network strategies. – It is always important to evaluate a strategy and specify the lessons learned for future use. • Look forward and plan the next business steps and objectives based on the effectiveness of the current activities. – Modify the current dissemination activities according to the reports in order to be more effective in the future and our efforts more 149
    • 150. What is Impact and Feedback Measuring the feedback of the dissemination activities • To ensure that the message disseminated has been seen by the target audience. – By measuring the impact of the dissemination, we could be aware of the visibility that our message achieved. • To verify whether the message has been understood by the target audience. – The disseminated message may be well distributed and visible, but not understood by the audience in the way that the enterprise would like to. • To quantify the reach of the dissemination. – It is important to be able to produce reports with metrics about the effectiveness of the dissemination. This is realizable only by establishing ways to measure the 150
    • 151. What is Impact and Feedback What should we measure to specify the feedback? • Social Media Exposure – How many people did you reach with your message? • Appeal of your message – How many people listened to the entire message? – If the majority of people stopped listening to your message, when did they stop? Was it due to the content, the implementation of the message or the medium? • Engagement – How many people actually reacted to your message? It is important to find out how many people reacted after the dissemination reached them. Did they forward the message to their social circle? 151
    • 152. What is Impact and Feedback What should we measure to specify the feedback? • Influence – Measure how influential the people who engaged with, and reacted to your message. This reflects the influence of the enterprise. The enterprise should be sure the messages are reaching different kinds of people, including average users and influential users. • Message converted to action – The ultimate goal of the enterprise is to monetize the dissemination of products and services. – Measuring how the disseminated messages were converted to transactional actions. – What was the Return On Investment (ROI) and the Social Return On Investment (SROI) 152
    • 153. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Why and What to measure? Measuring impact of dissemination Overview of available tools per 153
    • 154. Measuring Impact of DisseminationWhat syntactical and concrete measuring units to consider? Overview of criteria for measuring • Views and clicks • Unary feedback • Binary feedback • Ratings • Re-publication • Comments: (Sentiment of comments) • Replies • Platform 154
    • 155. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for static broadcasting • Traffic Rank: – Traffic Rank among all sites – Traffic Rank among its category – Reputation (by checking on websites like or • Reach: – Estimated percentage of global internet users who visit – Number of visitors – Number of unique visitors – Number of recurring visitors • Audience – Audience Demographics (age, gender, has children, education, location, etc) • Page views: – Estimated percentage of global page views – Estimated daily unique pageviews per 155
    • 156. Measuring Impact of Dissemination • Percentage of site viewed • Bounce rate: – Estimated percentage of visits to website that consist of a single page view • Time on site: – Estimated daily time on site (mm:ss) • Search: – Estimated percentage of visits that came from a search engine • Connections: – Sites linking in – Links pointing to this site – Link popularity ranking • Reviews • Click stream • (for Wikis) number of mentions of interest topic (e.g. hotel name) 156
    • 157. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for dynamic broadcasting Type Tool Unit (number of…) News feeds RSS Subscriptions, Web site visits Newsletters Subscriptions, Web site visits Email Replies Microblogging Twitter Tweets, Followers, Retweets, Mentions Tumblr Notes, Reblog Blogs Comments, Sharing Social Networks Facebook Likes, Comments Google +1, Comments, Share LinkedIn Comment, Like, Flag Chat Skype Replies, Contacts Google Talk Replies, Contacts Facebook Messenger Replies, Contacts Yahoo! Messenger Replies, 157
    • 158. Measuring Impact of Dissemination News feeds (e.g. RSS) • Subscribers • Web site visitors originating from newsfeed Newsletters • Subscribers • Web site visitors originating from newsfeed Email • Replies Blogs • Comments • Sharing per individual 158
    • 159. Measuring Impact of DisseminationMicroblogging Twitter • Tweets • Followers • Retweets • Mentions Tumblr • Number of Notes • Number of 159
    • 160. Measuring Impact of DisseminationSocial Networks Facebook • Likes per page, Likes per post • Comments per page, Comments per post Google+ • +1 per post, +1 per page • Comments per page, Comments per post • Sharing LinkedIn • Comments • Likes • 160
    • 161. Measuring Impact of DisseminationChats e.g. Skype, Google Talk, Facebook Messenger, Yahoo! Messenger • Number of Contacts • 161
    • 162. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for Sharing Type Tool Unit (number of …) Slides SlideShare Share, comments, follow Images Flickr Comments, faves Videos YouTube Comments, likes, dislikes, share, subscribe to the channel VideoLectures Popularity (star system), reviews, comments Social bookmarking Delicious Stacks, links, comments, favorite, saves Digg diggs StumbleUpon Like, dislike Social News Website Reddit Comment, vote up, vote 162
    • 163. Measuring Impact of DisseminationSlides Slideshare • Likes per page, Likes per post • Comments per page, Comments per postImages Flickr • Comments • 163
    • 164. Measuring Impact of DisseminationVideos YouTube • Comments • Video replies • Likes and Dislikes • Sharing • Subscribe to channel VideoLectures • Popularity (star system) • Reviews • 164
    • 165. Measuring Impact of DisseminationSocial Bookmarking Delicious Digg • Stacks • Diggs • Links • Comments • Favorites StumblUpon • Saves • Like • Dislike Social News Website (e.g. Reddit) • Comments • Vote up or Vote 165
    • 166. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Measuring units for Online Discussion Groups • Posts • Replies to posts • Discussions started (threads) • Number of members Measuring units for Forum • Number of discussions (threads) • Number of members • Number of 166
    • 167. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Resulted user generated content as means of measuring content • Number of times the dissemination channels have been mentioned as sources • Number of times topics presented by the dissemination channels have appeared in unrelated websites or user generated content • Number of 167
    • 168. Measuring Impact of Dissemination Why and What to measure? Measuring Impact of Dissemination Overview of available tools per 168
    • 169. Overview of available tools per channel Social Media impact • Use automated tools to collect and report customer feedback metrics – Social media monitoring tools (Radian6, Alterian) to: – Listening platforms: – Crawlers – Web/online information analytics Brand communities • A brand community is a specialized non-geographically bound community, based on a structures set of social relationships among admirers of a brand (Muniz and O‘Guinn, 2001) • Feedback and impact can be measured by employing analytics inside the community itself (surveys, polls, etc.) 169
    • 170. Overview of available tools per channel Static broadcasting: • Use of websites like, to observe information regarding traffic (rank, reputation, number of visitors, page views, etc. ) 170
    • 171. Overview of available tools per channel Dynamic Broadcasting Feeds: • Web statistics • Third-party RSS feed hosts (e.g. FeedBurner) • Other (third party) solutions: – Generating unique URLs for each subscriber – Anonymity vs. exploration of individual user habits – Such third party services are often only interested in collecting data – Uniquely named transparent images • Uniquely named transparent 1x1 graphics can be added to the description field of an RSS feed • Use standard web logs to see the number of times the image is viewed and determine the number of times the feed was 171
    • 172. Overview of available tools per channel Newsletters: • Number of subscribers (no un-intrusive method of verifying whether the information has been received) Email and mailing lists: • Measuring impact: – Questions: • Who read my emails? • How many backlinks were produced? • BUT: answering this question is difficult! – Read-receipts: • MDN - Message Disposition Notifications (inserted into mail header) • Must be requested prior to sending the email • BUT: o Highly depended on email application used (different implementations, or not supported at all) o Can be turned off by 172
    • 173. Overview of available tools per channel • Email tracking: – Web beacons: embedding of a tiny, invisible tracking image into email – Only working for HTML emails (not plain-text messages) – An individual tracking code is referenced when an event occurs • Message is opened or a link is clicked – Events are stored in database and used for statistics as click-through rates or operates – BUT: Images and links can be turned off in email applications, spam-filters (!!) 173
    • 174. Overview of available tools per channel Microblogs (e.g. Twitter) • Twitter account has no built-in statistics tool – Only number of tweets, of people following, and of followers • New: Twitter for Businesses offers detailed statistics (not free service) • Third-party tools: – e.g. Topsy Social Analytics, TwitterCounter, … – Track number of mentions (for hashtags and accounts) – Track 174
    • 175. Overview of available tools per channel Social networks • Facebook – Facebook Insight for Pages, Apps and Websites – Facebook Insights provide aggregated, non- personally identifiable information to Facebook Page owners and Facebook Platform developers – Statistics for Likes, Reach, and Talking about this – Insight API allows access to these statistics for Platform 175
    • 176. Overview of available tools per channel • Google+ – No built-in statistics tool – Track +1, sharing and comments per post • LinkedIn – Number of connections – New people in your network – Profile stats • Who‘s viewed your profile • Appearances in 176
    • 177. Overview of available tools per channel Chat • Chat should not be used as a main dissemination method due to its very nature (one- to-one conversations) • In particular situations, instant chatting can be employed to disseminate to a small number of people information that concerns only them (e.g. a skype conference disseminating the results of a project management meeting to the development team) • It is a method to address any concerns or ensure 177
    • 178. Overview of available tools per channel Sharing SlideShare • Free Account: Statistics per presentation - Number of: Views (Embed, on slideshare), Favorites, Downloads, Comments • Pro Account: – Analytics summary – Statistics per presentation – Latest tweets – All views (timeline) – Downloads – LinkedIn 178
    • 179. Overview of available tools per channel SlideShare Pro accounts statistics Analytics summary • Total Views / Favorites / Downloads / Tweets / Likes • Most active presentations • Most search keywords • 179
    • 180. Overview of available tools per channel Flickr Free account • Photos‘ views, comments • Set of photos‘ views, comments • Popular – Interestingness: ―Where the clickthroughs are coming from; who comments on it and when; who marks it as a favorite; its tags and many more things which are constantly changing. Interestingness changes over time, as more and more fantastic content and stories are added to Flickr.” [2] – Views – Favorites – 180
    • 181. Overview of available tools per channel Flickr Pro account • Account overview • Individual photos • Daily 181
    • 182. Overview of available tools per channel YouTube 182
    • 183. Overview of available tools per channel • YouTube 183
    • 184. Overview of available tools per channel • YouTube Audience retention: – Absolute audience retention: How often each moment of your video is watched. – Relative audience retention: Video‘s ability to retain viewers relative to all YouTube videos of similar length. (limitation: video views> 184
    • 185. Overview of available tools per channel VideoLectures • Lecture page – Information about: • Views • Lecture popularity (stars) • Social networks counters (Tweets, Likes, Google+, LinkedIn shares, Delicious, Mendeley) • Conference page – Information about: • Most popular lectures (based on views) • Top voted lectures • Author page – Information about: • Views of her/his 185
    • 186. Overview of available tools per channel Social Bookmarking: • Visibility of links shared – Saves • Visibility of grouped bookmarks shared (playlists for the web) – Views – Followers – Social networks counters (Tweets, Likes) – 186
    • 187. Overview of available tools per channel Collaboration • The success of collaboration can either be observed instantly (e.g. a finished Google Document) or can be observed over a long period of time by assessing the projects and responses resulting from the collaboration session (e.g. creating software platforms using information presented in a workshop) 187
    • 188. Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – what to measure • Size (number of members) – assess whether the group should be large or small • Interconnectedness and network density • Shared Language – a successful group shares the same language • Communication activity – meaningful and frequent input • Noise level – low access level • Access level • Resource availability – which members and how many members can access the group‘s resources (conversations, shared documents, etc.) • Use third party applications (such as social media monitoring tools) 188
    • 189. Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – built in methods Characteristics Google Groups Yahoo Groups Facebook LinkedIn Xing Groups Groups Groups Show number of Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes members Show number of Yes (and the top Yes No Yes Yes posts posters) “Health” (activity) 5 star rating Internal, owner Like button Internal Internal measuring system (users) can add other on group mechanism mechanisms (e.g. page and “like” buttons on individual pictures); comments Management Features to track activity Polls No Yes Yes Yes Yes Group statistics No No No dashboard 189
    • 190. Overview of available tools per channel Measuring group impact – built in methods – example 190
    • 191. Overview of available tools per channel Semantic Based Communication • Increased SEO • Easier reach of information • Same measuring units as above can be 191
    • 192. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: 192
    • 193. Summary • Dissemination – To sow and scatter principles, ideas, opinions for growth and propagation, such as seed – Refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback form the audience • Dissemination Channel – Means of exchanging information in the online space – A ―Place‖ where one can find or leave information • Purposes of dissemination – for awareness – for understanding – for 193
    • 194. Summary Dissemination Channels: Classification and Impact Measurement • Static Broadcasting: – Fixed content – User can usually not reply – e.g. printed press, websites/homepages, newsletters… – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. traffic rank, reach, page views, time on site, reviews, click streams,… • Tools: e.g. websites like,,… 194
    • 195. Summary Dissemination Channels: Classification and Impact Measurement • Dynamic Broadcasting: – Small piece of content dependent upon constrains such as time and location – Mobile, variable content – e.g. blogs, twitter, email lists – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. subscriptions, web site visits, replies, shares, contacts • Tools: e.g. web statistics, read-receipts, facebook insights,… 195
    • 196. Summary Dissemination Channels: Classification and Impact Measurement • Sharing: – Dissemination of files an documents, e.g. photos, videos, slides, bookmarks – Usually done through hosting services – e.g. slideshare, flickr, videolectures, delicious – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. share, comments followers, reviews, likes,… • Tools: e.g. slide share statistics, you tube analytics,… 196
    • 197. Summary Classification of Dissemination Channels • Collaboration: – Users can add, modify, or delete content – e.g. wiki, google docs, ether pad – Impact measurement: • The success can either be observed instantly (e.g. finished Google Document) or over a long period of time (e.g. creating software, platforms,…) 197
    • 198. Summary Classification of Dissemination Channels • Social Networks: – Provide a community aspect – Common features: construct a profile, connect to other users, view the lists of connections within the system – Usually offer more than one channel of dissemination – e.g. facebook, google+, xing, linkedIn – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. share, comments, followers, likes,… • Tools: e.g. facebook insight, linkedIn profile stats, … 198
    • 199. Summary Classification of Dissemination Channels • Internet Forums and Discussion Boards: – Web applications managing user-generated content – Unit of Communication is the post – e.g., – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. number of discussions/threads, number of comments, number of members,… • Tools: build in methods or third party applications (social media monitoring tools) 199
    • 200. Summary Classification of Dissemination Channels • Online Discussion Groups: – Many-to-many – Usually created on a particular topic – e.g. Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: e.g. posts, replies to posts, number of members,… • Tools: build in methods or third party applications (social media monitoring tools) 200
    • 201. Summary Classification of Dissemination Channels • Semantic-based Dissemination: – Add machine-processable semantics to the information – Search Engine Optimization – e.g. Google Snippets, RDFa, microformats, SPARQL – Impact measurement: • Measuring units: increased SEO, easier reach of 201
    • 202. References and Additional Material • Wikipedia Channel (communications). (2012, 05 04). Retrieved from Wikipedia: • European Comission (2012, 05 08). Dissemination and exploitation. Retrieved from European Comission: • Harmsworth, S., Turpin, S., Rees, A., & Pell, G. (2000). Creating an Effective Dissemination Strategy An Expanded Interactive Workbook for Educational Development. TQEF National Co- ordination Team. • • Muniz, A.M. Jr. and T.C. O‘Guinn. 2001. ‗Brand Community‘, Journal of Consumer Research, 27(4): 412–32. • Wikipedia RDFa. (2012,05 16). Retrieved from Wikipedia: 202