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  • http://newsroom.fb.com/content/default.aspx?NewsAreaId=22http://blog.twitter.com/2011/06/200-million-tweets-per-day.htmlhttp://www.youtube.com/t/press_statistics

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  • 1. Communication Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter©www.sti-innsbruck.at INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at Copyright 2012 STI
  • 2. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 3. 1. Communication  Communication (from the Latin commūnicātiōn- = “share”) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.*  Communication may mean**:  The act of transmitting  A giving or exchanging of information, signals, or messages as by talk, gestures, or writing  The information, signals, or message  Close, sympathetic relationship  A means of communicating; specif., a system for sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc.  A system as of routes for moving troops and material  A passage or way for getting from one place to another.  The art of expressing ideas, esp. in speech and writing.  The science of transmitting information, esp. in symbols. * http://dictionary.reference.com/ ** http://answers.yourdictionary.com/language/what-is-communication.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 4. 1. Communication  Communication is a social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules.  Types of communication:  Spoken or Verbal communication: face-to-face, telephone, radio or television.  Non-verbal communication: body language, gestures, voice tone.  Written communication: letters, e-mails, books, magazines, information written over the Internet.  Visualization communication: such as graphs, charts, maps, or logos. Image Source: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 5. 1. Communication Directional Streams  Vertical communication:  Descendant: Communication that begins in the top management for an enterprise and flows in the way of the hierarchy base of the organization.  Ascendant vertical communication (opposing type).  Lateral or horizontal communication:  Consists of intergroup communication  Usually not dependent on standards and rules established by the formal organization* http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.htmImage Source: http://www.rgbstock.com www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 6. 1. Communication Need for effective communication  Issue instructions and enable the business to operate (see vertical communication)  Enable people at the same level to communicate with each other (see horizontal communication)  Communicate with stakeholders and employees.  Provide essential information.  Keep stakeholders informed.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 7. 1. Communication Models of communication:  Conceptual models used to explain the human communication process  The first major model for communication was created by Shannon and Weaver (1949) to represent the functioning of radio and telephone technologies.  Initial model was composed of three primary parts:  Sender - the part of the telephone a person spoke into;  Channel – the telephone itself;  Receiver – part of the phone where one could hear the other person.  The “noise” component appeared as the authors recognized the presence of static that interferes with one listening to a telephone conversation.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 8. 1. Communication Communication process elements*:  Transmitter or communication’s message source: initiates the communication process and sends the message  Message transmission channel: enables the transmission of the message. Connects the transmitter and the receiver.  Message receptor: entity that receives and decodes the message.  Noises: obstructions in the communication process. Noise is internal (occurs during the encoding or decoding phases) or external (occurs on the transmission channel)  Feedback: the answer the receptor gives as a result of the received message. Can be transmitted by the same channel or a different one.* http://www.knoow.net/en/sceconent/management/communication.htmImage: http://www.productphotographers.net/wp-content/uploads/images/process.jpg www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 9. 1. CommunicationInformation Message Signal Received Message Transmitter Receiver Destination Source Signal Noise Source Schematic diagram of a general communication system as proposed by Shannon and Weaver (1949). www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 10. 1. CommunicationHowever: The model presented is a minimalist abstraction of the reality it attempts to reproduce. Most communication systems are more complex. Most information sources (and destinations) act as both sources and destinations. Transmitters, receivers, channels, signals, and messages are layered both serially and in parallel:  There are multiple signals transmitted and received , even when they are converged into a common signal stream and a common channel.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 11. 1. Communication Moreover,  The Shannon model is not a model of communication  It is a model of the flow of information through a medium.  It is incomplete and biased  It is applicable to the system it maps (telephone or telegraph), rather than most other media.  It suggests a “push” model in which sources of information can inflict it on destinations.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 12. 1. CommunicationIn the real world of media: Destinations are self-selecting “consumers” of information who have the ability to:  select the messages they are most interested in  turn off messages that don’t interest them  focus on one message in preference to other in message rich environments  they can choose to simply not pay attention Messages are frequently stored for elongated periods of time and/or modified in some ways before they are accessed by the “destination”. Communication is almost never unidirectional and it is often indirect.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 13. 1. Communication  Communication is bidirectional  Agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication.  Destinations provide feedback in the form of a message or a set of messages.  The source of feedback is an information source.  The consumer of feedback is a destination. Individuals are simultaneously engaging in sending and receiving of messages (Barnlund, 2008).www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 14. 1. Communication  We communicate to cooperate – regardless of the channel employed.  Communication is  Multi-channel  Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself), i.e. reflexive  Embedded in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated).www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 15. 1. Communication  Computer mediated communication is compared to other forms of communication media based on the following aspects:  Synchronicity  Persistence or “recordability”  Anonymity  Transience  Multimodal language  Relative lack of governing codes of conduct (McQuail, 2005)  A strong dependence on the environment can be observed.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 16. 1. Communication Our approach:  We disseminate information  Deal with the aggregation of feedback and impact by:  simply going through the dissemination chain in the opposite direction  integrating them under the appropriate knowledge item We not only LISTEN TALK to responsewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 17. 1. Communication Online Communication  It is not bound by physical, temporal and social limitations.  Anonymity and privacy depends on the context of the channel used.  It enables large number of audience to transmit and receive information.Image Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 18. 1. Communication  Communication must support:  Design of an information item;  Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels;  Observation of communication acts  Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information published  A holistic methodology for supporting communication must support the above subtasks that form a circle or spiral  These activities form a circle that we call the life cycle model of communicationImage Source: www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 19. 1. Communication A Lifecycle of Communication Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminate Efficient and effective communication not only creates and disseminates information, but also deals with measurement, analysis and aggregation of feedback and impact, collecting responses in the various channels and integrating them under an appropriate knowledge item.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 20. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 21. 2. Dissemination • Dissemination (from the Latin dissēminātus = “sowing seeds”, “scatter wildly in every direction”) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience • Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver. • The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels) • Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as “delivering and receiving of a message”, “the engagement of an individual in a process” and “the transfer of a process or product”. Image taken from: http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/rsz_1rsz_dissemination2.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 21
  • 22. 2. Dissemination • “In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel, or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.” (Wikipedia Channel (communications)) • A channel is a means of exchanging information in the on-line space; a “place” where one can find or leave information, whether it is unanimously referred by a URI or addressed through a service. Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 22
  • 23. 2. Dissemination Classification of channels by the type of service they provide: 2.1. Static Broadcasting 2.2. Dynamic Broadcasting 2.3. Sharing 2.4. Collaboration 2.5. Group Communication 2.6. Semantic-based Communication Image taken from: http://www.softicons.com/free-icons/application-icons/or-applications-icons-by-iconleak/file-cabinet-iconwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 24. 2.1. Static Broadcasting• Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages• More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals• Online static dissemination: websites and homepages….www.sti-innsbruck.at 24
  • 25. 2.2. Dynamic Communication Small piece of content that is dependent on constraints such as time, location. Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second – the level of interactivity) • News Feeds • Newsletters • Email / Email lists • Microblogs • Blogs • Social networks • Chat and instant messaging applicationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 25
  • 26. 2.3. Dissemination through Sharing • Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) • Examples: – Flickr – as a means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; – Slideshare – channel for storing and exchanging presentations; – YouTube and VideoLectures – sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websiteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 26
  • 27. 2.4. Dissemination through Collaborationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 27
  • 28. 2.5. Group Communication Dissemination • Many-to-many • Threaded conversations • Usually created on a particular topic • Have different access levels • Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, knowledge and information sharing and open discussions • Exampled: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups. • Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet Forumswww.sti-innsbruck.at 28
  • 29. 2.6. Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 29
  • 30. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 31. 3. Social Media Monitoring • SMM tools facilitate the listening of what people say about various topics in the social media sphere (blogs, twitter, facebook, etc.) Listening: is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a speaker.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 32. 3. Social Media Monitoring What are the Social Media Monitoring Tools? (cont’d) • Harness the wealth of information available online in the form of user- generated content • These tools offer means for listening to the social media users, analyzing and measuring their activity in relation to a brand or enterprise • Offer access to real customers opinions, complaints and questions, at real time, in a highly scalable waywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 33. 3. Social Media Monitoring Channels to analyze FORUMS/NEWSGROUPS MICROBLOGS VIDEO SHARING SOCIAL NETWORKS WIKIS The Conversation SOCIAL MEDIA NEWSPHOTO SHARING AGGREGATORS BLOGS MAINSTREAM MEDIAwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 34. 3. Social Media Monitoring A Social Media Monitoring tool should support the following core features: • Listening grid • Data analysis • Sentiment analysis • Historical data • Dashboardwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 35. 3. Social Media Monitoring Commercial Tools • Alterian SM2 • Brandwatch • Converseon • Cymfony Maestro • evolve24 Mirror • Media Metrics socialMeme • Meltwater Buzz • NM Incite My BuzzMetrics • Radian6 • Sysomos • Visible Technologies Intelligencewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 36. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 37. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring To make Online Communication Communication efficient and effective, a tool needs • Active and reactive communication to • Integrate publication and monitoring (and support active Multi-Channel Social Media and reactive communication) Publishing Monitoring • Trace the communication in an easy to use manner • Address the issue of multiple channels and multiple agentswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 38. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Address the Address the Support Active Trace the and Re-active Issue of Issue of Communication Multiple Multiple Agents Communication Channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 39. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Active communication If an agent starts a communication – the agent takes the role of the message sender – we talk about active communication. Communication • Active and reactive communication Multi-Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 40. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication  The first step in the Communication Lifecycle will be to design an information item that will be disseminated over suitable channels in the next step.  E.g. the hotelier is engaging with potential costumers by publishing a new offer on his Web site. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminatewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 41. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Example of ActiveCommunicationperformed by a hotelier on Facebookwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 42. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Customerresponse to thehotel’s messagewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 43. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Re-active communication Re-active communication describes communication situations initiated by an external agent – the agent takes the role of the receiver and will re-act on the received message. Communication • Active and reactive communication Multi-Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoringwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 44. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication  The Communication Lifecycle starts with the observation of all channels. In the next step impact, feedback and responses are measured, aggregated, and analyzed.  E.g. the hotelier sees a post on his Facebook page and responds to it. Measure Analyze Aggregate Observe Design Disseminatewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 45. 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring Active vs. re-active communication Transmitter: guest at hotel Reactor: hotelierSource: http://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g53449-d96753-r130438938-Hampton_Inn_Pittsburgh_Greentree-Pittsburgh_Pennsylvania.html www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 46. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 47. 5. Trace Tracing a conversation through all channels involved is crucial for making communication effective and efficient, and is therefore required for Communication • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication  Communication has a history  The communication history IS the trace Multi-Channel Social Media  Communication must be Publishing Monitoring remembered otherwise it is meaninglesswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 48. 5. Trace Trace can be viewed as a set of 5 elements:  Speaker – transmitter, source of the message that initiates the communication process;  Listener – receiver, the destination of the message, witch which a collaboration relation has been established;  Message – the information disseminated;  Channel – the type of channel used to transmit the information (e.g. Facebook, email, Twitter, etc.)  Time and Date – when was the message received;www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 49. 5. Trace  Thus, trace can be viewed as Speaker and WHO Listener WHAT Message HOW Channel WHEN Time and Datewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 50. 5. Trace No reaction Reaction Reaction Reaction Reaction No reaction … Reaction Reaction No reaction HotelWebsite No reaction Reaction No reactionwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 51. 5. Trace Example A hotel disseminates offers using the hotel website. Five potential clients view the offers. 2 clients (marked as green) do not react. The red client sends an email  The hotel replies with a phone call.  The client is satisfied. The communication stagnates. The purple client posts on Facebook a message  The hotel replies  The communication stagnates. For the yellow client  Responds with a tweet, the hotelier replies with a private tweet;  The client posts on Tumblr, the hotelier responds;  …  A chat discussion is initiated via Skype  The customer is satisfied. Conversation stagnates. Note – the communication with either client can be initiated again at any time.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 52. 5. Trace Speaker Message Chanel Time Set Set Set Listenerwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 53. 5. Trace  For yellow it will be: 1: {Hotel, Client, Message1, Time1, Hotel Website} 2: {Client, Hotel, Message2, Time2, Twitter} 3: {Hotel, Client, Message3, Time3, Twitter} … N: {Client, Hotel, MessageN, TimeN, Skype}  Thus:  S = {Hotel};  L = {Client};  M = {Message1, Message2, Message3, …, MessageN};  T = {Time1, Time2, Time3, …, TimeN};  C = {Hotel Website, Twitter, Tumblr, …, Skype};www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 54. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 55. 6. Multi-Channel Switch (Online) Communication is scattered over multiple, often very different channels. Communication • Active and reactive communication • Agents are challenged to • Tracing the communication • Multi-channel switch disseminate information over all appropriate channels. • Activities of all channels the agent is active in must be Multi-Channel Social Media monitored. Publishing Monitoring • Impact, Feedback and Responses need to be collected from all channels.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 56. 6. Multi-Channel Switchwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 57. 6. Multi-Channel Switch WHY  Transmitting a message over a channel does not guarantee that the reply will be received on the same channel.  For example, a hotelier might post an offer on Facebook, and receive a response from Twitter.  Transmitters must be able to switch cannels properly and identify the channel where the response will appear.  Due to the abundance of channels, most of the times there are more than one agents transmitting and receiving messages – a workflow must be set up to ensure that all agents are aware of what is discussed and who is speaking.  To do so, the trace mentioned in the previous section must be used.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 58. 6. Multi-Channel SwitchAbundance of Available Channelswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 59. 6. Multi-Channel Switch Disseminate • On multiple channels Listen • For a response on the channels selected Monitor and measure • The impact of the dissemination (and the customer response) React • Respond to customerswww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 60. 6. Multi-channel Switch Hotel Clientwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 61. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 62. 7. Multi-Agent  Communication requires at Communication least 2 agents: a speaker and • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication a listener • Multi-channel switch • Multi-agent  However, communication does not occur in a void – thus the initial model may never occur Multi-Channel Social Media in real life as there may always Publishing Monitoring be more than one listener or more than one agent.  More agents may be required when the communication receives responses from multiple listeners.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 63. 7. Multi-Agent  Moreover, due to the lack of time constraints on online conversations (they may begin at any time, and be picked up again at irregular intervals), it may be impossible for a single agent to be on call for every response.  Thus, a client may begin a conversation with one agent, and receive a response for a different one.  The trace – explained in the 3rd section, plays an important role of preparing agents and ensuring that the proper response is given.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 64. 7. Multi-Agent 1-to-1  The model represented by the two agents can be coded as 1-to-1, one listener and one speaker  The two agents may communicate over a wide variety of channels  Examples of 1-to-1 communication include phone conversations, char and instant messaging, email (when the email is sent specifically to one receiver and the sender knows it will be read only by that person), etc.  The transmitter will always be active, while the respondent is reactive. Transmit message A B Transmit responsewww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 65. 7. Multi-Agent 1-to-n  When broadcasting information, usually there is one agent who disseminates information to n possible respondents.  This model can be mapped out as 1-to-n: 1 speaker to n listeners.  Examples of such communication include news releases (a press conference for instance, involves 1 speaker and many listeners), a blog post, a Facebook post, Tweet, etc. Listener1 Speaker … ListenerNwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 66. 7. Multi-Agent n-to-1  There are situations where there are more speakers and only one listener.  The n-to-1 model is not often encountered in real life.  The speakers would have to transmit messages in a turn-based manner.  One example is ascendant communication – employees reporting to employer.  In some situations, the communication is not turn-based – such as the case of a protest (more speakers trying to address a single listener) Speaker1 … SpeakerN Listenerwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 67. 7. Multi-Agent m-to-n  In real life, there usually are more speakers and more listeners.  An enterprise will use n agents to disseminate information and listen to customer reactions and responses.  Communication is not isolated, thus there will often be more than one listener.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 68. 7. Multi-Agent m-to-n Hotel Agent1 Posts offer on Facebook Clients Client Responds on Agent2 Responds on email Client’s wife reads the emailwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 69. Communication Overview 1. What is communication? 2. Dissemination 3. Social Media Monitoring 4. Integration of Publication and Monitoring 5. Trace 6. Multi-Channel Switch 7. Multi-Agent 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 70. 8. Summary  Communication (from the Latin commūnicātiōn- = “share”) refers to the process of imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs.www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 71. 8. Summary  Shannon and Weaver (1949) communication model consists of: sender, channel, receiver, information source, and destination.  The model is incomplete: communication is bidirectional, agents interact and communicate in parallel, permanently alternating their role in these acts of communication.  Communication is  Multi-channel  Self-referential (the transmitter also communicates to himself)  Reflexive  Embedded in a network (communication does not occur in a void, the actors communicating are not isolated).  Communication must support:  Design of an information item;  Dissemination of an information item over suitable channels;  Observation of communication acts  Measure, analysis, and aggregation of the information publishedwww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 72. 8. Summarywww.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 73. www.sti-innsbruck.at
  • 74. References Barnlund, D. C. (2008). A transactional model of communication. In. C. D. Mortensen (Eds.), Communication theory (2nd ed., pp47-57). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction. Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press S. Mulpuru, H. H. Harteveldt, and D. Roberge: Five Retail eCommerce Trends To Watch In 2011, Forrester Research Report, January 31, 2011 McQuail, Denis. (2005). Mcquails Mass Communication Theory. 5th ed. London: SAGE Publications. Warschauer, M. (2001). Online communication. In R. Carter & D. Nunan (Eds.), The Cambridge guide to teaching English to speakers of other languages (pp. 207-212). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.www.sti-innsbruck.at