PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College

The Endocrine
Syst...
The Chemistry of Hormones
 Hormones are classified chemically as
 Amino acid–based, which includes
 Proteins
 Peptides...
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
 Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs
(target cells or target organs)
 Target cel...
The Chemistry of Hormones
 Two mechanisms in which hormones act
 Direct gene activation
 Second-messenger system

Copyr...
Direct Gene Activation
(Steroid Hormone Action)
 Diffuse through the plasma membrane of target
cells
 Enter the nucleus
...
Steroid
hormone

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

Receptor
protein
Hormone-receptor
complex
DNA
mRNA
New
protein

Plasma
membrane
of ta...
Second-Messenger System
(Nonsteroid Hormone Action)
 Hormone binds to a membrane receptor
 Hormone does not enter the ce...
Nonsteroid
hormone (first
messenger)

Cytoplasm
Enzyme
ATP

cAMP
Receptor
protein
Plasma
membrane
of target cell

Second
m...
Control of Hormone Release
 Hormone levels in the blood are mostly
maintained by negative feedback
 A stimulus or low ho...
Control of Hormone Release
 Hormone levels in the blood are mostly
maintained by negative feedback
 A stimulus or low ho...
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Ch9bppt hormones honors

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Ch9bppt hormones honors

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Endocrine System 9 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. The Chemistry of Hormones  Hormones are classified chemically as  Amino acid–based, which includes  Proteins  Peptides  Amines  Steroids—made from cholesterol  Prostaglandins—made from highly active lipids Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Mechanisms of Hormone Action  Hormones affect only certain tissues or organs (target cells or target organs)  Target cells must have specific protein receptors  Hormone-binding alters cellular activity Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. The Chemistry of Hormones  Two mechanisms in which hormones act  Direct gene activation  Second-messenger system Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Direct Gene Activation (Steroid Hormone Action)  Diffuse through the plasma membrane of target cells  Enter the nucleus  Bind to a specific protein within the nucleus  Bind to specific sites on the cell’s DNA  Activate genes that result in synthesis of new proteins Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Steroid hormone Nucleus Cytoplasm Receptor protein Hormone-receptor complex DNA mRNA New protein Plasma membrane of target cell PLAY Steroid Hormone Figure 9.1a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Second-Messenger System (Nonsteroid Hormone Action)  Hormone binds to a membrane receptor  Hormone does not enter the cell  Sets off a series of reactions that activates an enzyme  Catalyzes a reaction that produces a secondmessenger molecule  Oversees additional intracellular changes to promote a specific response Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Nonsteroid hormone (first messenger) Cytoplasm Enzyme ATP cAMP Receptor protein Plasma membrane of target cell Second messenger Effect on cellular function, such as glycogen breakdown PLAY Nonsteroid Hormone Figure 9.1b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Control of Hormone Release  Hormone levels in the blood are mostly maintained by negative feedback  A stimulus or low hormone levels in the blood triggers the release of more hormone  Hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Control of Hormone Release  Hormone levels in the blood are mostly maintained by negative feedback  A stimulus or low hormone levels in the blood triggers the release of more hormone  Hormone release stops once an appropriate level in the blood is reached Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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