Ch3bppt cell transport and division

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Ch3bppt cell transport and division

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PART B 3 Cells and Tissues
  2. 2. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Physiology: Membrane Transport  Membrane transport—movement of substances into and out of the cell  Two basic methods of transport  Passive transport  No energy is required  Active transport  Cell must provide metabolic energy (ATP)
  3. 3. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Solutions and Transport  Solution—homogeneous mixture of two or more components  Solvent—dissolving medium; typically water in the body  Solutes—components in smaller quantities within a solution  Intracellular fluid—nucleoplasm and cytosol  Interstitial fluid—fluid on the exterior of the cell
  4. 4. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Selective Permeability  The plasma membrane allows some materials to pass while excluding others  This permeability influences movement both into and out of the cell
  5. 5. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes  Diffusion  Particles tend to distribute themselves evenly within a solution  Movement is from high concentration to low concentration, or down a concentration gradient Figure 3.9
  6. 6. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes  Types of diffusion  Simple diffusion  An unassisted process  Solutes are lipid-soluble materials or small enough to pass through membrane pores DiffusionPLAY
  7. 7. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes Figure 3.10a
  8. 8. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes  Types of diffusion (continued)  Osmosis—simple diffusion of water  Highly polar water molecules easily cross the plasma membrane through aquaporins OsmosisPLAY
  9. 9. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes Figure 3.10d
  10. 10. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes  Facilitated diffusion  Substances require a protein carrier for passive transport  Transports lipid-insoluble and large substances
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes Figure 3.10b–c
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Passive Transport Processes  Filtration  Water and solutes are forced through a membrane by fluid, or hydrostatic pressure  A pressure gradient must exist  Solute-containing fluid is pushed from a high-pressure area to a lower pressure area
  13. 13. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes  Substances are transported that are unable to pass by diffusion  Substances may be too large  Substances may not be able to dissolve in the fat core of the membrane  Substances may have to move against a concentration gradient  ATP is used for transport
  14. 14. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes  Two common forms of active transport  Active transport (solute pumping)  Vesicular transport  Exocytosis  Endocytosis  Phagocytosis  Pinocytosis
  15. 15. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes  Active transport (solute pumping)  Amino acids, some sugars, and ions are transported by protein carriers called solute pumps  ATP energizes protein carriers  In most cases, substances are moved against concentration gradients Active TransportPLAY
  16. 16. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 3.11 Extracellular fluid Cytoplasm Loss of phosphate restores the original conformation of the pump protein. K+ is released to the cytoplasm and Na+ sites are ready to bind Na+ again; the cycle repeats. Binding of cytoplasmic Na+ to the pump protein stimulates phosphorylation by ATP, which causes the pump protein to change its shape. The shape change expels Na+ to the outside. Extracellular K+ binds, causing release of the phosphate group. ADP Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ P P P ATP
  17. 17. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings ExocytosisPLAY Active Transport Processes  Vesicular transport  Exocytosis  Moves materials out of the cell  Material is carried in a membranous vesicle  Vesicle migrates to plasma membrane  Vesicle combines with plasma membrane  Material is emptied to the outside
  18. 18. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes: Exocytosis Figure 3.12a
  19. 19. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes: Exocytosis Figure 3.12b
  20. 20. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes  Vesicular transport (continued)  Endocytosis  Extracellular substances are engulfed by being enclosed in a membranous vescicle  Types of endocytosis  Phagocytosis—“cell eating”  Pinocytosis—“cell drinking”
  21. 21. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes: Endocytosis Figure 3.13a Recycling of membrane and receptors (if present) to plasma membrane CytoplasmExtracellular fluid Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Detachment of vesicle Vesicle containing ingested material Vesicle Vesicle fusing with lysosome for digestion Release of contents to cytoplasm Lysosome Transport to plasma membrane and exocytosis of vesicle contents Plasma membrane Ingested substance Pit (a)
  22. 22. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Active Transport Processes: Endocytosis Figure 3.13b–c
  23. 23. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Life Cycle  Cells have two major periods  Interphase  Cell grows  Cell carries on metabolic processes  Cell division  Cell replicates itself  Function is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes
  24. 24. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Replication  Genetic material is duplicated and readies a cell for division into two cells  Occurs toward the end of interphase  DNA uncoils and each side serves as a template
  25. 25. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings DNA Replication Figure 3.14
  26. 26. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Events of Cell Division  Mitosis—division of the nucleus  Results in the formation of two daughter nuclei  Cytokinesis—division of the cytoplasm  Begins when mitosis is near completion  Results in the formation of two daughter cells
  27. 27. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis  Prophase  First part of cell division  Centrioles migrate to the poles to direct assembly of mitotic spindle fibers  DNA appears as double-stranded chromosomes  Nuclear envelope breaks down and disappears ProphasePLAY
  28. 28. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis  Metaphase  Chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell on the metaphase plate MetaphasePLAY PrometaphasePLAY
  29. 29. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis  Anaphase  Chromosomes are pulled apart and toward the opposite ends of the cell  Cell begins to elongate AnaphasePLAY
  30. 30. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis  Telophase  Chromosomes uncoil to become chromatin  Nuclear envelope reforms around chromatin  Spindles break down and disappear TelophasePLAY
  31. 31. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis  Cytokinesis  Begins during late anaphase and completes during telophase  A cleavage furrow forms to pinch the cells into two parts
  32. 32. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stages of Mitosis Figure 3.15 Centrioles Plasma membrane Interphase Early prophase Late prophase Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Spindle pole Chromatin Centrioles Forming mitotic spindle Centromere Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Fragments of nuclear envelope Centromere Spindle microtubules Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and cytokinesis Daughter chromosomes Sister chromatids Nuclear envelope forming Nucleolus forming Spindle Metaphase plate Cleavage furrow

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