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Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
Ch15ppt urinary honors
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Ch15ppt urinary honors

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Used with permission from Pearson for Clay Virtual Academy. Copyright Pearson, Inc.

Used with permission from Pearson for Clay Virtual Academy. Copyright Pearson, Inc.

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  • 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Urinary System 15 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 2. Functions of the Urinary System  Elimination of waste products  Nitrogenous wastes  Toxins  Drugs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 3. Functions of the Urinary System  Regulate aspects of homeostasis  Water balance  Electrolytes  Acid-base balance in the blood  Blood pressure  Red blood cell production  Activation of vitamin D Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 4. Organs of the Urinary System  Kidneys  Ureters  Urinary bladder  Urethra Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 5. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 6. Location of the Kidneys  Against the dorsal body wall  At the level of the T12 to L3 vertebrae  The right kidney is slightly lower than the left (due to position of the liver) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 7. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 8. Regions of the Kidney  Renal cortex—outer region  Renal medulla—inside the cortex  Renal pelvis—inner collecting tube Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 9. Regions of the Kidney Figure 15.2b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 10. Nephron Anatomy and Physiology  The structural and functional units of the kidneys  Responsible for forming urine  Main structures of the nephrons  Glomerulus  Renal tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 11. Nephrons Figure 15.3a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 12. Collecting Duct  Receives urine from many nephrons  Run through the medullary pyramids  Deliver urine into the calyces and renal pelvis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 13. Nephron Anatomy Figure 15.3b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 14. Urine Formation  Glomerular filtration  Tubular reabsorption  Tubular secretion Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 15. Urine Formation Figure 15.4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 16. Glomerular Filtration  Nonselective passive process  Water and solutes smaller than proteins are forced through capillary walls  Proteins and blood cells are normally too large to pass through the filtration membrane  Filtrate is collected in the glomerular capsule and leaves via the renal tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 17. Tubular Reabsorption  The peritubular capillaries reabsorb useful substances  Water  Glucose  Amino acids  Ions  Some reabsorption is passive, most is active  Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 18. Tubular Reabsorption  Materials not reabsorbed  Nitrogenous waste products  Urea—protein breakdown  Uric acid—nucleic acid breakdown  Creatinine—associated with creatine metabolism in muscles Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 19. Characteristics of Urine  In 24 hours, about 1.0 to 1.8 liters of urine are produced  Urine and filtrate are different  Filtrate contains everything that blood plasma does (except proteins)  Urine is what remains after the filtrate has lost most of its water, nutrients, and necessary ions  Urine contains nitrogenous wastes and substances that are not needed Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 20. Characteristics of Urine  Yellow color due to the pigment urochrome (from the destruction of hemoglobin) and solutes  Sterile  Slightly aromatic  Normal pH of around 6  Specific gravity of 1.001 to 1.035 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 21. Characteristics of Urine  Solutes normally found in urine  Sodium and potassium ions  Urea, uric acid, creatinine  Ammonia  Bicarbonate ions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 22. Characteristics of Urine  Solutes NOT normally found in urine  Glucose  Blood proteins  Red blood cells  Hemoglobin  White blood cells (pus)  Bile Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 23. Abnormal Urine Constituents Table 15.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 24. Ureters  Slender tubes attaching the kidney to the bladder  Continuous with the renal pelvis  Enter the posterior aspect of the bladder  Runs behind the peritoneum  Peristalsis aids gravity in urine transport Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 25. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 26. Urinary Bladder  Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac  Temporarily stores urine  Trigone—triangular region of the bladder base  Three openings  Two from the ureters  One to the urethra  In males, the prostate gland surrounds the neck of the bladder Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 27. Female Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 28. Urinary Bladder Wall  Three layers of smooth muscle collectively called the detrusor muscle  Mucosa made of transitional epithelium  Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder  Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 29. Urinary Bladder Capacity  A moderately full bladder is about 5 inches long and holds about 500 mL of urine  Capable of holding twice that amount of urine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 30. Position and Shape of a Distended and an Empty Urinary Bladder in an Adult Man Figure 15.7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 31. Urethra  Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis  Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters  Internal urethral sphincter  Involuntary and made of smooth muscle  External urethral sphincter  Voluntary and made of skeletal muscle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 32. Female Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 33. Urethra Gender Differences  Length  Females is 3–4 cm (1 inch)  Males is 20 cm (8 inches)  Location  Females—along wall of the vagina  Males—through the prostate and penis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 34. Urethra Gender Differences  Function  Females—only carries urine  Males—carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 35. Water Intake and Output Figure 15.10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  • 36. Maintaining Water Balance  Dilute urine is produced if water intake is excessive  Less urine (concentrated) is produced if large amounts of water are lost  Proper concentrations of various electrolytes must be present Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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