Ch15ppt urinary honors

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Ch15ppt urinary honors

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Urinary System 15 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Functions of the Urinary System  Elimination of waste products  Nitrogenous wastes  Toxins  Drugs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Functions of the Urinary System  Regulate aspects of homeostasis  Water balance  Electrolytes  Acid-base balance in the blood  Blood pressure  Red blood cell production  Activation of vitamin D Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Organs of the Urinary System  Kidneys  Ureters  Urinary bladder  Urethra Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Location of the Kidneys  Against the dorsal body wall  At the level of the T12 to L3 vertebrae  The right kidney is slightly lower than the left (due to position of the liver) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Regions of the Kidney  Renal cortex—outer region  Renal medulla—inside the cortex  Renal pelvis—inner collecting tube Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Regions of the Kidney Figure 15.2b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Nephron Anatomy and Physiology  The structural and functional units of the kidneys  Responsible for forming urine  Main structures of the nephrons  Glomerulus  Renal tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Nephrons Figure 15.3a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Collecting Duct  Receives urine from many nephrons  Run through the medullary pyramids  Deliver urine into the calyces and renal pelvis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Nephron Anatomy Figure 15.3b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Urine Formation  Glomerular filtration  Tubular reabsorption  Tubular secretion Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Urine Formation Figure 15.4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Glomerular Filtration  Nonselective passive process  Water and solutes smaller than proteins are forced through capillary walls  Proteins and blood cells are normally too large to pass through the filtration membrane  Filtrate is collected in the glomerular capsule and leaves via the renal tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Tubular Reabsorption  The peritubular capillaries reabsorb useful substances  Water  Glucose  Amino acids  Ions  Some reabsorption is passive, most is active  Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Tubular Reabsorption  Materials not reabsorbed  Nitrogenous waste products  Urea—protein breakdown  Uric acid—nucleic acid breakdown  Creatinine—associated with creatine metabolism in muscles Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Characteristics of Urine  In 24 hours, about 1.0 to 1.8 liters of urine are produced  Urine and filtrate are different  Filtrate contains everything that blood plasma does (except proteins)  Urine is what remains after the filtrate has lost most of its water, nutrients, and necessary ions  Urine contains nitrogenous wastes and substances that are not needed Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  20. 20. Characteristics of Urine  Yellow color due to the pigment urochrome (from the destruction of hemoglobin) and solutes  Sterile  Slightly aromatic  Normal pH of around 6  Specific gravity of 1.001 to 1.035 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Characteristics of Urine  Solutes normally found in urine  Sodium and potassium ions  Urea, uric acid, creatinine  Ammonia  Bicarbonate ions Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Characteristics of Urine  Solutes NOT normally found in urine  Glucose  Blood proteins  Red blood cells  Hemoglobin  White blood cells (pus)  Bile Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Abnormal Urine Constituents Table 15.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Ureters  Slender tubes attaching the kidney to the bladder  Continuous with the renal pelvis  Enter the posterior aspect of the bladder  Runs behind the peritoneum  Peristalsis aids gravity in urine transport Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Organs of the Urinary System Figure 15.1a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. Urinary Bladder  Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac  Temporarily stores urine  Trigone—triangular region of the bladder base  Three openings  Two from the ureters  One to the urethra  In males, the prostate gland surrounds the neck of the bladder Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. Female Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. Urinary Bladder Wall  Three layers of smooth muscle collectively called the detrusor muscle  Mucosa made of transitional epithelium  Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder  Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  29. 29. Urinary Bladder Capacity  A moderately full bladder is about 5 inches long and holds about 500 mL of urine  Capable of holding twice that amount of urine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  30. 30. Position and Shape of a Distended and an Empty Urinary Bladder in an Adult Man Figure 15.7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Urethra  Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis  Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters  Internal urethral sphincter  Involuntary and made of smooth muscle  External urethral sphincter  Voluntary and made of skeletal muscle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  32. 32. Female Urinary Bladder and Urethra Figure 15.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  33. 33. Urethra Gender Differences  Length  Females is 3–4 cm (1 inch)  Males is 20 cm (8 inches)  Location  Females—along wall of the vagina  Males—through the prostate and penis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  34. 34. Urethra Gender Differences  Function  Females—only carries urine  Males—carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  35. 35. Water Intake and Output Figure 15.10 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  36. 36. Maintaining Water Balance  Dilute urine is produced if water intake is excessive  Less urine (concentrated) is produced if large amounts of water are lost  Proper concentrations of various electrolytes must be present Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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