PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation
by Patty Bostwick-Taylor,
Florence-Darlington Technical College

The Digestive
Syst...
The Digestive System Functions
 Ingestion—taking in food
 Digestion—breaking food down both physically
and chemically
 ...
Functions of the Digestive System
 Ingestion—getting food into the mouth
 Propulsion—moving foods from one region of the...
Functions of the Digestive System
 Food breakdown as mechanical digestion
 Examples:
 Mixing food in the mouth by the t...
Functions of the Digestive System
 Food breakdown as chemical digestion
 Enzymes break down food molecules into
their bu...
Functions of the Digestive System
 Absorption
 End products of digestion are absorbed in the
blood or lymph
 Defecation...
Functions of the Digestive System

Figure 14.11
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Organs of the Digestive System
 Two main groups
 Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract)
—continuous coiled holl...
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
 Mouth
 Pharynx
 Esophagus
 Stomach
 Small intestine
 Large intestine
 Anus

Copyrig...
Organs of the Digestive System

Figure 14.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy
 Lips (labia)—protect the anterior opening
 Cheeks—form the lateral walls
 Hard palate—form...
Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy

Figure 14.2a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy

Figure 14.2b
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Mouth Physiology
 Mastication (chewing) of food
 Mixing masticated food with saliva
 Initiation of swallowing by the to...
Pharynx Physiology
 Serves as a passageway for air and food
 Food is propelled to the esophagus by muscle
layers
 Food ...
Esophagus Anatomy and Physiology
 Anatomy
 About 10 inches long
 Runs from pharynx to stomach through the
diaphragm
 P...
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs
 Four layers
 Mucosa
 Submucosa
 Muscularis externa
 Serosa

Copyright © 2009 Pears...
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs
 Mucosa
 Innermost, moist membrane consisting of
 Surface epithelium
 Small amount o...
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs
 Submucosa
 Just beneath the mucosa
 Soft connective tissue with blood vessels,
nerve...
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs
 Muscularis externa—smooth muscle
 Inner circular layer
 Outer longitudinal layer
 S...
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs

Figure 14.3
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Stomach Anatomy
 Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity
 Regions of the stomach
 Cardiac region—near the hear...
Stomach Anatomy

Figure 14.4a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Stomach Anatomy

Figure 14.4b
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Stomach Physiology
 Temporary storage tank for food
 Site of food breakdown
 Chemical breakdown of protein begins
 Del...
Small Intestine
 The body’s major digestive organ
 Site of nutrient absorption into the blood

Copyright © 2009 Pearson ...
Subdivisions of the Small Intestine
 Duodenum
 Attached to the stomach
 Curves around the head of the pancreas
 Jejunu...
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine
 Chemical digestion begins in the small intestine
 Enzymes are produced by
 I...
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine

Figure 14.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cu...
Small Intestine Anatomy
 Three structural modifications that increase
surface area
 Microvilli—tiny projections of the p...
Small Intestine Anatomy

Figure 14.7a
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Small Intestine Anatomy

Figure 14.7c
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Large Intestine
 Larger in diameter, but shorter in length, than the
small intestine
 Frames the internal abdomen

Copyr...
Large Intestine Anatomy
 Cecum—saclike first part of the large intestine
 Appendix
 Accumulation of lymphatic tissue th...
Large Intestine Anatomy
 Colon
 Ascending—travels up right side of abdomen
 Transverse—travels across the abdominal
cav...
Large Intestine Anatomy
 Anus—opening of the large intestine
 External anal sphincter—formed by skeletal
muscle and unde...
Large Intestine

Figure 14.8
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Large Intestine Anatomy
 No villi present
 Goblet cells produce alkaline mucus which
lubricates the passage of feces

Co...
Accessory Digestive Organs
 Teeth
 Salivary glands
 Pancreas
 Liver
 Gallbladder

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,...
Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth

Figure 14.9
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Salivary Glands
 Three pairs of salivary glands empty secretions
(saliva) into the mouth
 Parotid glands
 Submandibular...
Salivary Glands

Figure 14.1
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Saliva
 Mixture of mucus and serous fluids
 Helps to form a food bolus
 Contains salivary amylase to begin starch
diges...
Pancreas
 Extends across the abdomen from spleen to
duodenum of small intestine
 Produces a wide spectrum of digestive e...
Pancreas

Figure 14.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Liver
 Largest gland in the body
 Located on the right side of the body under the
diaphragm
 Consists of four lobes
 C...
Liver

Figure 14.5
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Bile
 Produced by cells in the liver
 Function—emulsify fats by physically breaking
large fat globules into smaller ones...
Gallbladder
 Sac found in hollow fossa of liver that stores bile
 When digestion of fatty food is occurring, bile is
int...
Gallbladder

Figure 14.6
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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Ch14ppt digestive honors

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Digestive System and Body Metabolism 14 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. The Digestive System Functions  Ingestion—taking in food  Digestion—breaking food down both physically and chemically  Absorption—movement of nutrients into the bloodstream  Defecation—rids the body of indigestible waste Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Functions of the Digestive System  Ingestion—getting food into the mouth  Propulsion—moving foods from one region of the digestive system to another  Peristalsis—alternating waves of contraction and relaxation that squeezes food along the GI tract  Segmentation—moving materials back and forth to aid with mixing in the small intestine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Functions of the Digestive System  Food breakdown as mechanical digestion  Examples:  Mixing food in the mouth by the tongue  Churning food in the stomach  Segmentation in the small intestine  Mechanical digestion prepares food for further degradation by enzymes Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Functions of the Digestive System  Food breakdown as chemical digestion  Enzymes break down food molecules into their building blocks  Each major food group uses different enzymes  Carbohydrates are broken to simple sugars (begins in mouth)  Proteins are broken to amino acids (begins in stomach)  Fats are broken to fatty acids and alcohols (begins in small intestine) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Functions of the Digestive System  Absorption  End products of digestion are absorbed in the blood or lymph  Defecation  Elimination of indigestible substances from the GI tract in the form of feces Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Functions of the Digestive System Figure 14.11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Organs of the Digestive System  Two main groups  Alimentary canal (gastrointestinal or GI tract) —continuous coiled hollow tube  Accessory digestive organs Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Organs of the Alimentary Canal  Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Large intestine  Anus Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Organs of the Digestive System Figure 14.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy  Lips (labia)—protect the anterior opening  Cheeks—form the lateral walls  Hard palate—forms the anterior roof  Soft palate—forms the posterior roof Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy Figure 14.2a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy Figure 14.2b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Mouth Physiology  Mastication (chewing) of food  Mixing masticated food with saliva  Initiation of swallowing by the tongue  Allows for the sense of taste Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Pharynx Physiology  Serves as a passageway for air and food  Food is propelled to the esophagus by muscle layers  Food movement is by alternating contractions of the muscle layers (peristalsis) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Esophagus Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy  About 10 inches long  Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm  Physiology  Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing)  Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs  Four layers  Mucosa  Submucosa  Muscularis externa  Serosa Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs  Mucosa  Innermost, moist membrane consisting of  Surface epithelium  Small amount of connective tissue (lamina propria)  Small smooth muscle layer Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs  Submucosa  Just beneath the mucosa  Soft connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatics Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  20. 20. Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs  Muscularis externa—smooth muscle  Inner circular layer  Outer longitudinal layer  Serosa—outermost layer of the wall contains fluid-producing cells  Visceral peritoneum—outermost layer that is continuous with the innermost layer  Parietal peritoneum—innermost layer that lines the abdominopelvic cavity Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs Figure 14.3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Stomach Anatomy  Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity  Regions of the stomach  Cardiac region—near the heart  Fundus—expanded portion lateral to the cardiac region  Body—midportion  Pylorus—funnel-shaped terminal end  Rugae—internal folds of the mucosa Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Stomach Anatomy Figure 14.4a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Stomach Anatomy Figure 14.4b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Stomach Physiology  Temporary storage tank for food  Site of food breakdown  Chemical breakdown of protein begins  Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. Small Intestine  The body’s major digestive organ  Site of nutrient absorption into the blood Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. Subdivisions of the Small Intestine  Duodenum  Attached to the stomach  Curves around the head of the pancreas  Jejunum  Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum  Ileum  Extends from jejunum to large intestine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine  Chemical digestion begins in the small intestine  Enzymes are produced by  Intestinal cells  Pancreas  Pancreatic ducts carry enzymes to the small intestine  Bile, formed by the liver, enters via the bile duct Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  29. 29. Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine Figure 14.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  30. 30. Small Intestine Anatomy  Three structural modifications that increase surface area  Microvilli—tiny projections of the plasma membrane (create a brush border appearance)  Villi—fingerlike structures formed by the mucosa  Circular folds (plicae circulares)—deep folds of mucosa and submucosa Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Small Intestine Anatomy Figure 14.7a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  32. 32. Small Intestine Anatomy Figure 14.7c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  33. 33. Large Intestine  Larger in diameter, but shorter in length, than the small intestine  Frames the internal abdomen Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  34. 34. Large Intestine Anatomy  Cecum—saclike first part of the large intestine  Appendix  Accumulation of lymphatic tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed (appendicitis)  Hangs from the cecum Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  35. 35. Large Intestine Anatomy  Colon  Ascending—travels up right side of abdomen  Transverse—travels across the abdominal cavity  Descending—travels down the left side  Sigmoid—enters the pelvis  Rectum and anal canal—also in pelvis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  36. 36. Large Intestine Anatomy  Anus—opening of the large intestine  External anal sphincter—formed by skeletal muscle and under voluntary control  Internal involuntary sphincter—formed by smooth muscle  These sphincters are normally closed except during defecation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  37. 37. Large Intestine Figure 14.8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  38. 38. Large Intestine Anatomy  No villi present  Goblet cells produce alkaline mucus which lubricates the passage of feces Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  39. 39. Accessory Digestive Organs  Teeth  Salivary glands  Pancreas  Liver  Gallbladder Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  40. 40. Human Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Figure 14.9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  41. 41. Salivary Glands  Three pairs of salivary glands empty secretions (saliva) into the mouth  Parotid glands  Submandibular glands  Sublingual glands Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  42. 42. Salivary Glands Figure 14.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  43. 43. Saliva  Mixture of mucus and serous fluids  Helps to form a food bolus  Contains salivary amylase to begin starch digestion  Dissolves chemicals so they can be tasted Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  44. 44. Pancreas  Extends across the abdomen from spleen to duodenum of small intestine  Produces a wide spectrum of digestive enzymes that break down all categories of food  Enzymes are secreted into the duodenum  Hormones produced by the pancreas  Insulin  Glucagon Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  45. 45. Pancreas Figure 14.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  46. 46. Liver  Largest gland in the body  Located on the right side of the body under the diaphragm  Consists of four lobes  Connected to the gallbladder via the common hepatic duct Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  47. 47. Liver Figure 14.5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  48. 48. Bile  Produced by cells in the liver  Function—emulsify fats by physically breaking large fat globules into smaller ones Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  49. 49. Gallbladder  Sac found in hollow fossa of liver that stores bile  When digestion of fatty food is occurring, bile is introduced into the duodenum from the gallbladder  Gallstones are crystallized cholesterol which can cause blockages Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  50. 50. Gallbladder Figure 14.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
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